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1.
Chemosphere ; 210: 401-416, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30015131

RESUMO

In the operation of biological wastewater treatment processes, fast sludge settling during liquid-solids disengagement is preferred as it affects effluent quality, treatment efficiency and plant operation economy. An important property of fast settling biological sludge is the ability to spontaneously form big and dense flocs (flocculation) that readily separates from water. Therefore, there had been much research to study the conditions that promote biological sludge flocculation. However, reported findings have often been inconsistent and this has possibly been due to the complex nature of the biological flocculation process. Thus, it has been challenging for wastewater treatment plant operators to extract practical information from the literature. The aim of this review is to summarize the current state of understanding of the factors that affect sludge flocculation so that evaluation of such information can be facilitated and strategize for intervention in the sludge flocculation and deflocculation process.


Assuntos
Floculação , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Águas Residuárias/química , Esgotos/química , Esgotos/microbiologia , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia
2.
Water Res ; 45(19): 6453-60, 2011 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22000719

RESUMO

Sludge-drying reed beds can be a cost-effective and sustainable solution to surplus activated sludge dewatering and mineralization, especially for small wastewater treatment plants. However, the simplicity as well as low energy and monitoring requirements of this technology are often counterbalanced by frequent operational problems consisting of slow and insufficient dewatering, poor vegetation growth, odor, and overall poor mineralization of the sludge residues. The main reason is that the general rules for facility design and operation are based on empirical experience rather than on the actual and current sludge parameters. In this study a new method for the assessment of activated sludge drainage properties has been applied to determine the reasons behind operational problems faced by the operators of reed bed facility accepting surplus activated sludge from two wastewater treatment plants in Esbjerg, Denmark. The importance of sludge quality monitoring as well as the damaging effect of shear forces, oxygen depletion, and long-distance sludge transportation were demonstrated. Finally, more general guidelines for reed bed facility design and operation are given, based on experimental data from seven full-scale plants.


Assuntos
Drenagem Sanitária , Poaceae/química , Esgotos/química , Purificação da Água/instrumentação , Purificação da Água/métodos , Simulação por Computador , Coleta de Dados , Dinamarca , Geografia , Oxigênio/análise , Fatores de Tempo , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
3.
Water Res ; 45(5): 1941-50, 2011 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21239036

RESUMO

A laboratory scale setup was used for characterization of gravitational drainage of waste activated sludge. The aim of the study was to assess how time of drainage and cake dry matter depended on volumetric load, SS content and sludge floc properties. It was demonstrated that activated sludge forms compressible cakes, even at the low pressures found in gravitational drainage. The values of specific cake resistance were two to three orders of magnitude lower than those obtained in pressure filtration. Despite the compressible nature of sludge, key macroscopic parameters such as time of drainage and cake solid content showed simple functional dependency of the volumetric load and SS of a given sludge. This suggests that the proposed method may be applied for design purposes without the use of extensive numerical modeling. The possibilities for application of this new technique are, among others, the estimation of sludge drainability prior to mechanical dewatering on a belt filter, or the application of surplus sludge on reed beds, as well as adjustments of sludge loading, concentration or sludge pre-treatment in order to optimize the drainage process.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Esgotos/química , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Dessecação , Filtração/métodos , Floculação , Gravitação , Reologia , Resistência ao Cisalhamento , Fatores de Tempo , Purificação da Água/métodos
4.
Environ Microbiol ; 13(3): 710-21, 2011 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21118344

RESUMO

A new approach for quantification of extracellular DNA (eDNA) in mixed biofilms at microscale resolution was developed and combined with other staining techniques to assess the origin, abundance and role of eDNA in activated sludge biofilms. Most eDNA was found in close proximity to living cells in microcolonies, suggesting that most of it originated from an active secretion or alternatively, by lysis of a sub-population of cells. When the staining was combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization for identification of the microorganisms, it was found that the eDNA content varied among the different probe-defined species. The highest amount of eDNA was found in and around the microcolonies of denitrifiers belonging to the genera Curvibacter and Thauera, the ammonium-oxidizing Nitrosomonas and the nitrite-oxidizing Nitrospira. Other floc-formers also produced eDNA, although in lower amounts. The total eDNA content in activated sludge varied from 4 to 52 mg per gram volatile suspended solids in different wastewater treatment plants. Very high local concentrations within some microcolonies were found with up to approximately 300 mg of eDNA per g of organic matter. DNase digestion of activated sludge led to general floc disintegration and disruption of the microcolonies with high eDNA content, implying that eDNA was an important structural component in activated sludge biofilms.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , DNA Bacteriano/análise , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , DNA/análise , Floculação , Esgotos/microbiologia
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