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1.
Nat Rev Cardiol ; 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33219353

RESUMO

The known genetic architecture of blood pressure now comprises >30 genes, with rare variants resulting in monogenic forms of hypertension or hypotension and >1,477 common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) being associated with the blood pressure phenotype. Monogenic blood pressure syndromes predominantly involve the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the adrenal glucocorticoid pathway, with a smaller fraction caused by neuroendocrine tumours of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. The SNPs identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) as being associated with the blood pressure phenotype explain only approximately 27% of the 30-50% estimated heritability of blood pressure, and the effect of each SNP on the blood pressure phenotype is small. A paucity of SNPs from GWAS are mapped to known genes causing monogenic blood pressure syndromes. For example, a GWAS signal mapped to the gene encoding uromodulin has been shown to affect blood pressure by influencing sodium homeostasis, and the effects of another GWAS signal were mediated by endothelin. However, the majority of blood pressure-associated SNPs show pleiotropic associations. Unravelling these associations can potentially help us to understand the underlying biological pathways. In this Review, we appraise the current knowledge of blood pressure genomics, explore the causal pathways for hypertension identified in Mendelian randomization studies and highlight the opportunities for drug repurposing and pharmacogenomics for the treatment of hypertension.

7.
Hypertension ; 75(1): 3-4, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786975
8.
Mol Psychiatry ; 25(10): 2392-2409, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30617275

RESUMO

Smoking is a major heritable and modifiable risk factor for many diseases, including cancer, common respiratory disorders and cardiovascular diseases. Fourteen genetic loci have previously been associated with smoking behaviour-related traits. We tested up to 235,116 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) on the exome-array for association with smoking initiation, cigarettes per day, pack-years, and smoking cessation in a fixed effects meta-analysis of up to 61 studies (up to 346,813 participants). In a subset of 112,811 participants, a further one million SNVs were also genotyped and tested for association with the four smoking behaviour traits. SNV-trait associations with P < 5 × 10-8 in either analysis were taken forward for replication in up to 275,596 independent participants from UK Biobank. Lastly, a meta-analysis of the discovery and replication studies was performed. Sixteen SNVs were associated with at least one of the smoking behaviour traits (P < 5 × 10-8) in the discovery samples. Ten novel SNVs, including rs12616219 near TMEM182, were followed-up and five of them (rs462779 in REV3L, rs12780116 in CNNM2, rs1190736 in GPR101, rs11539157 in PJA1, and rs12616219 near TMEM182) replicated at a Bonferroni significance threshold (P < 4.5 × 10-3) with consistent direction of effect. A further 35 SNVs were associated with smoking behaviour traits in the discovery plus replication meta-analysis (up to 622,409 participants) including a rare SNV, rs150493199, in CCDC141 and two low-frequency SNVs in CEP350 and HDGFRP2. Functional follow-up implied that decreased expression of REV3L may lower the probability of smoking initiation. The novel loci will facilitate understanding the genetic aetiology of smoking behaviour and may lead to the identification of potential drug targets for smoking prevention and/or cessation.

9.
JCI Insight ; 4(23)2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600170

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDThe presence of an early repolarization pattern (ERP) on the surface ECG is associated with risk of ventricular fibrillation and sudden cardiac death. Family studies have shown that ERP is a highly heritable trait, but molecular genetic determinants are unknown.METHODSTo identify genetic susceptibility loci for ERP, we performed a GWAS and meta-analysis in 2,181 cases and 23,641 controls of European ancestry.RESULTSWe identified a genome-wide significant (P < 5 × 10-8) locus in the potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily D member 3 (KCND3) gene that was successfully replicated in additional 1,124 cases and 12,510 controls. A subsequent joint meta-analysis of the discovery and replication cohorts identified rs1545300 as the lead SNP at the KCND3 locus (OR 0.82 per minor T allele, P = 7.7 × 10-12) but did not reveal additional loci. Colocalization analyses indicate causal effects of KCND3 gene expression levels on ERP in both cardiac left ventricle and tibial artery.CONCLUSIONSIn this study, we identified for the first time to our knowledge a genome-wide significant association of a genetic variant with ERP. Our findings of a locus in the KCND3 gene provide insights not only into the genetic determinants but also into the pathophysiological mechanism of ERP, discovering a promising candidate for functional studies.FUNDINGThis project was funded by the German Center for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK Shared Expertise SE081 - STATS). For detailed funding information per study, see the Supplemental Acknowledgments.

14.
Hypertension ; 74(4): 767-775, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422693

RESUMO

Concerns exist regarding the potential increased cardiovascular risk from lowering diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in hypertensive patients. We analyzed 30-year follow-up data of 10 355 hypertensive patients attending the Glasgow Blood Pressure Clinic. The association between blood pressure during the first 5 years of treatment and cause-specific hospital admissions or mortality was analyzed using multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazard models. The primary outcome was a composite of cardiovascular admissions and deaths. DBP showed a U-shaped association (nadir, 92 mm Hg) for the primary cardiovascular outcome hazard and a reverse J-shaped association with all-cause mortality (nadir, 86 mm Hg) and noncardiovascular mortality (nadir, 92 mm Hg). The hazard ratio for the primary cardiovascular outcome after adjustment for systolic blood pressure was 1.38 (95% CI, 1.18-1.62) for DBP <80 compared with DBP of 80 to 89.9 mm Hg (referrant), and the subdistribution hazard ratio after accounting for competing risk was 1.33 (1.17-1.51) compared with DBP ≥80 mm Hg. Cause-specific nonfatal outcome analyses showed a reverse J-shaped relationship for myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease, and heart failure admissions but a U-shaped relationship for stroke admissions. Age-stratified analyses showed DBP had no independent effect on stroke admissions among the older patient subgroup (≥60 years of age), but the younger subgroup showed a clear U-shaped relationship. Intensive blood pressure reduction may lead to unintended consequences of higher healthcare utilization because of increased cardiovascular morbidity, and this merits future prospective studies. Low on-treatment DBP is associated with increased risk of noncardiovascular mortality, the reasons for which are unclear.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Diástole/fisiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Determinação da Pressão Arterial , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida , Atenção Terciária à Saúde
15.
J Hypertens ; 37(11): 2280-2289, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246894

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The current international, 12-week, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial assessed the efficacy and safety of indapamide sustained release/amlodipine single-pill combination (SPC) in mild-to-moderate hypertensive patients. METHODS: Following a 4-week run-in period on amlodipine 5 mg, patients (SBP 150-180 mmHg and/or DBP < 110 mmHg) were randomized to indapamide 1.5 mg sustained release/amlodipine 5 mg SPC or amlodipine 5 mg/valsartan 80 mg SPC with conditional uptitration at week 6. Office blood pressure (BP) was assessed at baseline, weeks 6 and 12; ambulatory and home blood pressure monitoring (ABPM/HBPM) at baseline and week 12. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups (57 years, 51% men, BP 160/92 mmHg). 233 patients were randomized to IndSR/Aml and 232 to amlodipine/valsartan, of whom 48 and 57% were uptitrated, respectively. After 12 weeks, office SBP/DBP decreased similarly with both treatments (-21/-8 vs. -20/-8 mmHg) leading to BP control in 50% and BP response in 70% of patients. Uptitration was effective (P < 0.001) with both regimens, in favour of IndSR/Aml (SBP/DBP -12/-6 vs. -7/-3 mmHg, respectively). ABPM (n = 273) and HBPM (n = 194) confirmed 24-h efficacy of both regimens. In the subgroup of patients with sustained uncontrolled hypertension assessed by ABPM (n = 216), office SBP/DBP decreased by -23/-13 vs. -18/-10 mmHg, respectively (P = 0.016/P = 0.135, post-hoc analysis). Both treatments were generally well tolerated. CONCLUSION: Both regimens produced effective BP reductions confirmed by ABPM/HBPM. Both treatments were well tolerated, in accordance with the individual agents' safety profile. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: EUDRA CT no. 2012-001690-84.

16.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(24): 3118-3131, 2019 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221261

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Subclinical changes on the electrocardiogram are risk factors for cardiovascular mortality. Recognition and knowledge of electrolyte associations in cardiac electrophysiology are based on only in vitro models and observations in patients with severe medical conditions. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to investigate associations between serum electrolyte concentrations and changes in cardiac electrophysiology in the general population. METHODS: Summary results collected from 153,014 individuals (54.4% women; mean age 55.1 ± 12.1 years) from 33 studies (of 5 ancestries) were meta-analyzed. Linear regression analyses examining associations between electrolyte concentrations (mmol/l of calcium, potassium, sodium, and magnesium), and electrocardiographic intervals (RR, QT, QRS, JT, and PR intervals) were performed. The study adjusted for potential confounders and also stratified by ancestry, sex, and use of antihypertensive drugs. RESULTS: Lower calcium was associated with longer QT intervals (-11.5 ms; 99.75% confidence interval [CI]: -13.7 to -9.3) and JT duration, with sex-specific effects. In contrast, higher magnesium was associated with longer QT intervals (7.2 ms; 99.75% CI: 1.3 to 13.1) and JT. Lower potassium was associated with longer QT intervals (-2.8 ms; 99.75% CI: -3.5 to -2.0), JT, QRS, and PR durations, but all potassium associations were driven by use of antihypertensive drugs. No physiologically relevant associations were observed for sodium or RR intervals. CONCLUSIONS: The study identified physiologically relevant associations between electrolytes and electrocardiographic intervals in a large-scale analysis combining cohorts from different settings. The results provide insights for further cardiac electrophysiology research and could potentially influence clinical practice, especially the association between calcium and QT duration, by which calcium levels at the bottom 2% of the population distribution led to clinically relevant QT prolongation by >5 ms.


Assuntos
Cálcio/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Técnicas Eletrofisiológicas Cardíacas/métodos , Magnésio/sangue , Potássio/sangue , Doenças Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Correlação de Dados , Feminino , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
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