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1.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO1900456, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513482

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Off-label use of vemurafenib (VMF) to treat BRAFV600E mutation-positive, refractory, childhood Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) was evaluated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-four patients from 12 countries took VMF 20 mg/kg/d. They were classified according to risk organ involvement: liver, spleen, and/or blood cytopenia. The main evaluation criteria were adverse events (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events [version 4.3]) and therapeutic responses according to Disease Activity Score. RESULTS: LCH extent was distributed as follows: 44 with positive and 10 with negative risk organ involvement. Median age at diagnosis was 0.9 years (range, 0.1 to 6.5 years). Median age at VMF initiation was 1.8 years (range, 0.18 to 14 years), with a median follow-up of 22 months (range, 4.3 to 57 months), whereas median treatment duration was 13.9 months (for 855 patient-months). At 8 weeks, 38 complete responses and 16 partial responses had been achieved, with the median Disease Activity Score decreasing from 7 at diagnosis to 0 (P < .001). Skin rash, the most frequent adverse event, affected 74% of patients. No secondary skin cancer was observed. Therapeutic plasma VMF concentrations (range, 10 to 20 mg/L) seemed to be safe and effective. VMF discontinuation for 30 patients led to 24 LCH reactivations. The blood BRAFV600E allele load, assessed as circulating cell-free DNA, decreased after starting VMF but remained positive (median, 3.6% at diagnosis, and 1.6% during VMF treatment; P < .001) and was associated with a higher risk of reactivation at VMF discontinuation. None of the various empirical therapies (hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation, cladribine and cytarabine, anti-MEK agent, vinblastine, etc) used for maintenance could eradicate the BRAFV600E clone. CONCLUSION: VMF seemed safe and effective in children with refractory BRAFV600E-positive LCH. Additional studies are needed to find effective maintenance therapy approaches.

2.
J Clin Immunol ; 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401750

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients with primary immunodeficiency (PID) are at risk of serious complications. However, data on the incidence and causes of emergency hospital admissions are scarce. The primary objective of the present study was to describe emergency hospital admissions among patients with PID, with a view to identifying "at-risk" patient profiles. METHODS: We performed a prospective observational 12-month multicenter study in France via the CEREDIH network of regional PID reference centers from November 2010 to October 2011. All patients with PIDs requiring emergency hospital admission were included. RESULTS: A total of 200 admissions concerned 137 patients (73 adults and 64 children, 53% of whom had antibody deficiencies). Thirty admissions were reported for 16 hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients. When considering the 170 admissions of non-transplant patients, 149 (85%) were related to acute infections (respiratory tract infections and gastrointestinal tract infections in 72 (36%) and 34 (17%) of cases, respectively). Seventy-seven percent of the admissions occurred during winter or spring (December to May). The in-hospital mortality rate was 8.8% (12 patients); death was related to a severe infection in 11 cases (8%) and Epstein-Barr virus-induced lymphoma in 1 case. Patients with a central venous catheter (n = 19, 13.9%) were significantly more hospitalized for an infection (94.7%) than for a non-infectious reason (5.3%) (p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: Our data showed that the annual incidence of emergency hospital admission among patients with PID is 3.4%. The leading cause of emergency hospital admission was an acute infection, and having a central venous catheter was associated with a significantly greater risk of admission for an infectious episode.

4.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269469

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare inflammatory myeloid neoplasm which can infiltrate any organ or tissue. Endocrine involvement has mostly been described in case reports and small retrospective studies. We aimed to describe endocrine manifestations in a large cohort of adulthood onset (AO) and childhood onset (CO) patients with LCH. DESIGN: single-center observational study conducted between January 2002 and December 2017 at Pitié-Salpêtrière University Hospital (Paris, France), a tertiary care hospital. METHOD: Clinical, biological and morphological evaluations of pituitary, gonadal, adrenal, and thyroid function evaluations performed in 63 consecutive patients with LCH (AO patients:40, CO patients:23). Fifty-eight patients underwent follow-up assessments. RESULTS: Complete pituitary evaluation was performed in 38/63 patients (60.3%); at least 1 anterior pituitary dysfunction (APD) was found in 63.2% of them. In this subgroup of patients, the most prevalent deficiencies were diabetes insipidus (DI,) and GHD (55.3% each), followed by gonadotropin deficiency (34.2%) and thyrotropin deficiency (23.7%). In the subgroup of the 25 incompletely evaluated patients, we found DI in 44%, GHD in 50%, gonadotropin deficiency in 30.4% and thyrotropin deficiency in 16%. APD was more common in CO patients (p=0.003) but was not systematically associated with DI regardless of the age of onset. Endocrine dysfunction was most often permanent; moreover, occurrence of new deficiencies has been described during follow-up. CONCLUSION: The spectrum of endocrine disorders appears to be large in LCH (both in AO and CO patients) and should be evaluated carefully at diagnosis and during follow-up. APD was not always associated with DI.

5.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 124: 152-156, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31195309

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gorham-Stout disease (GSD) is a rare lymphatic disorder which results in bone destruction. Defects of the skull base are difficult to manage, we describe cases to better understand the disease and discuss treatment. METHODS: Retrospective study including all patients treated for GSD skull-base defects. Medical records, clinical, imaging and treatment data were studied. A systematic review of the literature included case reports of the diseases for further analysis. RESULTS: 6 patients (5 males, 1 female) were included. Mean age at diagnosis was 3.5 years (range 0-10). Follow-up was of 5.2 years. Patients were divided into Naso-temporal (NT) and Vertebro-temporal (VT) groups following anatomical location. NT patients (4 patients) all had petrous defects extending anteriorly, including sphenoid, ethmoidal and mandibular defects. They all had cerebro-spinal fluid leak (CSF) and recurrent meningitis (range from 3 to 7). Two of those patients had sequelae including deafness, paralysis and epilepsy. VT patients (2 patients) all had temporal, occipital bone and cervical vertebrae defects. None had CSF leaks but both died from medullar compression (preceded by tetraparesis in one case). Overall, five out of six patients had type I Chiari malformation. Interferon seemed to be the most efficient medical treatment. Surgery included petrectomy, endonasal surgery for CSF leak management and neurosurgery for medullar management but could not guarantee long-term effects. CONCLUSION: Main issues in skull base defects are CSF leaks and medullar compressions. Surgical treatment is necessary in both cases but can only be satisfactory if general medical treatment can stabilise the disease.

6.
Blood ; 134(3): 277-290, 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151987

RESUMO

Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS) is a recessive disorder typified by bone marrow failure and predisposition to hematological malignancies. SDS is predominantly caused by deficiency of the allosteric regulator Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond syndrome that cooperates with elongation factor-like GTPase 1 (EFL1) to catalyze release of the ribosome antiassociation factor eIF6 and activate translation. Here, we report biallelic mutations in EFL1 in 3 unrelated individuals with clinical features of SDS. Cellular defects in these individuals include impaired ribosomal subunit joining and attenuated global protein translation as a consequence of defective eIF6 eviction. In mice, Efl1 deficiency recapitulates key aspects of the SDS phenotype. By identifying biallelic EFL1 mutations in SDS, we define this leukemia predisposition disorder as a ribosomopathy that is caused by corruption of a fundamental, conserved mechanism, which licenses entry of the large ribosomal subunit into translation.

7.
Hum Pathol ; 89: 51-61, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054893

RESUMO

Childhood pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) is a rare disease. Its pulmonary histopathology, according to comprehensive clinical-radiological findings and BRAFV600E mutation status, has not yet been thoroughly documented. From the 167 childhood PLCH cases entered in the French National Histiocytosis Registry (1983-2016), we retrieved lung biopsies from a consecutive retrospective series of 17 patients, diagnosed when they were 2 weeks to 16 years old (median, 9.4 years), and report the clinical and histopathological findings herein. Histological analyses of biopsies (16 surgical and 1 postmortem) found the following features, alone or associated: Langerhans cell (LC) nodules with cavitation (9/17), cysts (14/17), fibrotic scars (2/17), peribronchiolar topographic distribution of the lesions (10/17), and accessory changes, like stretch emphysema (7/17). Those characteristics closely resemble those describing adult PLCH. However, unusual findings observed were 2 large nodules and a diffuse interstitial LC infiltrate. BRAFV600E mutation was detected in 4 of 12 samples tested, notably in the 3 with unusual features. In conclusion, childhood PLCH mostly shares the common histology features already described in adult PLCH, regardless of age. Because smoking is considered the major trigger in PLCH pathogenesis, the findings based on this series suggest other inducers of bronchiolar LC recruitment, especially in very young patients.

9.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(2): 200-206, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30900095

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Neonatal immune neutropenia is observed in rare cases in newborns from mothers with idiopathic or autoimmune neutropenia, secondary to passive transfer of maternal granulocyte auto-antibodies. METHODS: We performed a literature review and report four supplementary cases from the French registry of neutropenia. RESULTS: Only 14 cases (11 mothers, 14 newborns) have been reported. Granulocyte aggregation (GAT) and granulocyte indirect immunofluorescence test (GIFT) are the recommended laboratory procedures for antibody detection. Monoclonal antibody-specific immobilization of granulocyte antigens (MAIGA)-confirmed antibody specificity. Antibody detection in newborns is not generally possible owing to extreme neutropenia. In half of the cases autoantibodies against neutrophils (AAN) were positive in maternal sera (7 out of 11). In some newborns tested, IgG+ AAN were also positive, with disappearance in parallel of spontaneous neutrophil count improvement. No correlation between maternal type of AAN and titer and neonatal neutropenia can be established. Neutropenia resolved spontaneously between 2 weeks and 4 months. Infections in newborns were observed in 43% of cases, with no deaths reported. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) was administered to some newborns (5 out of 14) in the case of infections. Low-dose G-CSF administered to childbearing women during pregnancy could be proposed to prevent neutropenia in newborns. CONCLUSIONS: From the few cases reported so far it is impossible to draw any conclusions regarding frequency, risk factors, and outcome, but the overall prognosis for newborns seems good. Because it can be associated with potentially severe neonatal infections, autoimmune neutropenia in childbearing mothers should be closely monitored in collaboration with gynecologists and pediatricians.

10.
Br J Haematol ; 183(4): 608-617, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30421536

RESUMO

Neurodegenerative (ND) complications in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) are a late-onset but dramatic sequelae for which incidence and risk factors are not well defined. Based on a national prospective registry of paediatric LCH patients, we determined the incidence rate of clinical ND LCH (cND-LCH) and analysed risk factors, taking into account disease extent and molecular characteristics. Among 1897 LCH patients, 36 (1·9%) were diagnosed with a cND-LCH. The 10-year cumulative incidence of cND-LCH was 4·1%. cND-LCH typically affected patients previously treated for a multisystem, risk organ-negative LCH, represented in 69·4% of cND-LCH cases. Pituitary gland, skin and base skull/orbit bone lesions were more frequent (P < 0·001) in cND-LCH patients compared to those without cND-LCH (respectively 86·1% vs. 12·2%, 75·0% vs. 34·2%, and 63·9% vs. 28·4%). The 'cND susceptible patients' (n = 671) i.e., children who had experienced LCH disease with pituitary or skull base or orbit bone involvement, had a 10-year cND risk of 7·8% vs. 0% for patients who did not meet these criteria. Finally, BRAFV 600E status added important information among these cND susceptible patients, with the 10-year cND risk of 33·1% if a BRAFV 600E mutation was present compared to 2·9% if it was absent (P = 0·002).

13.
J Med Case Rep ; 12(1): 209, 2018 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30008268

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Levamisole belongs to the antihelminthic class of drugs that are sometimes administered to patients with frequently relapsing or steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome, owing to its steroid-sparing effects. Neutropenia and skin lesions, compatible with vasculitis, have been reported as drug complications, but they are rarely associated with any systemic involvement. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a 9-year-old Arab boy with steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome who was treated with levamisole after his third relapse. The drug was initially well tolerated, but mild isolated neutropenia occurred 6 months after levamisole administration. This was followed by cutaneous vasculitis of both ears and the left cheek. The patient also developed hepatosplenomegaly and anemia. Levamisole was discontinued, and his disease remained in remission. All the systemic manifestations disappeared gradually over the course of 1 month. The patient remained in remission until 1 year after levamisole withdrawal, when clinical nephrosis recurred. CONCLUSIONS: Despite levamisole's being a useful drug for maintaining remission in steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome, patients on long-term levamisole therapy should be monitored closely to prevent serious complications that can easily be resolved by simple drug withdrawal.

14.
Blood ; 132(12): 1318-1331, 2018 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29914977

RESUMO

Congenital neutropenias (CNs) are rare heterogeneous genetic disorders, with about 25% of patients without known genetic defects. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified a heterozygous mutation in the SRP54 gene, encoding the signal recognition particle (SRP) 54 GTPase protein, in 3 sporadic cases and 1 autosomal dominant family. We subsequently sequenced the SRP54 gene in 66 probands from the French CN registry. In total, we identified 23 mutated cases (16 sporadic, 7 familial) with 7 distinct germ line SRP54 mutations including a recurrent in-frame deletion (Thr117del) in 14 cases. In nearly all patients, neutropenia was chronic and profound with promyelocytic maturation arrest, occurring within the first months of life, and required long-term granulocyte colony-stimulating factor therapy with a poor response. Neutropenia was sometimes associated with a severe neurodevelopmental delay (n = 5) and/or an exocrine pancreatic insufficiency requiring enzyme supplementation (n = 3). The SRP54 protein is a key component of the ribonucleoprotein complex that mediates the co-translational targeting of secretory and membrane proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We showed that SRP54 was specifically upregulated during the in vitro granulocytic differentiation, and that SRP54 mutations or knockdown led to a drastically reduced proliferation of granulocytic cells associated with an enhanced P53-dependent apoptosis. Bone marrow examination of SRP54-mutated patients revealed a major dysgranulopoiesis and features of cellular ER stress and autophagy that were confirmed using SRP54-mutated primary cells and SRP54 knockdown cells. In conclusion, we characterized a pathological pathway, which represents the second most common cause of CN with maturation arrest in the French CN registry.

15.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 38(8): 1913-1925, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29930009

RESUMO

Objective- Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis characterized by the infiltration of multiple tissues with lipid-laden histiocytes. Cardiovascular involvement is frequent in ECD and leads to a severe prognosis. The objective of this study was to determine whether an alteration of lipid metabolism participates in the lipid accumulation in histiocytes and the cardiovascular involvement in ECD. Approach and Results- An analysis of plasma lipid levels indicated that male ECD patients carrying the BRAFV600E (B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase) mutation exhibited hypoalphalipoproteinemia, as demonstrated by low plasma HDL-C (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) levels. Capacity of sera from male BRAFV600E ECD patients to mediate free cholesterol efflux from human macrophages was reduced compared with control individuals. Cardiovascular involvement was detected in 84% of the ECD patients, and we reported that the presence of the BRAFV600E mutation and hypoalphalipoproteinemia is an independent determinant of aortic infiltration in ECD. Phenotyping of blood CD14+ cells, the precursors of histiocytes, enabled the identification of a specific inflammatory signature associated with aortic infiltration which was partially affected by the HDL phenotype. Finally, the treatment with vemurafenib, an inhibitor of the BRAFV600E mutation, restored the defective sera cholesterol efflux capacity and reduced the aortic infiltration. Conclusions- Our findings indicate that hypoalphalipoproteinemia in male ECD patients carrying the BRAFV600E mutation favors the formation of lipid-laden histiocytes. In addition, we identified the BRAF status and the HDL phenotype as independent determinants of the aortic involvement in ECD with a potential role of HDL in modulating the infiltration of blood CD14+ cells into the aorta.

16.
J Craniomaxillofac Surg ; 46(8): 1179-1184, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29884313

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Gorham-Stout disease (GS) is a rare and little understood bone disease that leads to the progressive replacement of the affected bone by fibrous tissues. The mandible is the most commonly affected craniofacial bone, but there is no report to date of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) lesions in this condition. We aimed to characterize the involvement of the TMJ in this uncommon bone disorder. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively included all patients managed for craniofacial forms of GS in our pediatric institution over a period of 12 years. We collected clinical data on TMJ function and radiological data from computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: Four pediatric patients were managed for craniofacial forms of GS between 2005 and 2017. All patients presented with various radiological lesions of the TMJs, including osteolytic lacunae of the condylar head, condylar head flattening and thinning of the glenoid cavity. Only one patient presented with functional TMJ impairment. CONCLUSION: The TMJ appears to be radiology affected in pediatric craniofacial forms of GS. Nevertheless, TMJ lesions, even when radiologically severe, rarely impair TMJ function. TMJ structure and function should be systematically assessed in craniofacial forms of GS, and, in the case of joint lesions, a regular follow-up of TMJ function should be considered.

17.
Blood ; 131(26): 2877-2890, 2018 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29720485

RESUMO

Rosai-Dorfman-Destombes disease (RDD) is a rare non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis characterized by accumulation of activated histiocytes within affected tissues. RDD, which now belongs to the R group of the 2016 revised histiocytosis classification, is a widely heterogeneous entity with a range of clinical phenotypes occurring in isolation or in association with autoimmune or malignant diseases. Recent studies have found NRAS, KRAS, MAP2K1, and ARAF mutations in lesional tissues, raising the possibility of a clonal origin in some forms of RDD. More than 1000 reports have been published in the English literature; however, there is a lack of consensus regarding approach for the clinical management of RDD. Although in most cases RDD can be observed or treated with local therapies, some patients with refractory or multifocal disease experience morbidity and mortality. Here we provide the first consensus multidisciplinary recommendations for the diagnosis and management of RDD. These recommendations were discussed at the 32nd Histiocyte Society Meeting by an international group of academic clinicians and pathologists with expertise in RDD. We include guidelines for clinical, laboratory, pathologic, and radiographic evaluation of patients with RDD together with treatment recommendations based on clinical experience and review of the literature.

18.
Haematologica ; 103(8): 1278-1287, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29724903

RESUMO

Heterozygous germline GATA2 mutations strongly predispose to leukemia, immunodeficiency, and/or lymphoedema. We describe a series of 79 patients (53 families) diagnosed since 2011, made up of all patients in France and Belgium, with a follow up of 2249 patients/years. Median age at first clinical symptoms was 18.6 years (range, 0-61 years). Severe infectious diseases (mycobacteria, fungus, and human papilloma virus) and hematologic malignancies were the most common first manifestations. The probability of remaining symptom-free was 8% at 40 years old. Among the 53 probands, 24 had missense mutations including 4 recurrent alleles, 21 had nonsense or frameshift mutations, 4 had a whole-gene deletion, 2 had splice defects, and 2 patients had complex mutations. There were significantly more cases of leukemia in patients with missense mutations (n=14 of 34) than in patients with nonsense or frameshift mutations (n=2 of 28). We also identify new features of the disease: acute lymphoblastic leukemia, juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia, fatal progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy related to the JC virus, and immune/inflammatory diseases. A revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) score allowed a distinction to be made between a stable disease and hematologic transformation. Chemotherapy is of limited efficacy, and has a high toxicity with severe infectious complications. As the mortality rate is high in our cohort (up to 35% at the age of 40), hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remains the best choice of treatment to avoid severe infectious and/or hematologic complications. The timing of HSCT remains difficult to determine, but the earlier it is performed, the better the outcome.

19.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(5): 995-1007, 2018 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29656858

RESUMO

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEEs) represent a large clinical and genetic heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental diseases. The identification of pathogenic genetic variants in DEEs remains crucial for deciphering this complex group and for accurately caring for affected individuals (clinical diagnosis, genetic counseling, impacting medical, precision therapy, clinical trials, etc.). Whole-exome sequencing and intensive data sharing identified a recurrent de novo PACS2 heterozygous missense variant in 14 unrelated individuals. Their phenotype was characterized by epilepsy, global developmental delay with or without autism, common cerebellar dysgenesis, and facial dysmorphism. Mixed focal and generalized epilepsy occurred in the neonatal period, controlled with difficulty in the first year, but many improved in early childhood. PACS2 is an important PACS1 paralog and encodes a multifunctional sorting protein involved in nuclear gene expression and pathway traffic regulation. Both proteins harbor cargo(furin)-binding regions (FBRs) that bind cargo proteins, sorting adaptors, and cellular kinase. Compared to the defined PACS1 recurrent variant series, individuals with PACS2 variant have more consistently neonatal/early-infantile-onset epilepsy that can be challenging to control. Cerebellar abnormalities may be similar but PACS2 individuals exhibit a pattern of clear dysgenesis ranging from mild to severe. Functional studies demonstrated that the PACS2 recurrent variant reduces the ability of the predicted autoregulatory domain to modulate the interaction between the PACS2 FBR and client proteins, which may disturb cellular function. These findings support the causality of this recurrent de novo PACS2 heterozygous missense in DEEs with facial dysmorphim and cerebellar dysgenesis.

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