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1.
Environ Int ; : 105237, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677802

RESUMO

Exposure to natural outdoor environments (NOE) has been shown in population-level studies to reduce anxiety and psychological distress. This study investigated how exposure to one's everyday natural outdoor environments over one week influenced mood among residents of four European cities including Barcelona (Spain), Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom), Doetinchem (The Netherlands) and Kaunas (Lithuania). Participants (n = 368) wore a smartphone equipped with software applications to track location and mood (using mobile ecological momentary assessment (EMA) software), for seven consecutive days. We estimated random-effects ordered logistic regression models to examine the association between mood (positive and negative affect), and exposure to green space, represented by two binary variables indicating exposure versus no exposure to NOE using GPS tracking and satellite and aerial imagery, 10 and 30 min prior to participants' completing the EMA. Models were adjusted for home city, day of the week, hour of the day, EMA survey type, residential NOE exposure, and sex, age, education level, mental health status and neighbourhood socioeconomic status. In addition, we tested for heterogeneity of effect by city, sex, age, residential NOE exposure and mental health status. Within 10 min of NOE exposure, compared to non-exposure, we found that overall there was a positive relationship with positive affect (OR: 1.39, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.81) of EMA surveys, and non-significant negative association with negative affect (OR: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.58, 1.10). When stratifying, associations were consistently found for Stoke-on-Trent inhabitants and men, while findings by age group were inconsistent. Weaker and less consistent associations were found for exposure 30 min prior to EMA. Our findings support increasing evidence of psychological and mental health benefits of exposure to natural outdoor environments, especially among urban populations such as those included in our study.

2.
Environ Int ; 131: 104962, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301586

RESUMO

Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has the highest proportion of people using unclean fuels for household energy, which can result in products of incomplete combustion that are damaging for health. Black carbon (BC) is a useful marker of inefficient combustion-related particles; however, ambient air quality data and temporal patterns of personal exposure to BC in SSA are scarce. We measured ambient elemental carbon (EC), comparable to BC, and personal exposure to BC in women of childbearing age from a semi-rural area of southern Mozambique. We measured ambient EC over one year (2014-2015) using a high-volume sampler and an off-line thermo-optical-transmission method. We simultaneously measured 5-min resolved 24-h personal BC using a portable MicroAeth (AE51) in 202 women. We used backwards stepwise linear regression to identify predictors of log-transformed 24-h mean and peak (90th percentile) personal BC exposure. We analyzed data from 187 non-smoking women aged 16-46 years. While daily mean ambient EC reached moderate levels (0.9 µg/m3, Standard Deviation, SD: 0.6 µg/m3), daily mean personal BC reached high levels (15 µg/m3, SD: 19 µg/m3). Daily patterns of personal exposure revealed a peak between 6 and 7 pm (>35 µg/m3), attributable to kerosene-based lighting. Key determinants of mean and peak personal exposure to BC were lighting source, kitchen type, ambient EC levels, and temperature. This study highlights the important contribution of lighting sources to personal exposure to combustion particles in populations that lack access to clean household energy.

3.
Environ Res ; 174: 95-104, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055170

RESUMO

The human exposome affects child development and health later in life, but its personal external levels, variability, and correlations are largely unknown. We characterized the personal external exposome of pregnant women and children in eight European cities. Panel studies included 167 pregnant women and 183 children (aged 6-11 years). A personal exposure monitoring kit composed of smartphone, accelerometer, ultraviolet (UV) dosimeter, and two air pollution monitors were used to monitor physical activity (PA), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon, traffic-related noise, UV-B radiation, and natural outdoor environments (NOE). 77% of women performed the adult recommendation of ≥150 min/week of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA), while only 3% of children achieved the childhood recommendation of ≥60 min/day MVPA. 11% of women and 17% of children were exposed to daily PM2.5 levels higher than recommended (≥25µg/m3). Mean exposure to noise ranged from Lden 51.1 dB in Kaunas to Lden 65.2 dB in Barcelona. 4% of women and 23% of children exceeded the recommended maximum of 2 Standard-Erythemal-Dose of UV-B at least once a week. 33% of women and 43% of children never reached the minimum NOE contact recommendation of ≥30 min/week. The variations in air and noise pollution exposure were dominated by between-city variability, while most of the variation observed for NOE contact and PA was between-participants. The correlations between all personal exposures ranged from very low to low (Rho < 0.30). The levels of personal external exposures in both pregnant women and children are above the health recommendations, and there is little correlation between the different exposures. The assessment of the personal external exposome is feasible but sampling requires from one day to more than one year depending on exposure due to high variability between and within cities and participants.

4.
Environ Int ; 126: 494-503, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30849577

RESUMO

To assess environmental exposures at the individual level, new assessment methods and tools are required. We developed an exposure assessment system (ExpoApp) for smartphones. ExpoApp integrates: (i) geo-location and accelerometry measurements from a waist attached smartphone, (ii) data from portable monitors, (iii) geographic information systems, and (iv) individual's information. ExpoApp calculates time spent in microenvironments, physical activity level, inhalation rate, and environmental exposures and doses (e.g., green spaces, inhaled ultrafine particles- UFP). We deployed ExpoApp in a panel study of 158 adults from five cities (Amsterdam and Utrecht- the Netherlands, Basel- Switzerland, Norwich- UK, and Torino- Italy) with an UFP monitor. To evaluate ExpoApp, participants also carried a reference accelerometer (ActiGraph) and completed a travel-activity diary (TAD). System reliability and validity of measurements were evaluated by comparing the monitoring failure rate and the agreement on time spent in microenvironments and physical activity with the reference tools. There were only significant failure rate differences between ExpoApp and ActiGraph in Norwich. Agreement on time in microenvironments and physical activity level between ExpoApp and reference tools was 86.6% (86.5-86.7) and 75.7% (71.5-79.4), respectively. ExpoApp estimated that participants inhaled 16.5 × 1010 particles/day of UFP and had almost no contact with green spaces (24% of participants spent ≥30 min/day in green spaces). Participants with more contact with green spaces had higher inhaled dose of UFP, except for the Netherlands, where the relationship was the inverse. ExpoApp is a reliable system and provides accurate individual's measurements, which may help to understand the role of environmental exposures on the origin and course of diseases.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Aplicativos Móveis , Material Particulado/análise , Adulto , Cidades , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Masculino , Tamanho da Partícula , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Viagem
5.
Lancet Planet Health ; 3(2): e81-e92, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30737192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several single-exposure studies have documented possible effects of environmental factors on lung function, but none has relied on an exposome approach. We aimed to evaluate the association between a broad range of prenatal and postnatal lifestyle and environmental exposures and lung function in children. METHODS: In this analysis, we used data from 1033 mother-child pairs from the European Human Early-Life Exposome (HELIX) cohort (consisting of six existing longitudinal birth cohorts in France, Greece, Lithuania, Norway, Spain, and the UK of children born between 2003 and 2009) for whom a valid spirometry test was recorded for the child. 85 prenatal and 125 postnatal exposures relating to outdoor, indoor, chemical, and lifestyle factors were assessed, and lung function was measured by spirometry in children at age 6-12 years. Two agnostic linear regression methods, a deletion-substitution-addition (DSA) algorithm considering all exposures simultaneously, and an exposome-wide association study (ExWAS) considering exposures independently, were applied to test the association with forced expiratory volume in 1 s percent predicted values (FEV1%). We tested for two-way interaction between exposures and corrected for confounding by co-exposures. FINDINGS: In the 1033 children (median age 8·1 years, IQR 6·5-9·0), mean FEV1% was 98·8% (SD 13·2). In the ExWAS, prenatal perfluorononanoate (p=0·034) and perfluorooctanoate (p=0·030) exposures were associated with lower FEV1%, and inverse distance to nearest road during pregnancy (p=0·030) was associated with higher FEV1%. Nine postnatal exposures were associated with lower FEV1%: copper (p=0·041), ethyl-paraben (p=0·029), five phthalate metabolites (mono-2-ethyl 5-carboxypentyl phthalate [p=0·016], mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate [p=0·023], mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate [p=0·0085], mono-4-methyl-7-oxooctyl phthalate [p=0·040], and the sum of di-ethylhexyl phthalate metabolites [p=0·014]), house crowding (p=0·015), and facility density around schools (p=0·027). However, no exposure passed the significance threshold when corrected for multiple testing in ExWAS, and none was selected with the DSA algorithm, including when testing for exposure interactions. INTERPRETATION: Our systematic exposome approach identified several environmental exposures, mainly chemicals, that might be associated with lung function. Reducing exposure to these ubiquitous chemicals could help to prevent the development of chronic respiratory disease. FUNDING: European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (HELIX project).

6.
Environ Res ; 171: 341-347, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30716511

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the association between telecommunication and other screen devices use and subjective and objective sleep measures in adolescents at 17-18 years. METHODS: Cross-sectional study on adolescents aged 17-18 years from a Spanish population-based birth cohort established in Menorca in 1997-1998. Information on devices use was collected using self-reported questionnaires. Mobile Phone Problematic Use Scale was used to assess mobile phone use dependency. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used to assess subjective sleep (n = 226). ActiGraph wGT3X-BT for 7 nights was used to assess objective sleep (n = 110). RESULTS: One or more cordless phone calls/week was associated with a lower sleep quality [Prevalence Ratio (PR) 1.30 (95%Confidence Interval (CI) 1.04; 1.62)]. Habitual and frequent problematic mobile phone use was associated with a lower sleep quality [PR 1.55 (95%CI 1.03; 2.33) and PR 1.67 (95%CI 1.09; 2.56), respectively]. Higher tablet use was associated with decreased sleep efficiency and increased minutes of wake time after sleep onset [ß-1.15 (95%CI -1.99; -0.31) and ß 7.00 (95%CI 2.40; 11.60) per increase of 10 min/day of use, respectively]. No associations were found between other devices and sleep measures. CONCLUSIONS: Frequency of cordless phone calls, mobile phone dependency, and tablet use were related to an increase of subjective and objective sleep problems in adolescents. These results seem to indicate that sleep displacement, mental arousal, and exposure to blue light screen emission might play a more important role on sleep than a high RF-EMF exposure to the brain. However, more studies are needed assessing personal RF-EMF levels to draw conclusions.

7.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 51(5): 833-840, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30531289

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) progression is variable and affects several disease domains, including decline in lung function, exercise capacity, muscle strength, and health status as well as changes in body composition. We aimed to assess the longitudinal association of physical activity (PA) with these a priori selected components of disease progression. METHODS: We studied 114 COPD patients from the PAC-COPD cohort (94% male, mean [SD], 70 yr [8 yr] of age, 54 [16] forced expiratory volume in 1 s % predicted) at baseline and 2.6 yr (0.6 yr) later. Baseline PA was assessed by accelerometry. Multivariable general linear models were built to assess the association between PA and changes in lung function, functional exercise capacity, muscle strength, health status, and body composition. All models were adjusted for confounders and the respective baseline value of each measure. RESULTS: Per each 1000 steps higher baseline PA, forced expiratory volume in 1 s declined 7 mL less (P < 0.01), forced vital capacity 9 mL less (P = 0.03) and carbon monoxide diffusing capacity 0.10 mL·min·mm Hg less (P = 0.04), while the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire symptom domain deteriorated 0.4 points less (P = 0.03), per year follow-up. Physical activity was not associated with changes in functional exercise capacity, muscle strength, other domains of health status or body composition. CONCLUSIONS: Higher PA is associated with attenuated decline in lung function and reduced health status (symptoms domain) deterioration in moderate-to-very severe COPD patients.


Assuntos
Progressão da Doença , Exercício , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Composição Corporal , Tolerância ao Exercício , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Estudos Longitudinais , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Força Muscular , Capacidade Vital
8.
Environ Int ; 121(Pt 1): 561-573, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30300814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposome studies are challenged by exposure misclassification for non-persistent chemicals, whose temporal variability contributes to bias in dose-response functions. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the variability of urinary concentrations of 24 non-persistent chemicals: 10 phthalate metabolites, 7 phenols, 6 organophosphate (OP) pesticide metabolites, and cotinine, between weeks from different pregnancy trimesters in pregnant women, and between days and between seasons in children. METHODS: 154 pregnant women and 152 children from six European countries were enrolled in 2014-2015. Pregnant women provided three urine samples over a day (morning, midday, and night), for one week in the 2nd and 3rd pregnancy trimesters. Children provided two urines a day (morning and night), over two one-week periods, six months apart. We pooled all samples for a given subject that were collected within a week. In children, we also made four daily pools (combining morning and night voids) during the last four days of the first follow-up week. Pools were analyzed for all 24 metabolites of interest. We calculated intraclass-correlation coefficients (ICC) and estimated the number of pools needed to obtain an ICC above 0.80. RESULTS: All phthalate metabolites and phenols were detected in >90% of pools whereas certain OP pesticide metabolites and cotinine were detected in <43% of pools. We observed fair (ICC = 0.40-0.59) to good (0.60-0.74) between-day reliability of the pools of two samples in children for all chemicals. Reliability was poor (<0.40) to fair between trimesters in pregnant women and between seasons in children. For most chemicals, three daily pools of two urines each (for weekly exposure windows) and four weekly pools of 15-20 urines each would be necessary to obtain an ICC above 0.80. CONCLUSIONS: This quantification of the variability of biomarker measurements of many non-persistent chemicals during several time windows shows that for many of these compounds a few dozen samples are required to accurately assess exposure over periods encompassing several trimesters or months.

9.
BMJ Open ; 8(9): e021311, 2018 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30206078

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Essential to exposome research is the collection of data on many environmental exposures from different domains in the same subjects. The aim of the Human Early Life Exposome (HELIX) study was to measure and describe multiple environmental exposures during early life (pregnancy and childhood) in a prospective cohort and associate these exposures with molecular omics signatures and child health outcomes. Here, we describe recruitment, measurements available and baseline data of the HELIX study populations. PARTICIPANTS: The HELIX study represents a collaborative project across six established and ongoing longitudinal population-based birth cohort studies in six European countries (France, Greece, Lithuania, Norway, Spain and the UK). HELIX used a multilevel study design with the entire study population totalling 31 472 mother-child pairs, recruited during pregnancy, in the six existing cohorts (first level); a subcohort of 1301 mother-child pairs where biomarkers, omics signatures and child health outcomes were measured at age 6-11 years (second level) and repeat-sampling panel studies with around 150 children and 150 pregnant women aimed at collecting personal exposure data (third level). FINDINGS TO DATE: Cohort data include urban environment, hazardous substances and lifestyle-related exposures for women during pregnancy and their offspring from birth until 6-11 years. Common, standardised protocols were used to collect biological samples, measure exposure biomarkers and omics signatures and assess child health across the six cohorts. Baseline data of the cohort show substantial variation in health outcomes and determinants between the six countries, for example, in family affluence levels, tobacco smoking, physical activity, dietary habits and prevalence of childhood obesity, asthma, allergies and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. FUTURE PLANS: HELIX study results will inform on the early life exposome and its association with molecular omics signatures and child health outcomes. Cohort data are accessible for future research involving researchers external to the project.

10.
Eur Respir J ; 52(3)2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30072504

RESUMO

The vicious circle of dyspnoea-inactivity has been proposed, but never validated empirically, to explain the clinical course of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We aimed to develop and validate externally a comprehensive vicious circle model.We utilised two methods. 1) Identification and validation of all published vicious circle models by a systematic literature search and fitting structural equation models to longitudinal data from the Spanish PAC-COPD (Phenotype and Course of COPD) cohort (n=210, mean age 68 years, mean forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) 54% predicted), testing both the hypothesised relationships between variables in the model ("paths") and model fit. 2) Development of a new model and external validation using longitudinal data from the Swiss and Dutch ICE COLD ERIC (International Collaborative Effort on Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease: Exacerbation Risk Index Cohorts) cohort (n=226, mean age 66 years, mean FEV1 57% predicted).We identified nine vicious circle models for which structural equation models confirmed most hypothesised paths but showed inappropriate fit. In the new model, airflow limitation, hyperinflation, dyspnoea, physical activity, exercise capacity and COPD exacerbations remained related to other variables and model fit was appropriate. Fitting it to ICE COLD ERIC, all paths were replicated and model fit was appropriate.Previously published vicious circle models do not fully explain the vicious circle concept. We developed and externally validated a new comprehensive model that gives a more relevant role to exercise capacity and COPD exacerbations.

11.
Environ Health Perspect ; 126(7): 077005, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30024382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The urban exposome is the set of environmental factors that are experienced in the outdoor urban environment and that may influence child development. OBJECTIVE: The authors' goal was to describe the urban exposome among European pregnant women and understand its socioeconomic determinants. METHODS: Using geographic information systems, remote sensing and spatio-temporal modeling we estimated exposure during pregnancy to 28 environmental indicators in almost 30,000 women from six population-based birth cohorts, in nine urban areas from across Europe. Exposures included meteorological factors, air pollutants, traffic noise, traffic indicators, natural space, the built environment, public transport, facilities, and walkability. Socioeconomic position (SEP), assessed at both the area and individual level, was related to the exposome through an exposome-wide association study and principal component (PC) analysis. RESULTS: Mean±standard deviation (SD) NO2 levels ranged from 13.6±5.1 µg/m3 (in Heraklion, Crete) to 43.2±11 µg/m3 (in Sabadell, Spain), mean±SD walkability score ranged from 0.22±0.04 (Kaunas, Lithuania) to 0.32±0.07 (Valencia, Spain) and mean±SD Normalized Difference Vegetation Index ranged from 0.21±0.05 in Heraklion to 0.51±0.1 in Oslo, Norway. Four PCs explained more than half of variation in the urban exposome. There was considerable heterogeneity in social patterning of the urban exposome across cities. For example, high-SEP (based on family education) women lived in greener, less noisy, and less polluted areas in Bradford, UK (0.39 higher PC1 score, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.31, 0.47), but the reverse was observed in Oslo (-0.57 PC1 score, 95% CI: -0.73, -0.41). For most cities, effects were stronger when SEP was assessed at the area level: In Bradford, women living in high SEP areas had a 1.34 higher average PC1 score (95% CI: 1.21, 1.48). CONCLUSIONS: The urban exposome showed considerable variability across Europe. Pregnant women of low SEP were exposed to higher levels of environmental hazards in some cities, but not others, which may contribute to inequities in child health and development. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP2862.

12.
Environ Int ; 111: 247-259, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29294452

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to air pollution is known to affect both short and long-term outcomes of the cardiopulmonary system; however, findings on short-term outcomes have been inconsistent and often from isolated and long-term rather than coexisting and short-term exposures, and among susceptible/unhealthy rather than healthy populations. AIMS: We aimed to investigate separately the annual, daily and daily space-time-activity-weighted effect of ambient air pollution, as well as confounding or modification by other environmental (including noise) or space-time-activity (including total daily physical activity) exposures, on cardiopulmonary outcomes in healthy adults. METHODS: Participants (N=57: 54% female) had indicators of cardiopulmonary outcomes [blood pressure (BP), pulse (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV {SDNN}), and lung function (spirometry {FEV1, FVC, SUM})] measured on four different mornings (at least five days apart) in a clinical setting between 2011 and 2014. Spatiotemporal ESCAPE-LUR models were used to estimate daily and annual air pollution exposures (including PM10, PMCoarse, but not Ozone {derived from closest station}) at participant residential and occupational addresses. Participants' time-activity diaries indicated time spent at either address to allow daily space-time-activity-weighted estimates, and capture total daily physical activity (total-PA {as metabolic-equivalents-of-task, METs}), in the three days preceding health measurements. Multivariate-adjusted linear mixed-effects models (using either annual or daily estimates) were adjusted for possible environmental confounders or mediators including levels of ambient noise and greenness. Causal mediation analysis was also performed separately considering these factors as well as total-PA. All presented models are controlled by age, height, sex and season. RESULTS: An increase in 5µg/m3 of daily space-time-activity-weighted PMCoarse exposure was statistically significantly associated with a 4.1% reduction in total heart rate variability (SDNN; p=0.01), and remained robust after adjusting for suspected confounders [except for occupational-address noise (ß=-2.7, p=0.20)]. An increase in 10ppb of annual mean Ozone concentration at the residential address was statistically significantly associated with an increase in diastolic BP of 6.4mmHg (p<0.01), which lost statistical significance when substituted with daily space-time-activity-weighted estimates. As for pulmonary function, an increase in 10µg/m3 of annual mean PM10 concentration at the residential address was significantly associated with a 0.3% reduction in FVC (p<0.01) and a 0.5% reduction in SUM (p<0.04), for which again significance was lost when substituted for daily space-time-activity-weighted estimates These associations with pulmonary function remained robust after adjusting for suspected confounders, including annual Ozone, as well as total-PA and bioaerosol (pollen and fungal spore) levels (but not residential-neighborhood greenness {ß=-0.22, p=0.09; ß=-0.34, p=0.15, respectively}). Multilevel mediation analysis indicated that the proportion mediated as a direct effect on cardiopulmonary outcomes by suspected confounders (including total-PA, residential-neighborhood greenness, and occupational-address noise level) from primary exposures (including PM10, PMCoarse, and O3) was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that increased daily space-time-activity-weighted PMCoarse exposure levels significantly adversely affect cardiac autonomic modulation (as reduced total HRV) among healthy adults. Additionally, increased annual levels at the residential address of Ozone and PM10 significantly increase diastolic blood pressure and reduce lung function, respectively, among healthy adults. These associations typically remained robust when adjusting for suspected confounders. Occupational-address noise and residential-neighborhood greenness levels, however, were seen as mediators of cardiovascular and pulmonary outcomes, respectively. Total daily physical activity was not seen as a mediator of any of the studied outcomes, which supports the promotion of active mobility within cities.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Pressão Sanguínea , Exercício , Frequência Cardíaca , Pulmão/fisiologia , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ruído , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Testes de Função Respiratória , Estações do Ano , Adulto Jovem
13.
Environ Res ; 160: 247-255, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29031214

RESUMO

Oxidative potential (OP) of particulate matter (PM) is proposed as a biologically-relevant exposure metric for studies of air pollution and health. We aimed to evaluate the spatial variability of the OP of measured PM2.5 using ascorbate (AA) and (reduced) glutathione (GSH), and develop land use regression (LUR) models to explain this spatial variability. We estimated annual average values (m-3) of OPAA and OPGSH for five areas (Basel, CH; Catalonia, ES; London-Oxford, UK (no OPGSH); the Netherlands; and Turin, IT) using PM2.5 filters. OPAA and OPGSH LUR models were developed using all monitoring sites, separately for each area and combined-areas. The same variables were then used in repeated sub-sampling of monitoring sites to test sensitivity of variable selection; new variables were offered where variables were excluded (p > .1). On average, measurements of OPAA and OPGSH were moderately correlated (maximum Pearson's maximum Pearson's R = = .7) with PM2.5 and other metrics (PM2.5absorbance, NO2, Cu, Fe). HOV (hold-out validation) R2 for OPAA models was .21, .58, .45, .53, and .13 for Basel, Catalonia, London-Oxford, the Netherlands and Turin respectively. For OPGSH, the only model achieving at least moderate performance was for the Netherlands (R2 = .31). Combined models for OPAA and OPGSH were largely explained by study area with weak local predictors of intra-area contrasts; we therefore do not endorse them for use in epidemiologic studies. Given the moderate correlation of OPAA with other pollutants, the three reasonably performing LUR models for OPAA could be used independently of other pollutant metrics in epidemiological studies.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Modelos Teóricos , Material Particulado/análise , Meio Ambiente , Europa (Continente) , Oxirredução , Análise de Regressão
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28974010

RESUMO

This study investigated whether residential availability of natural outdoor environments (NOE) was associated with contact with NOE, overall physical activity and physical activity in NOE, in four different European cities using objective measures. A nested cross-sectional study was conducted in Barcelona (Spain); Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom); Doetinchem (The Netherlands); and Kaunas (Lithuania). Smartphones were used to collect information on the location and physical activity (overall and NOE) of around 100 residents of each city over seven days. We used Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to determine residential NOE availability (presence/absence of NOE within 300 m buffer from residence), contact with NOE (time spent in NOE), overall PA (total physical activity), NOE PA (total physical activity in NOE). Potential effect modifiers were investigated. Participants spent around 40 min in NOE and 80 min doing overall PA daily, of which 11% was in NOE. Having residential NOE availability was consistently linked with higher NOE contact during weekdays, but not to overall PA. Having residential NOE availability was related to NOE PA, especially for our Barcelona participants, people that lived in a city with low NOE availability.


Assuntos
Cidades , Planejamento Ambiental , Exercício , Características de Residência , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Meio Ambiente , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Masculino
15.
Environ Res ; 159: 629-638, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28938204

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Better mental health has been associated with exposure to natural outdoor environments (NOE). However, comprehensive studies including several indicators of exposure and outcomes, potential effect modifiers and mediators are scarce. OBJECTIVES: We used novel, objective measures to explore the relationships between exposure to NOE (i.e. residential availability and contact) and different indicators of mental health, and possible modifiers and mediators. METHODS: A nested cross-sectional study was conducted in: Barcelona, Spain; Stoke-on-Trent, United Kingdom; Doetinchem, Netherlands; Kaunas, Lithuania. Participants' exposure to NOE (including both surrounding greenness and green and/or blue spaces) was measured in terms of (a) amount in their residential environment (using Geographical Information Systems) and (b) their contact with NOE (using smartphone data collected over seven days). Self-reported information was collected for mental health (psychological wellbeing, sleep quality, vitality, and somatisation), and potential effect modifiers (gender, age, education level, and city) and mediators (perceived stress and social contacts), with additional objective NOE physical activity (potential mediator) derived from smartphone accelerometers. RESULTS: Analysis of data from 406 participants showed no statistically significant associations linking mental health and residential NOE exposure. However, NOE contact, especially surrounding greenness, was statistically significantly tied to better mental health. There were indications that these relationships were stronger for males, younger people, low-medium educated, and Doetinchem residents. Perceived stress was a mediator of most associations, and physical activity and social contacts were not. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that contact with NOE benefits mental health. Our results also suggest that having contact with NOE that can facilitate stress reduction could be particularly beneficial.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Exercício , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Social , Estresse Psicológico , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Inglaterra , Feminino , Humanos , Lituânia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Fatores Sexuais , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
16.
Environ Pollut ; 231(Pt 1): 837-844, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28866425

RESUMO

A few studies have found associations between the exposure to traffic-related air pollution at school and/or home and cognitive development. The impact on cognitive development of the exposure to air pollutants during commuting has not been explored. We aimed to assess the role of the exposure to traffic-related air pollutants during walking commute to school on cognitive development of children. We performed a longitudinal study of children (n = 1,234, aged 7-10 y) from 39 schools in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) who commuted by foot to school. Children were tested four times during a 12-month follow-up to characterize their developmental trajectories of working memory (d' of the three-back numbers test) and inattentiveness (hit reaction time standard error of the Attention Network Test). Average particulate matter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), Black Carbon (BC) and NO2 concentrations were estimated using Land Use Regression for the shortest walking route to school. Differences in cognitive growth were evaluated by linear mixed effects models with age-by-pollutant interaction terms. Exposure to PM2.5 and BC from the commutes by foot was associated with a reduction in the growth of working memory (an interquartile range increase in PM2.5 and BC concentrations decreased the annual growth of working memory by 5.4 (95% CI [-10.2, -0.6]) and 4.6 (95% CI [-9.0, -0.1]) points, respectively). The findings for NO2 were not conclusive and none of the pollutants were associated with inattentiveness. Efforts should be made to implement pedestrian school pathways through low traffic streets in order to increase security and minimize children's exposure to air pollutants.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/análise , Atenção , Criança , Cognição/fisiologia , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Fuligem , Espanha , Caminhada
17.
Chron Respir Dis ; 14(3): 256-269, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28774199

RESUMO

We described physical activity measures and hourly patterns in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) after stratification for generic and COPD-specific characteristics and, based on multiple physical activity measures, we identified clusters of patients. In total, 1001 patients with COPD (65% men; age, 67 years; forced expiratory volume in the first second [FEV1], 49% predicted) were studied cross-sectionally. Demographics, anthropometrics, lung function and clinical data were assessed. Daily physical activity measures and hourly patterns were analysed based on data from a multisensor armband. Principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis were applied to physical activity measures to identify clusters. Age, body mass index (BMI), dyspnoea grade and ADO index (including age, dyspnoea and airflow obstruction) were associated with physical activity measures and hourly patterns. Five clusters were identified based on three PCA components, which accounted for 60% of variance of the data. Importantly, couch potatoes (i.e. the most inactive cluster) were characterised by higher BMI, lower FEV1, worse dyspnoea and higher ADO index compared to other clusters ( p < 0.05 for all). Daily physical activity measures and hourly patterns are heterogeneous in COPD. Clusters of patients were identified solely based on physical activity data. These findings may be useful to develop interventions aiming to promote physical activity in COPD.


Assuntos
Exercício , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Actigrafia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Agnosia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos Transversais , Dispneia/etiologia , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Componente Principal , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Comportamento Sedentário , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
18.
Environ Int ; 107: 243-257, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28778040

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Until now, estimates of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) have mainly been produced on national or regional levels. These general estimates, however, are less useful for city governments who have to take decisions on local scales. To address this gap, we focused on the city-level burden of disease (BD) due to exposures affected by urban and transport planning. We conducted a BD assessment using the Urban and Transport Planning Health Impact Assessment (UTOPHIA) tool to estimate annual preventable morbidity and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) under compliance with international exposure recommendations for physical activity (PA), exposure to air pollution, noise, heat, and access to green spaces in Barcelona, Spain. METHODS: Exposure estimates and morbidity data were available for 1,357,361 Barcelona residents ≥20years (2012). We compared recommended with current exposure levels to estimate the associated BD. We quantified associations between exposures and morbidities and calculated population attributable fractions to estimate the number of attributable cases. We calculated DALYs using GBD Study 2015 background DALY estimates for Spain, which were scaled to Barcelona considering differences in population size, age and sex structures. We also estimated annual health costs that could be avoided under compliance with exposure recommendations. RESULTS: Not complying with recommended levels for PA, air pollution, noise, heat and access to green spaces was estimated to generate a large morbidity burden and resulted in 52,001 DALYs (95% CI: 42,866-61,136) in Barcelona each year (13% of all annual DALYs). From this BD 36% (i.e. 18,951 DALYs) was due to traffic noise with sleep disturbance and annoyance contributing largely (i.e. 10,548 DALYs). Non-compliance was estimated to result in direct health costs of 20.10 million € (95% CI: 15.36-24.83) annually. CONCLUSIONS: Non-compliance of international exposure recommendations was estimated to result in a considerable BD and in substantial economic expenditure each year in Barcelona. Our findings suggest that (1) the reduction of motor traffic together with the promotion of active transport and (2) the provision of green infrastructure would result in a considerable BD avoided and substantial savings to the public health care system, as these measures can provide mitigation of noise, air pollution and heat as well as opportunities for PA promotion.


Assuntos
Planejamento de Cidades , Avaliação do Impacto na Saúde , Saúde da População Urbana , Adulto , Idoso , Poluição do Ar , Cidades , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Masculino , Veículos Automotores , Ruído , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
19.
Environ Res ; 158: 286-294, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28667855

RESUMO

Low cost, personal air pollution sensors may reduce exposure measurement errors in epidemiological investigations and contribute to citizen science initiatives. Here we assess the validity of a low cost personal air pollution sensor. Study participants were drawn from two ongoing epidemiological projects in Barcelona, Spain. Participants repeatedly wore the pollution sensor - which measured carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). We also compared personal sensor measurements to those from more expensive instruments. Our personal sensors had moderate to high correlations with government monitors with averaging times of 1-h and 30-min epochs (r ~ 0.38-0.8) for NO and CO, but had low to moderate correlations with NO2 (~0.04-0.67). Correlations between the personal sensors and more expensive research instruments were higher than with the government monitors. The sensors were able to detect high and low air pollution levels in agreement with expectations (e.g., high levels on or near busy roadways and lower levels in background residential areas and parks). Our findings suggest that the low cost, personal sensors have potential to reduce exposure measurement error in epidemiological studies and provide valid data for citizen science studies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Óxido Nítrico/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Espanha
20.
BMJ Open ; 7(6): e013542, 2017 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28645948

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Active commuting - walking and bicycling for travel to and/or from work or educational addresses - may facilitate daily, routine physical activity. Several studies have investigated the relationship between active commuting and commuting stress; however, there are no studies examining the relationship between solely bicycle commuting and perceived stress, or studies that account for environmental determinants of bicycle commuting and stress. The current study evaluated the relationship between bicycle commuting, among working or studying adults in a dense urban setting, and perceived stress. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed with 788 adults who regularly travelled to work or study locations (excluding those who only commuted on foot) in Barcelona, Spain. Participants responded to a comprehensive telephone survey concerning their travel behaviour from June 2011 through to May 2012. Participants were categorised as either bicycle commuters or non-bicycle commuters, and (based on the Perceived Stress Scale, PSS-4) as either stressed or non-stressed. Multivariate Poisson regression with robust variance models of stress status based on exposures with bicycle commuting were estimated and adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: Bicycle commuters had significantly lower risk of being stressed than non-bicycle commuters (Relative Risk; RR (95% CI)=0.73 (0.60 to 0.89), p=0.001). Bicycle commuters who bicycled 4 days per week (RR (95% CI)=0.42 (0.24 to 0.73), p=0.002) and those who bicycled 5 or more days per week (RR (95% CI)=0.57 (0.42 to 0.77), p<0.001) had lower risk of being stressed than those who bicycled less than 4 days. This relationship remained statistically significant after adjusting for individual and environmental confounders and when using different cut-offs of perceived stress. CONCLUSIONS: Stress reduction may be an important consequence of routine bicycle use and should be considered by decision makers as another potential benefit of its promotion.


Assuntos
Ciclismo/psicologia , Percepção Social , Estresse Psicológico , Transportes/métodos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Psicometria , Qualidade de Vida , Análise de Regressão , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários , Caminhada
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