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1.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252857, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111154

RESUMO

Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is an implant-based therapy applied to patients with a specific heart failure (HF) profile. The identification of patients that may benefit from CRT is a challenging task and the application of current guidelines still induce a non-responder rate of about 30%. Several studies have shown that the assessment of left ventricular (LV) mechanics by speckle tracking echocardiography can provide useful information for CRT patient selection. A comprehensive evaluation of LV mechanics is normally performed using three different echocardioraphic views: 4, 3 or 2-chamber views. The aim of this study is to estimate the relative importance of strain-based features extracted from these three views, for the estimation of CRT response. Several features were extracted from the longitudinal strain curves of 130 patients and different methods of feature selection (out-of-bag random forest, wrapping and filtering) have been applied. Results show that more than 50% of the 20 most important features are calculated from the 4-chamber view. Although features from the 2- and 3-chamber views are less represented in the most important features, some of the former have been identified to provide complementary information. A thorough analysis and interpretation of the most informative features is also provided, as a first step towards the construction of a machine-learning chain for an improved selection of CRT candidates.

2.
Expert Opin Pharmacother ; : 1-9, 2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074190

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The significant morbidity and mortality in patients with heart failure (HF), notably in the most advanced forms of the disease, justify the need for novel therapeutic options. In the last year, the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) stimulator, vericiguat, has drawn the attention of the medical community following the report of reduced clinical outcomes in patients with worsening chronic HF (WCHF). AREAS COVERED: The authors review the available data on the mechanism of action of vericiguat (cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) pathway), its clinical development program, its role in HF management, and its future positioning in the therapeutic recommendations. EXPERT OPINION: cGMP deficiency has deleterious effects on the heart and contributes to the progression of HF. Different molecules, including nitric oxide (NO) donors, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, and natriuretic peptides analogues, target the NO-sCG-cGMP pathway but have yielded conflicting results in HF patients. Vericiguat acts as a sGC stimulator thus targeting the NO-sGC-cGMP pathway by a different mechanism that complements the current pharmacotherapy for HF. Vericiguat has shown an additional statistical add-on therapy efficacy by reducing morbi-mortality in patients with WCHF. A better evaluation of HF severity might be an important determinant to guide the use of vericiguat among the available therapies.

3.
Infection ; 2021 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089482

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing use of cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIED), as permanent pacemakers (PPM), implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD), or cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), is associated with the emergence of CIED-related infective endocarditis (CIED-IE). We aimed to characterize CIED-IE profile, temporal trends, and prognostic factors. METHODS: CIED-IE diagnosed at Rennes University Hospital during years 1992-2017 were identified through computerized database, and included if they presented all of the following: (1) clinical signs of infection; (2) microbiological documentation through blood and/or CIED lead cultures; (3) lead or valve vegetation, or definite IE according to Duke criteria. Data were retrospectively extracted from medical charts. The cohort was categorized in three periods: 1992-1999, 2000-2008, and 2009-2017. RESULTS: We included 199 patients (51 women, 148 men, median age 73 years [interquartile range, 64-79]), with CIED-IE: 158 PPMs (79%), 24 ICD (12%), and 17 CRT (9%). Main pathogens were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS: n = 86, 43%), Staphylococcus aureus (n = 60, 30%), and other Gram-positive cocci (n = 28, 14%). Temporal trends were remarkable for the decline in CoNS (P = 0.002), and the emergence of S. aureus as the primary cause of CIED-IE (24/63 in 2009-2017, 38%). Factors independently associated with one-year mortality were chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD: hazard ratio 3.84 [1.03-6.02], P = 0.03), left-sided endocarditis (HR 2.25 [1.09-4.65], P = 0.03), pathogens other than CoNS (HR 3.16 [1.19-8.39], P = 0.02), and CIED removal/reimplantation (HR 0.41 [0.20-0.83], P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: S. aureus has emerged as the primary cause of CIED-IE. Left-sided endocarditis, COPD, pathogens other than CoNS, and no CIED removal/reimplantation are independent risk factors for one-year mortality.

4.
J Card Fail ; 27(6): 677-681, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088380

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few data exist concerning genotype-phenotype relationships in left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC). METHODS AND RESULTS: From a multicenter French Registry, we report the genetic and clinical spectrum of 95 patients with LVNC, and their genotype-phenotype relationship. Among the 95 LVNC, 45 had at least 1 mutation, including 14 cases of mutation in ion channel genes. In a complementary analysis including 16 additional patients with ion channel gene mutations, for a total of 30 patients with ion channel gene mutation, we found that those patients had higher median LV ejection fraction (60% vs 40%; P < .001) and more biventricular noncompaction (53.1% vs 18.5%; P < .001) than the 81 other patients with LVNC. Among them, both the 19 patients with an HCN4 mutation and the 11 patients with an RYR2 mutation presented with a higher LV ejection fraction and more frequent biventricular noncompaction than the 81 patients with LVNC but with no mutation in the ion channel gene, but only patients with HCN4 mutation presented with a lower heart rate. CONCLUSIONS: Ion channel gene mutations should be searched systematically in patients with LVNC associated with either bradycardia or biventricular noncompaction, particularly when LV systolic function is preserved. Identifying causative mutations is of utmost importance for genetic counselling of at-risk relatives of patients affected by LVNC.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097006

RESUMO

In clinical decision making, myocardial viability is defined as myocardium in acute or chronic coronary artery disease and other conditions with contractile dysfunction but maintained metabolic and electrical function, having the potential to improve dysfunction upon revascularization or other therapy. Several pathophysiological conditions may coexist to explain this phenomenon. Cardiac imaging may allow identification of myocardial viability through different principles, with the purpose of prediction of therapeutic response and selection for treatment. This expert consensus document reviews current insight into the underlying pathophysiology and available methods for assessing viability. In particular the document reviews contemporary viability imaging techniques, including stress echocardiography, single photon emission computed tomography, positron emission tomography, cardiovascular magnetic resonance, and computed tomography and provides clinical recommendations for how to standardize these methods in terms of acquisition and interpretation. Finally, it presents clinical scenarios where viability assessment is clinically useful.

6.
Europace ; 2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34037728

RESUMO

Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is one of the most effective therapies for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and leads to improved quality of life, reductions in heart failure hospitalization rates and all-cause mortality. Nevertheless, up to two-thirds of eligible patients are not referred for CRT. Furthermore, post-implantation follow-up is often fragmented and suboptimal, hampering the potential maximal treatment effect. This joint position statement from three European Society of Cardiology Associations, Heart Failure Association (HFA), European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) and European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI), focuses on optimized implementation of CRT. We offer theoretical and practical strategies to achieve more comprehensive CRT referral and post-procedural care by focusing on four actionable domains: (i) overcoming CRT under-utilization, (ii) better understanding of pre-implant characteristics, (iii) abandoning the term 'non-response' and replacing this by the concept of disease modification, and (iv) implementing a dedicated post-implant CRT care pathway.

7.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34043053

RESUMO

AIMS: Defining the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) patients is an important clinical and prognostic challenge. The aim of this study is to determine HCM phenogroups with different risk of AF occurrence at 5 years. METHODS AND RESULTS: We applied retrospectively the Bayesian method, which can analyze a large number of variables, to differentiate phenogroups of patients with different risks of AF and prognoses across a French prospective on-going hospital-based registry of adult HCM patients (REMY). Clinical and imaging data were prospectively recorded, and patients were followed for 5 years. A total of 1431 HCM patients were recruited, including 1275 analyzed in the present study after exclusion criteria. The population included 412 women, 369 patients with obstructive HCM, and 252 implanted with an ICD. AF occurred in 167 (11.6%) patients during the 5 year follow-up. Three phenogroups were defined according to their common clinical and echocardiographic characteristics. Patients at the highest risk were oldest, more often female, with more frequent comorbidities, anteroposterior diameter of the left atrium was significantly greater, with diastolic dysfunction, outflow-tract obstruction, and mitral valve abnormality, and presented higher pulmonary artery pressure and/or right-ventricular dysfunction. These also had a higher risk of all-cause hospitalizations and death. CONCLUSION: Based on a clustering analysis, three phenogroups of HCM according to the risk of AF occurrence can be identified. It can indicate which patients should be more monitored and/or treated, particular to prevent the risk of stroke.

8.
Heart Fail Clin ; 17(3): 499-518, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34051979

RESUMO

Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is characterized by a high rate of hospitalization and mortality (up to 84% at 5 years), which are similar to those observed for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). These epidemiologic data claim for the development of specific and innovative therapies to reduce the burden of morbidity and mortality associated with this disease. Compared with HFrEF, which is due to a primary myocardial damage (eg ischemia, cardiomyopathies, toxicity), a heterogeneous etiologic background characterizes HFpEF. The authors discuss these phenotypes and specificities for defining therapeutic strategies that could be proposed according to phenotypes.


Assuntos
Gerenciamento Clínico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Aprendizado de Máquina , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Fenótipo , Prognóstico
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33928339

RESUMO

AIMS: Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) was long forgotten until recent studies alerting on its prognostic impact. Cardiac output (CO) is the main objective of heart mechanics. We sought to compare clinical and echocardiographic data of patients with TR from inclusion to 1-year follow-up according to initial CO. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with isolated secondary TR and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≥40% were prospectively included. All patients had a clinical and echocardiographic evaluation at baseline and after 1 year. Echocardiographic measurements were centralized. The patients were partitioned according to their CO at baseline. The primary outcome was all-cause death. Ninety-five patients completed their follow-up. The majority of patients had normal CO (n = 64, 67.4%), whereas 16 (16.8%) patients had low-CO and 12 (12.6%) had high-CO. right ventricular function was worse in the low-CO group but with improvement at 1 year (30% increase in tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion). LVEF and global longitudinal strain were significantly worse in the low-CO group. Overall, 18 (19%) patients died during follow-up, of which 10 (55%) patients had abnormal CO. There was a U-shaped association between CO and mortality. Normal CO patients had significantly better survival (87.5% vs. 62.5% and 66.67%) in the low- and high-CO groups, respectively, even after adjustment (heart rate 2.23 for the low-CO group and 9.08 for high-CO group; P = 0.0174). CONCLUSION: Significant isolated secondary TR was associated with 19% of mortality. It is also associated with higher long-term mortality if CO is abnormal, suggesting a possible role for evaluating better and selecting patients for intervention.

11.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 175: 108831, 2021 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33895192

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are often associated in type 2 diabetes (T2D), aggravate each other and exert synergistic effects to increase the risk of cardiac and renal events. The risks of renal worsening in HF patients and HF in CKD patients need to be evaluated to tailor preventive therapy. The recent CV and renal trials enriched our knowledge about the natural history of HF and CKD in T2D and provided evidence for the benefit of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2is) in HF and renal decline prevention. SGLT-2is are the best choice in patients with HFrEF to improve CV prognosis and HF-related outcomes and also to prevent kidney-related outcomes, and in CKD patients to slow down renal failure and also reduce hospitalization for HF and CV death. In both situations the number of patients to treat in order to prevent such events in one patient is lower than in the general T2D population at high CV risk. GLP1-receptor agonists could be an alternative in a patient who is intolerant or has a contraindication to SGLT-2is. A tight collaboration between diabetologists, nephrologists and cardiologists should be encouraged for a holistic and effective strategy to reduce the burden of cardio-renal-metabolic interaction.

12.
Arch Cardiovasc Dis ; 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33744178

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Management of young adults with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is challenging. AIMS: To evaluate the profile of young adults (16-25 years) with HCM included in the French prospective HCM registry. METHODS: Patients were compared according to occurrence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE), comprising sudden cardiac death (SCD) events (implantable cardioverter defibrillator [ICD] discharge, SCD, sustained ventricular tachycardia), atrial fibrillation/embolic stroke, heart failure hospitalisation and unexplained syncope, at a mean follow-up of 4.4±2.2 years. RESULTS: At baseline, among 61 patients (20.5±3.0 years; 16 women, 26.2%), 13 (21.3%) had a prophylactic ICD, 24.6% a family history of SCD, 29.5% obstruction, 86.0% magnetic resonance imaging myocardial fibrosis, 11.8% abnormal exercise blood pressure and 52.8% a European Society of Cardiology (ESC) 5-year SCD score<4% (24.5%≥6%). At follow-up, 15 patients (24.6%; seven women; all with fibrosis) presented 17 MACE, comprising: SCD events (n=7, 41.2%; including three patients with an ICD, five with at least one SCD major classical risk factor and an ESC score≥5% and two with no risk factors and an ESC score<4%); atrial fibrillation/stroke (n=6, 35.3%); heart failure (n=1, 5.9%); syncope (n=3, 17.6%). An ICD was implanted in 11 patients (four for secondary prevention), but in only 61.5% of patients with a score≥6%. Only obstruction significantly increased MACE risk (odds ratio 3.96; P=0.035), with a non-significant trend towards a lower risk in men (OR 0.29; P=0.065). CONCLUSIONS: In young adults with HCM, MACE are common in the short term, especially in obstructive HCM and women, mostly arrhythmic in origin. Prophylactic ICD implantation is frequent and does not strictly follow the guidelines, while the use of European/USA guidelines is helpful but imperfect in identifying SCD risk.

13.
Am J Cardiol ; 2021 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33753040

RESUMO

Conduction disturbances remain common following transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Aside from high-degree atrioventricular block (HAVB), their optimal management remains elusive. Invasive electrophysiological studies (EPS) may help stratify patients at low or high risk of HAVB allowing for an early discharge or permanent pacemaker (PPM) implantation among patients with conduction disturbances. We evaluated the safety and diagnostic performances of an EPS-guided PPM implantation strategy among TAVI recipients with conduction disturbances not representing absolute indications for PPM. All patients who underwent TAVI at a single expert center from June 2017 to July 2020 who underwent an EPS during the index hospitalization were included in the present study. False negative outcomes were defined as patients discharged without PPM implantation who required PPM for HAVB within 6 months of the initial EPS. False positive outcomes were defined as patients discharged with a PPM with a ventricular pacing percentage <1% at follow-up. A total of 78 patients were included (median age 83.5, 39% female), among whom 35 patients (45%) received a PPM following EPS. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the EPS-guided PPM implantation strategy were 100%, 89.6%, 81.5%, and 100%, respectively. Six patients suffered a mechanical HAVB during EPS and received a PPM. These 6 patients showed PPM dependency at follow-up. In conclusion, an EPS-guided PPM implantation strategy for managing post-TAVI conduction disturbances appears effective to identify patients who can be safely discharged without PPM implantation.

14.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 22(6): e24-e57, 2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33709114

RESUMO

Cardioaortic embolism to the brain accounts for approximately 15-30% of ischaemic strokes and is often referred to as 'cardioembolic stroke'. One-quarter of patients have more than one cardiac source of embolism and 15% have significant cerebrovascular atherosclerosis. After a careful work-up, up to 30% of ischaemic strokes remain 'cryptogenic', recently redefined as 'embolic strokes of undetermined source'. The diagnosis of cardioembolic stroke remains difficult because a potential cardiac source of embolism does not establish the stroke mechanism. The role of cardiac imaging-transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE), cardiac computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-in the diagnosis of potential cardiac sources of embolism, and for therapeutic guidance, is reviewed in these recommendations. Contrast TTE/TOE is highly accurate for detecting left atrial appendage thrombosis in patients with atrial fibrillation, valvular and prosthesis vegetations and thrombosis, aortic arch atheroma, patent foramen ovale, atrial septal defect, and intracardiac tumours. Both CT and MRI are highly accurate for detecting cavity thrombosis, intracardiac tumours, and valvular prosthesis thrombosis. Thus, CT and cardiac magnetic resonance should be considered in addition to TTE and TOE in the detection of a cardiac source of embolism. We propose a diagnostic algorithm where vascular imaging and contrast TTE/TOE are considered the first-line tool in the search for a cardiac source of embolism. CT and MRI are considered as alternative and complementary tools, and their indications are described on a case-by-case approach.

15.
ESC Heart Fail ; 8(3): 1827-1839, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33656803

RESUMO

AIMS: Echocardiographic predictors of outcomes in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) have not been systematically or independently validated. We aimed at identifying echocardiographic predictors of cardiovascular events in a large cohort of patients with HFpEF and to validate these in an independent large cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS: We assessed the association between echocardiographic parameters and cardiovascular outcomes in 515 patients with heart failure with preserved left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (>50%) in the MEtabolic Road to DIAstolic Heart Failure (MEDIA) multicentre study. We validated out findings in 286 patients from the Karolinska-Rennes Prospective Study of HFpEF (KaRen). After multiple adjustments including N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), the significant predictors of death or cardiovascular hospitalization were pulmonary arterial systolic pressure > 40 mmHg, respiratory variation in inferior vena cava diameter > 0.5, E/e' > 9, and lateral mitral annular s' < 7 cm/s. The combination of these four variables differentiated patients with <10% vs. >35% 1 year risk. Adding these four echocardiographic variables on top of clinical variables and NT-proBNP yielded significant net reclassification improvement (33.8%, P < 0.0001) and increase in C-index (5.3%, a change from 72.2% to 77.5%, P = 0.015) of similar magnitude as the addition of NT-proBNP on top of clinical variables alone. In the KaRen cohort, these four variables yielded a similar improvement in net reclassification improvement (22.3%, P = 0.014) and C-index (4.0%, P = 0.029). CONCLUSIONS: Use of four simple echocardiographic parameters (within the MEDIA echo score), indicative of pulmonary hypertension, elevated central venous pressure, LV diastolic dysfunction, and LV long-axis systolic dysfunction, independently predicted prognosis and improved risk stratification additionally to clinical variables and NT-proBNP in HFpEF. This finding was validated in an independent cohort.

17.
Europace ; 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544835

RESUMO

Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is one of the most effective therapies for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and leads to improved quality of life, reductions in heartfailure hospitalization rates and reduces all-cause mortality. Nevertheless, up to two-thirds ofeligible patients are not referred for CRT. Furthermore, post implantation follow-up is oftenfragmented and suboptimal, hampering the potential maximal treatment effect. This jointposition statement from three ESC Associations, HFA, EHRA and EACVI focuses onoptimized implementation of CRT. We offer theoretical and practical strategies to achievemore comprehensive CRT referral and post-procedural care by focusing on four actionabledomains; (I) overcoming CRT under-utilization, (II) better understanding of pre-implantcharacteristics, (III) abandoning the term 'non-response' and replacing this by the concept ofdisease modification, and (IV) implementing a dedicated post-implant CRT care pathway.

18.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 22(5): 471-479, 2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33564848

RESUMO

Percutaneous therapeutic options for an increasing variety of structural heart diseases (SHD) have grown dramatically. Within this context of continuous expansion of devices and procedures, there has been increased demand for physicians with specific knowledge, skills, and advanced training in multimodality cardiac imaging. As a consequence, a new subspecialty of 'Interventional Imaging' for SHD interventions and a new dedicated professional figure, the 'Interventional Imager' with specific competencies has emerged. The interventional imager is an integral part of the heart team and plays a central role in decision-making throughout the patient pathway, including the appropriateness and feasibility of a procedure, pre-procedural planning, intra-procedural guidance, and post-procedural follow-up. However, inherent challenges exist to develop a training programme for SHD imaging that differs from traditional cardiovascular imaging pathways. The purpose of this document is to provide the standard requirements for the training in SHD imaging, as well as a starting point for an official certification process for SHD interventional imager.

19.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 34(5): 483-493, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524492

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mechanisms of improvement of left ventricular (LV) function with cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) are not yet elucidated. The aim of this study was to characterize CRT responder profiles through clustering analysis, on the basis of clinical and echocardiographic preimplantation data, integrating automatic quantification of longitudinal strain signals. METHODS: This was a multicenter observational study of 250 patients with chronic heart failure evaluated before CRT device implantation and followed up to 4 years. Clinical, electrocardiographic, and echocardiographic data were collected. Regional longitudinal strain signals were also analyzed with custom-made algorithms in addition to existing approaches, including myocardial work indices. Response was defined as a decrease of ≥15% in LV end-systolic volume. Death and hospitalization for heart failure at 4 years were considered adverse events. Seventy features were analyzed using a clustering approach (k-means clustering). RESULTS: Five clusters were identified, with response rates between 50% in cluster 1 and 92.7% in cluster 5. These five clusters differed mainly by the characteristics of LV mechanics, evaluated using strain integrals. There was a significant difference in event-free survival at 4 years between cluster 1 and the other clusters. The quantitative analysis of strain curves, especially in the lateral wall, was more discriminative than apical rocking, septal flash, or myocardial work in most phenogroups. CONCLUSIONS: Five clusters are described, defining groups of below-average to excellent responders to CRT. These clusters demonstrate the complexity of LV mechanics and prediction of response to CRT. Automatic quantitative analysis of longitudinal strain curves appears to be a promising tool to improve the understanding of LV mechanics, patient characterization, and selection for CRT.

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