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1.
J Med Chem ; 64(21): 16020-16045, 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34670084

RESUMO

The inhibition of the PD-1/PD-L1 axis by monoclonal antibodies has achieved remarkable success in treating a growing number of cancers. However, a novel class of small organic molecules, with BMS-202 (1) as the lead, is emerging as direct PD-L1 inhibitors. Herein, we report a series of 2,4,6-tri- and 2,4-disubstituted 1,3,5-triazines, which were synthesized and assayed for their PD-L1 binding by NMR and homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence. Among them, compound 10 demonstrated to strongly bind with the PD-L1 protein and challenged it in a co-culture of PD-L1 expressing cancer cells (PC9 and HCC827 cells) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells enhanced antitumor immune activity of the latter. Compound 10 significantly increased interferon γ release and apoptotic induction of cancer cells, with low cytotoxicity in healthy cells when compared to 1, thus paving the way for subsequent preclinical optimization and medical applications.

2.
J Phys Chem B ; 125(36): 10273-10281, 2021 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472354

RESUMO

The excited state proton transfer (ESPT) reaction from the photoacid 8-hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid (HPTS or pyranine) to an acetate molecule has been investigated in explicit aqueous solution via excited state ab initio molecular dynamics simulations based on hybrid quantum/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) potentials. In all the trajectories, the direct proton transfer has been observed in the excited state within 1 ps. We find that the initial structural configuration extracted from the ground state distribution strongly affects the ESPT kinetics. Indeed, the relative orientation of the proton donor-acceptor pair and the presence of a water molecule hydrogen bonded to the phenolic acid group of the pyranine are the key factors to facilitate the ESPT. Furthermore, we analyze the vibrational fingerprints of the ESPT reaction, reproducing the blue shift of the acetate CO stretching (COac), from 1666 to 1763 cm-1 testifying the transformation of acetate to acetic acid. Finally, our findings suggest that the acetate CC stretching (CCac) is also sensitive to the progress of the ESPT reaction. The CCac stretching is indeed ruled by the two vibrational modes (928 and 1426 cm-1), that in the excited state are alternately activated when the proton is shared or bound to the donor/acceptor, respectively.


Assuntos
Sulfonatos de Arila , Prótons , Acetatos , Água
3.
J Phys Chem A ; 125(17): 3569-3578, 2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33900071

RESUMO

In this work, we simulate the excited state proton transfer (ESPT) reaction involving the pyranine photoacid and an acetate molecule as proton acceptor, connected by a bridge water molecule. We employ ab initio molecular dynamics combined with an hybrid quantum/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) framework. Furthermore, a time-resolved vibrational analysis based on the wavelet-transform allows one to identify two low frequency vibrational modes that are fingerprints of the ESPT event: a ring wagging and ring breathing. Their composition suggests their key role in optimizing the structure of the proton donor-acceptor couple and promoting the ESPT event. We find that the choice of the QM/MM partition dramatically affects the photoinduced reactivity of the system. The QM subspace was gradually extended including the water molecules directly interacting with the pyranine-water-acetate system. Indeed, the ESPT reaction takes place when the hydrogen bond network around the reactive system is taken into account at full QM level.

4.
J Chem Theory Comput ; 17(3): 1755-1770, 2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33577311

RESUMO

In the present study, we propose, validate, and give first applications for large-scale systems of coarse-grained models suitable for filler/polymer interfaces based on carbon black (CB) and polyethylene (PE). The computational efficiency of the proposed approach, based on hybrid particle-field models (hPF), allows large-scale simulations of CB primary particles of realistic size (∼20 nm) embedded in PE melts. The molecular detailed models, here introduced, allow a microscopic description of the bound layer, through the analysis of the conformational behavior of PE chains adsorbed on different surface sites of CB primary particles, where the conformational behavior of adsorbed chains is different from models based on flat infinite surfaces. On the basis of the features of the systems, an optimized version of OCCAM code for large-scale (up to more than 8 million of beads) parallel runs is proposed and benchmarked. The computational efficiency of the proposed approach opens the possibility of a computational screening of the bound layer, involving the optimal combination of surface chemistry, size, and shape of CB aggregates and the molecular weight distribution of the polymers achieving an important tool to address the polymer/fillers interface and interphase engineering in the polymer industry.

5.
Front Mol Biosci ; 7: 569990, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33195416

RESUMO

The Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) is a widely studied chemical system both for its large amount of applications and the complexity of the excited state proton transfer responsible of the change in the protonation state of the chromophore. A detailed investigation on the structure of the chromophore environment and the influence of chromophore form (either neutral or anionic) on it is of crucial importance to understand how these factors could potentially influence the protein function. In this study, we perform a detailed computational investigation based on the analysis of ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations, to disentangle the main structural quantities determining the fine balance in the chromophore environment. We found that specific hydrogen bonds interactions directly involving the chromophore (or not), are correlated to quantities, such as the volume of the cavity in which the chromophore is embedded and that it is importantly affected by the chromophore protonation state. The cross-correlation analysis performed on some of these hydrogen bonds and the cavity volume, demonstrates a direct correlation among them and we also identified the ones specifically involved in this correlation. We also found that specific interactions among residues far in the space are correlated, demonstrating the complexity of the chromophore environment and that many structural quantities have to be taken into account to properly describe and understand the main factors tuning the active site of the protein. From an overall evaluation of the results obtained in this work, it is shown that the residues which a priori are perceived to be spectators play instead an important role in both influencing the chromophore environment (cavity volume) and its dynamics (cross-correlations among spatially distant residues).

6.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(39): 22645-22661, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33015693

RESUMO

Vibrational analysis in solution and the theoretical determination of infrared and Raman spectra are of key importance in many fields of chemical interest. Vibrational band dynamics of molecules and their sensitivity to the environment can also be captured by these spectroscopies in their time dependent version. However, it is often difficult to provide an interpretation of the experimental data at the molecular scale, such as molecular mechanisms or the processes hidden behind them. In this work, we present a theoretical-computational protocol based on ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and a combination of normal-like (generalized) mode analysis of solute-solvent clusters with a wavelet transform, for the first time. The case study is the vibrational dynamics of N-methyl-acetamide (NMA) in water solution, a well-known model of hydration of peptides and proteins. Amide modes are typical bands of peptide and protein backbone, and their couplings with the environment are very challenging in terms of the accurate prediction of solvent induced intensity and frequency shifts. The contribution of water molecules surrounding NMA to the composition of generalized and time resolved modes is introduced in our vibrational analysis, showing unequivocally its influence on the amide mode spectra. It is also shown that such mode compositions need the inclusion of the first shell solvent molecules to be accurately described. The wavelet analysis is proven to be strongly recommended to follow the time evolution of the spectra, and to capture vibrational band couplings and frequency shifts over time, preserving at the same time a well-balanced time-frequency resolution. This peculiar feature also allows one to perform a combined structural-vibrational analysis, where the different strengths of hydrogen bond interactions can quantitatively affect the amide bands over time at finite temperature. The proposed method allows for the direct connection between vibrational modes and local structural changes, providing a link from the spectroscopic observable to the structure, in this case the peptide backbone, and its hydration layouts.

7.
J Chem Theory Comput ; 16(10): 6007-6013, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955870

RESUMO

We present a novel time-resolved vibrational analysis for studying photoinduced nuclear relaxation. Generalized modes velocities are defined from ab initio molecular dynamics and wavelet transformed, providing the time localization of vibrational signals in the electronic excited state. The photoexcited pyranine in aqueous solution is presented as a case study. The transient and sequential activation of the simulated vibrational signals is in good agreement with vibrational dynamics obtained from femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy data.

8.
J Comput Chem ; 41(26): 2228-2239, 2020 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770577

RESUMO

Solute-solvent interactions are proxies for understanding how the electronic density of a chromophore interacts with the environment in a more exhaustive way. The subtle balance between polarization, electrostatic, and non-bonded interactions need to be accurately described to obtain good agreement between simulations and experiments. First principles approaches providing accurate configurational sampling through molecular dynamics may be a suitable choice to describe solvent effects on solute chemical-physical properties and spectroscopic features, such as optical absorption of dyes. In this context, accurate energy potentials, obtained by hybrid implicit/explicit solvation methods along with employing nonperiodic boundary conditions, are required to represent bulk solvent around a large solute-solvent cluster. In this work, a novel strategy to simulate methanol solutions is proposed combining ab initio molecular dynamics, a hybrid implicit/explicit flexible solvent model, nonperiodic boundary conditions, and time dependent density functional theory. As case study, the robustness of the proposed protocol has been gauged by investigating the microsolvation and electronic absorption of the anionic green fluorescent protein chromophore in methanol and aqueous solution. Satisfactory results are obtained, reproducing the microsolvation layout of the chromophore and, as a consequence, the experimental trends shown by the optical absorption in different solvents.


Assuntos
Metanol/química , Modelos Químicos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Solventes/química , Água/química , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/química , Solubilidade
9.
J Chem Theory Comput ; 15(1): 43-51, 2019 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30512961

RESUMO

Hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) models are some of the most powerful and computationally feasible approaches to account for solvent effects or more general environmental perturbations on quantum chemical systems. In their more recent formulations (known as polarizable embedding) they can account for electrostatic and mutual polarization effects between the QM and the MM subsystems. In this paper, a polarizable embedding scheme based on induced dipoles that is able both to describe electron evolution of the embedded QM system in an efficient manner as well as to capture the frequency dependent behavior of the solvent is proposed, namely, ωMMPol. The effects of this frequency-dependent solvent on a time-dependent model system-the Rabi oscillations of H2+ in a resonant field-are considered. The solvent is shown to introduce only mild perturbations when the excitation frequencies of the solvent and the solute are off-resonant. However, the dynamics of the H2+ are fundamentally changed in the presence of a near-resonant excitation solvent. The effectiveness of ωMMPol to simulating realistic chemical systems is demonstrated by capturing charge transfer dynamics within a solvated system.

10.
Chem Sci ; 9(5): 1126-1135, 2018 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29675157

RESUMO

We simulated an excited state proton transfer in green fluorescent protein by excited state ab initio dynamics, and examined the reaction mechanism in both the time and the frequency domain through a multi resolution wavelet analysis. This original approach allowed us, for the first time, to directly compare the trends of photoactivated vibrations to femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy results, and to give an unequivocal interpretation of the role played by low frequency modes in promoting the reaction. We could attribute the main driving force of the reaction to an important photoinduced softening of the ring-ring orientational motion of the chromophore, thus permitting the tightening of the hydrogen bond network and the opening of the reaction pathway. We also found that both the chromophore (in terms of its inter-ring dihedral angle and phenolic C-O and imidazolinone C-N bond distances) and its pocket (in terms of the inter-molecular oxygen's dihedral angle of the chromophore pocket) relaxations are modulated by low frequency (about 120 cm-1) modes involving the oxygen atoms of the network. This is in agreement with the femtosecond Raman spectroscopy findings in the time-frequency domain. Moreover, the rate in proximity to the Franck Condon region involves a picosecond time scale, with a significant influence from fluctuations of nearby hydrogen bonded residues such as His148. This approach opens a new scenario with ab initio simulations as routinely used tools to understand photoreactivity and the results of advanced time resolved spectroscopy techniques.

11.
J Mater Chem B ; 6(8): 1207-1215, 2018 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32254181

RESUMO

Synthetic receptors for biomacromolecules lack the supramolecular self-assembly behavior typical of biological systems. Here we propose a new method for the preparation of protein imprinted polymers based on the specific interaction of a peptide multi-functional block with a protein target. This peptide block contains a protein-binding peptide domain, a polymerizable moiety at the C-terminus and an environment-sensitive fluorescent molecule at the N-terminus. The method relies on a preliminary step consisting of peptide/protein supramolecular assembly, followed by copolymerization with the most common acrylate monomers (acrylamide, acrylic acid and bis-acrylamide) to produce a protein imprinted hydrogel polymer. Such a peptide block can function as an active assistant recognition element to improve affinity, and guarantees its effective polymerization at the protein/cavity interface, allowing for proper placement of a dye. As a proof of concept, we chose Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as the protein target and built the peptide block around a BSA binding dodecapeptide, with an allyl group as the polymerizable moiety and a dansyl molecule as the responsive dye. Compared to conventional approaches these hydrogels showed higher affinity (more than 45%) and imprinted sensitivity (about twenty fold) to the target, with a great BSA selectivity with respect to ovalbumin (α = 1.25) and lysozyme (α = 6.02). Upon protein binding, computational and experimental observations showed a blue shift of the emission peak (down to 440 nm) and an increase of fluorescence emission (twofold) and average lifetime (Δτ = 4.3 ns). Such an approach generates recognition cavities with controlled chemical information and represents an a priori method for self-responsive materials. Provided a specific peptide and minimal optimization conditions are used, such a method could be easily implemented for any protein target.

12.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 8(21): 5283-5289, 2017 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28994290

RESUMO

Real-time time-dependent density functional theory (RT-TDDFT) is a powerful tool for obtaining spectroscopic observables and understanding complex, time-dependent properties. Currently, performing RT-TDDFT calculations on large, fully quantum mechanical systems is not computationally feasible. Previously, polarizable mixed quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical (QM/MMPol) models have been successful in providing accurate, yet efficient, approximations to a fully quantum mechanical system. Here we develop a coupling scheme between induced dipole based QM/MMPol and RT-TDDFT. Our approach is validated by comparing calculated spectra with both real-time and linear-response TDDFT calculations. The model developed within provides an accurate method for performing RT-TDDFT calculations on extended systems while accounting for mutual polarization between the quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical regions.

13.
J Chem Theory Comput ; 12(10): 4925-4933, 2016 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27571168

RESUMO

We simulated the intrinsic reaction path of the Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) proton shuttle in both the ground state (S0) and first singlet excited state (S1), accounting for the main energetic and steric effects of the protein in a convenient model including the chromophore, the crystallographic water, and the residues directly involved in the proton transfer event. We adopted density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) levels to define the potential energy surfaces of the two electronic states, and we compared results obtained by the Damped Velocity Verlet and the Hessian-based Predictor-Corrector integrators of the intrinsic reaction coordinate, which gave a comparable and consistent picture of the mechanism. We show that, at S1, the GFP proton transfer becomes favored, with respect to S0, as suggested by the experimental evidence. As an important finding, this change is strictly related to the rearrangement of the hydrogen bond network composing the reaction path, which, in S1, relaxes to a tighter and planar configuration, as a consequence of the photoinduced relaxation in the GFP chromophore structure, thus prompting more effectively for the proton shuttle. Therefore, we give an unprecedented direct proof of the key role played by the photoinduced structural relaxation of the GFP on the chromophore photoacidity, validating, in particular, the hypothesis of Fang and co-workers [Nature 2009, 462, 200].


Assuntos
Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/química , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Modelos Moleculares , Prótons , Teoria Quântica , Termodinâmica , Água/química
14.
J Phys Chem A ; 120(37): 7255-61, 2016 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27571540

RESUMO

The formation of polaron pairs is one of the important photophysical processes that take place after the excitation in semiconducting organic polymers. First-principles Ehrenfest excited-state dynamics is a unique tool to investigate ultrafast photoinduced charge carrier dynamics and related nonequilibrium processes involving correlated electron-nuclear dynamics. In this work the formation of polaron pairs and their dynamical evolution in an oligomer of seven thiophene units is investigated with a combined approach of first-principles exciton-nuclear dynamics and wavelet analysis. The real-time formation of a polaron pair can be observed in the dipole evolution during the excited-state dynamics. The possible driving force of the polaron pair formation is investigated through qualitative correlation between the structural dynamics and the dipole evolution. The time-dependent characteristics and spectroscopic consequences of the polaron pair formation are probed using the wavelet analysis.

15.
J Phys Chem A ; 119(21): 5426-38, 2015 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25699575

RESUMO

We study the absorption and emission electronic spectra in an aqueous solution of N-methyl-6-oxyquinolinium betaine (MQ), an interesting dye characterized by a large change of polarity and H-bond ability between the ground (S0) and the excited (S1) states. To that end we compare alternative approaches based either on explicit solvent models and density functional theory (DFT)/molecular-mechanics (MM) calculations or on DFT calculations on clusters models embedded in a polarizable continuum (PCM). In the first approach (ClMD), the spectrum is computed according to the classical Franck-Condon principle, from the dispersion of the time-dependent (TD)-DFT vertical transitions at selected snapshots of molecular dynamics (MD) on the initial state. In the cluster model (Qst) the spectrum is simulated by computing the quantum vibronic structure, estimating the inhomogeneous broadening from state-specific TD-DFT/PCM solvent reorganization energies. While both approaches provide absorption and emission spectral shapes in nice agreement with experiment, the Stokes shift is perfectly reproduced by Qst calculations if S0 and S1 clusters are selected on the grounds of the MD trajectory. Furthermore, Qst spectra better fit the experimental line shape, mostly in absorption. Comparison of the predictions of the two approaches is very instructive: the positions of Qst and ClMD spectra are shifted due to the different solvent models and the ClMD spectra are narrower than the Qst ones, because MD underestimates the width of the vibrational density of states of the high-frequency modes coupled to the electronic transition. On the other hand, both Qst and ClMD approaches highlight that the solvent has multiple and potentially opposite effects on the spectral width, so that the broadening due to solute-solvent vibrations and electrostatic interaction with bulk solvent is (partially) counterbalanced by a narrowing of the contribution due to the solute vibrational modes. Qst analysis evidences a pure quantum broadening effect of the spectra in water due to vibronic progressions along the solute/solvent H-bonds.


Assuntos
Betaína/química , Modelos Químicos , Modelos Moleculares , Solventes/química , Análise Espectral , Água/química , Simulação por Computador , Gases/química , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Teoria Quântica , Vibração
16.
J Am Chem Soc ; 136(42): 14866-74, 2014 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25243826

RESUMO

The detailed interpretation of time-resolved spectroscopic signals in terms of the molecular rearrangement during a photoreaction or a photophysical event is one of the most important challenges of both experimental and theoretical chemistry. Here we simulate a time-resolved fluorescence spectrum of a dye in aqueous solution, the N-methyl-6-oxyquinolinium betaine, and analyze it in terms of far IR and THz frequency contributions, providing a direct connection to specific molecular motions. To obtain this result, we build up an innovative and general approach based on excited state ab-initio molecular dynamics and a wavelet-based time-dependent frequency analysis of nonstationary signals. We obtain a nice agreement with key parameters of the solvent dynamics, such as the total Stokes shift and the Stokes shift relaxation times. As an important finding, we observe a strong change of specific solute-solvent interactions upon the electronic excitation, with the migration of about 1.5 water molecules from the first solvation shell toward the bulk. In spite of this event, the Stokes shift dynamics is ruled by collective solvent motions in the THz and far IR, which guide and modulate the strong rearrangement of the dye microsolvation. By the relaxation of THz and IR contributions to the emission signal, we can follow and understand in detail the molecularity of the process. The protocol presented here is, in principle, transferable to other time-resolved spectroscopic techniques.


Assuntos
Corantes/química , Raios Infravermelhos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Teoria Quântica , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos , Conformação Molecular , Solventes/química , Água/química
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