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1.
AIDS Care ; : 1-6, 2020 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476442

RESUMO

People who use injection drugs (PWID) experience high rates of HIV acquisition and, as a result of lower rates of optimal access and adherence to combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), experience worse HIV treatment outcomes than other key affected populations. However, the incidence and risk factors for the development of AIDS among HIV-positive PWID have not been completely described. We used data from a community-recruited prospective cohort of HIV-positive PWID in Vancouver, Canada, a setting with universal no-cost ART and a comprehensive clinical monitoring registry. We used multivariable extended Cox models to identify factors associated with time to AIDS. Between 1996 and 2017, 396 participants, including 140 (35.4%) women, were followed for a median of 39.0 months (interquartile range: 16.6-76.2), among whom 165 (41.7%) developed AIDS. In a multivariable model, homelessness (Adjusted Hazard Ratio [AHR] = 1.76 (1.18-2.61)) and injection drug use within the preceding six months (AHR = 1.74 (1.17-2.58)) were independently associated with a higher risk of developing AIDS. Despite widespread scale-up of programmes to improve ART utilization, significant risk factors for the development of AIDS remain among HIV-positive PWID in this setting.

2.
J Econ Entomol ; 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32372093

RESUMO

Methyl bromide (MB) use for quarantine and phytosanitary purposes is being phased out. Several effective MB alternatives have been identified depending on the target system. Industry commitment for the shift to new technologies will depend not only on the efficacy of alternatives but also on their compatibility and integrability into existing operations. We compared the efficacy of MB and ethyl formate (EF) for disinfestation of Planococcus citri (Risso) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) as a representative surface pest on banana and evaluated whether EF fumigation is compatible with the current packaging materials and loading ratio used by the South Korean banana import industry. Fumigation trials with P. citri adults and eggs showed that EF was at least as effective as MB at the EF and MB concentrations recommended under the current phytosanitary disinfestation guidelines. From a logistical standpoint, EF gas could not effectively penetrate plastic bagging typically used in banana cartons during commercial shipping. Also, EF sorption to bananas and packing materials (used as cushioning inside bagging) further lowered realized EF concentrations around bananas. These reductions in EF concentration translated into reduced mortality of P. citri eggs, indicating that despite similar efficacy of MB and EF for controlling P. citri, further consideration and optimization of other industry logistics such as packaging and loading ratio is necessary to enhance the adoption of this MB alternative.

3.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(0): E065, 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32397698

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate a cluster epidemic of COVID-19 after a mass gathering activity in Ningbo of Zhejiang province and analyze the transmission chain and status of infection cases of different generations. Methods: The tracking of all the close contacts of the first COVID-19 case and epidemiological investigation were conducted on January 29, 2020 after a cluster epidemic of COVID-19 related with a Buddhism rally on January 19 (the 1.19 rally) in Ningbo occurred. The swabs of nose/throat of the cases and close contacts were collected and tested for nucleic acids by real-time fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR. Results: From January 26 to February 20, 2020, a total of 67 COVID-19 cases and 15 asymptomatic infection cases related with the 1.19 rally were reported in Ningbo. The initial case was the infection source who infected 29 second generation cases and 4 asymptomatic infection cases, in whom 23 second generation cases and 3 asymptomatic infection cases once took bus with the initial case, the attack rate was 33.82% (23/68) and the infection rate was 38.24% (26/68). The risks of suffering from COVID-19 and being infected were 28.91 times and 26.01 times higher in rally participants taking bus with initial case compared with those taking no bus with initial case. In this epidemic, 37 third+ generation cases and 11 related asymptomatic infection cases occurred, the attack rate was 2.88% (37/1 283) and the infection rate was 4.76% (48/1 008). The main transmission routes included vehicle sharing and family transmission. Conclusion: It was a cluster epidemic of COVID-19 caused by a super spreader in a massive rally. The epidemic has been under effective control.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32427721

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV-infected (HIV+) donor to HIV+ recipient (HIV D+/R+) transplantation might improve access to transplantation for people living with HIV (PLWH). However, it remains unknown if transplant candidates living with HIV will accept the currently unknown risks of HIV D+/R+ transplantation. METHODS: We surveyed transplant candidates living with HIV from nine U.S. transplant centers regarding willingness to accept HIV+ donor organs. RESULTS: Among 116 participants, the median age was 55, 68% were male, and 78% were African American. Most were willing to accept HIV+ living donor organs (87%), HIV+ deceased donors (84%), and increased infectious risk donors (70%). Some (30%) were concerned about HIV superinfection; even among these respondents, 71% were willing to accept an HIV D+ organ.Respondents from centers that had already performed a transplant under an HIV D+/R+ transplantation research protocol were more willing to accept HIV+ deceased donor organs (89% vs. 71%, p=0.04). Respondents who chose not to enroll in an HIV D+/R+ transplantation research protocol were less likely to believe that HIV D+/R+ transplantation was safe (45% vs. 77%, p=0.02), and that HIV D+ organs would work similarly to HIV D- organs (55% vs. 77%, p=0.04), but more likely to believe they would receive an infection other than HIV from an HIV D+ organ (64% vs. 13%, p<0.01). CONCLUSION: Willingness to accept HIV D+ organs among transplant candidates living with HIV does not appear be a major barrier to HIV D+/R+ transplantation and may increase with growing HIV D+/R+ transplantation experience.

5.
Science ; 368(6492): 767-771, 2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32409475

RESUMO

Understanding quantum interferences is essential to the study of chemical reaction dynamics. Here, we provide an interesting case of quantum interference between two topologically distinct pathways in the H + HD → H2 + D reaction in the collision energy range between 1.94 and 2.21 eV, manifested as oscillations in the energy dependence of the differential cross section for the H2 (v' = 2, j' = 3) product (where v' is the vibrational quantum number and j' is the rotational quantum number) in the backward scattering direction. The notable oscillation patterns observed are attributed to the strong quantum interference between the direct abstraction pathway and an unusual roaming insertion pathway. More interestingly, the observed interference pattern also provides a sensitive probe of the geometric phase effect at an energy far below the conical intersection in this reaction, which resembles the Aharonov-Bohm effect in physics, clearly demonstrating the quantum nature of chemical reactivity.

6.
J Biol Chem ; 295(20): 7003-7017, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32273342

RESUMO

Cholelithiasis is one of the most prevalent gastroenterological diseases and is characterized by the formation of gallstones in the gallbladder. Both clinical and preclinical data indicate that obesity, along with comorbidity insulin resistance, is a predisposing factor for cholelithiasis. Forkhead box O1 (FoxO1) is a key transcription factor that integrates insulin signaling with hepatic metabolism and becomes deregulated in the insulin-resistant liver, contributing to dyslipidemia in obesity. To gain mechanistic insights into how insulin resistance is linked to cholelithiasis, here we determined FoxO1's role in bile acid homeostasis and its contribution to cholelithiasis. We hypothesized that hepatic FoxO1 deregulation links insulin resistance to impaired bile acid metabolism and cholelithiasis. To address this hypothesis, we used the FoxO1LoxP/LoxP-Albumin-Cre system to generate liver-specific FoxO1-knockout mice. FoxO1-knockout mice and age- and sex-matched WT littermates were fed a lithogenic diet, and bile acid metabolism and gallstone formation were assessed in these animals. We showed that FoxO1 affected bile acid homeostasis by regulating hepatic expression of key enzymes in bile acid synthesis and in biliary cholesterol and phospholipid secretion. Furthermore, FoxO1 inhibited hepatic expression of the bile acid receptor farnesoid X receptor and thereby counteracted hepatic farnesoid X receptor signaling. Nonetheless, hepatic FoxO1 depletion neither affected the onset of gallstone disease nor impacted the disease progression, as FoxO1-knockout and control mice of both sexes had similar gallstone weights and incidence rates. These results argue against the notion that FoxO1 is a link between insulin resistance and cholelithiasis.

7.
Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi ; 36(3): 224-233, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241049

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the transcriptional regulation mechanism of transforming growth factor ß(1) (TGF-ß(1)) on Meox1 and its effect on cell migration of adult human dermal fibroblasts (HDF-a). Methods: (1) HDF-a cells were cultured in RPMI 1640 complete medium (hereinafter referred to as routinely cultured). The cells were divided into TGF-ß(1) stimulation group and blank control group. The cells in TGF-ß(1) stimulation group were stimulated with 10 µL TGF-ß(1) in the mass concentration of 1 mg/µL, while the cells in blank control group were stimulated with the equal volume of phosphate buffer solution. After 72 hours in culture, partial cells in both groups were collected for transcriptome sequencing. The genes with differential expression ratio greater than or equal to 2 and P<0.01 between the two groups were selected to perform enrichment analysis and analysis of metabolic pathways of the Kyoto Gene and Genome Encyclopedia with, and the expression value of Meox1 per million transcripts (TPM) was recorded (n=3). Partial cells from the two groups were used to detect the Meox1 mRNA expression by real-time fluorescent quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) (n=3). (2) Cultured HDF-a cells in the logarithmic growth phase (the same growth phase of cells below) were divided into empty plasmid group, Smad2 overexpression (OE) group, Smad3 OE group, and Smad4 OE group, which were transfected respectively with 2 µg empty pcDNA3.1 plasmid and pcDNA3.1 plasmids separately carrying Smad2, Smad3, and Smad4 for 6 hours, and then were routinely cultured for 48 hours. The Meox1 mRNA expression in the transfected cells of each group was detected by real-time fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR (n=3). (3) HDF-a cells were routinely cultured and grouped the same as in experiment (1). After 72 hours in culture, the enrichment of Smad2, Smad3, and Smad4 protein on the Meox1 promoter in the cells of each group was detected by chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative PCR (ChIP-qPCR) (n=3). (4) HDF-a cells were routinely cultured and divided into negative interference group, small interference RNA (siRNA)-Smad2 group, siRNA-Smad3 group, siRNA-Smad4 group, empty plasmid group, Smad2 OE group, Smad3 OE group, and Smad4 OE group, which were transfected respectively with 50 µmol/L random siRNA, siRNA-Smad2, siRNA-Smad3, siRNA-Smad4, 2 µg empty pcDNA3.1 plasmid and pcDNA3.1 plasmids separately carrying Smad2, Smad3, and Smad4 for 6 hours and then routinely cultured for 48 hours. The enrichment of Smad2, Smad3, and Smad4 protein on the Meox1 promoter in the cells of corresponding group was detected by ChIP-qPCR (n=3). (5) Two batches of HDF-a cells were cultured and divided into negative interference group, siRNA-Meox1 group, empty plasmid group, and Meox1 OE group, which were transfected respectively with 50 µmol/L random siRNA, siRNA-Meox1, 2 µg empty pcDNA3.1 plasmid and pcDNA3.1 plasmid carrying Meox1 for 6 hours and then routinely cultured for 24 hours. One batch of cells were subjected to scratch test with the scratch width being observed 24 hours after scratching and compared with the initial width for scratch wound healing; the other batch of cells were subjected to Transwell assay, in which the migrated cells were counted after being routinely cultured for 24 hours (n=3). (6) From January 2018 to June 2019, 3 hypertrophic scar patients (2 males and 1 female, aged 35-56 years) were admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Army Medical University (the Third Military Medical University) 8-12 months after burns. The scar tissue and normal skin tissue along the scar margin resected during surgery were taken, and immunohistochemical staining was performed to observe the distribution of Meox1 protein expression. Data were statistically analyzed with one-way analysis of variance and independent sample t test. Results: (1) After 72 hours in culture, a total of 843 genes were obviously differentially expressed between the two groups, being related to tissue repair, cell migration, inflammatory cell chemotaxis induction process and potential signaling pathways such as tumor necrosis factor, interleukin 17, extracellular matrix receptor. The TPM value of Meox1 in the cells of blank control group was 45.9±1.9, which was significantly lower than 163.1±29.5 of TGF-ß(1) stimulation group (t=6.88, P<0.01) with RNA-sequencing. After 72 hours in culture, the Meox1 mRNA expression levels in the cells of blank control group was 1.00±0.21, which was significantly lower than 11.00±3.61 of TGF-ß(1) stimulation group (t=4.79, P<0.01). (2) After 48 hours in culture, the Meox1 mRNA expression levels in the cells of Smad2 OE group, Smad3 OE group, and Smad4 OE group were 198.70±11.02, 35.47±4.30, 20.27±2.50, respectively, which were significantly higher than 1.03±0.19 of empty plasmid group (t=31.07, 13.80, 13.12, P<0.01). (3) After 72 hours in culture, the enrichment of Smad2, Smad3, and Smad4 protein on the promoter of Meox1 in the cells of TGF-ß(1) stimulation group was significantly higher than that of blank control group respectively (t=12.99, 41.47, 29.10, P<0.01). (4) After 48 hours in culture, the enrichment of Smad2 protein on the promoter of Meox1 in the cells of negative interference group was (0.200 000±0.030 000)%, significantly higher than (0.000 770±0.000 013)% of siRNA-Smad2 group (t=11.67, P<0.01); the enrichment of Smad2 protein on the promoter of Meox1 in the cells of empty plasmid group was (0.200 000±0.040 000)%, significantly lower than (0.700 000±0.090 000)% of Smad2 OE group (t=8.85, P<0.01). The enrichment of Smad3 protein on the promoter of Meox1 in the cells of negative interference group was (0.500 0±0.041 3)%, significantly higher than (0.006 0±0.001 3)% of siRNA-Smad3 group (t=17.79, P<0.01); the enrichment of Smad3 protein on the promoter of Meox1 in the cells of empty plasmid group was (0.470 0±0.080 0)%, which was significantly lower than (1.100 0±0.070 0)% of Smad3 OE group (t=9.93, P<0.01). The enrichment of Smad4 protein on the promoter of Meox1 in the cells of negative interference group was similar to that of siRNA-Smad4 group (t=2.11, P>0.05); the enrichment of Smad4 protein on the promoter of Meox1 in the cells of empty plasmid group was similar to that of Smad4 OE group (t=0.60, P>0.05). (5) Twenty-four hours after scratching, the scratch healing width of cells in siRNA-Meox1 group was narrower than that of negative interference group, while that of Meox1 OE group was wider than that of empty plasmid group. After 24 hours in culture, the number of migration cells in negative interference group was significantly higher than that in siRNA-Meox1 group (t=9.12, P<0.01), and that in empty plasmid group was significantly lower than that in Meox1 OE group (t=8.99, P<0.01). (6) The expression of Meox1 protein in the scar tissue was significantly higher than that in normal skin of patients with hypertrophic scars. Conclusions: TGF-ß(1) transcriptionally regulates Meox1 expression via Smad2/3 in HDF-a cells, thus promoting cell migration.


Assuntos
Movimento Celular , Cicatriz Hipertrófica , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Homeodomínio , Fatores de Transcrição , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Adulto , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta
8.
Nanotechnology ; 31(26): 265602, 2020 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32301441

RESUMO

Coupling of plasmonic nanostructures and semiconductors gives promising hybrid nanostructures that can be used in different applications such as photosensing and energy conversion. In this report, we describe an approach for fabricating a new hybrid material by coupling a gold nanorod (Au NR) core and amorphous molybdenum sulfide (MoSx) shell. The Au NR/MoSx core-shell structure is achieved by exploiting the hot electrons generated in the plasmonic excitation of Au NRs to drive the reduction of [MoS4]2-, which is pre-adsorbed on the Au NR surface, producing a thin MoSx layer. This approach allows us to control the thickness of the MoSx coating layer on the Au NR surface. The resultant Au NR/MoSx hybrid is characterized by absorption spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy elemental mapping, x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

9.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(15): 8203-8211, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32249871

RESUMO

We report an accurate full-dimensional potential energy surface (PES) of the anion-molecule system OH3-. The PES was constructed by fitting 55 406 ab inito energies from the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory with the fundamental invariant neural network (FI-NN) approach, resulting in an extremely small fitting error of 0.52 meV. Extensive quasiclassical trajectory (QCT) simulations were carried out on the PES to investigate the proton transfer dynamics (OH- + D2 → D- + HOD). The product D- translational energy distribution and angular distribution were calculated and compared with previous experimental measurements, in which reasonably good agreement has been achieved. The angular distribution at a high collision energy exhibits an exclusively forward scattering peak, indicating the direct stripping mechanism at high energies. With the decrease of the collision energy, the reaction shows a predominantly forward scattering feature, with very small sideways and backward scattering amplitudes, revealing combined mechanisms from direct abstraction with a short reaction time and a complex-forming process with a long reaction time.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32277024

RESUMO

It has long been predicted that oscillatory behavior exists in reactivity as a function of collision energy for heavy-light-heavy (HLH) chemical reactions in which a light atom is transferred between two heavy atoms or groups of atoms, but direct observation of such a behavior in bimolecular reactions remains a challenge. Here we report a joint theoretical and crossed-molecular-beam study on the Cl + CH4 → HCl + CH3 reaction. A distinctive peak at a collision energy of 0.15 eV for the CH3(v = 0) product was experimentally detected in the backward scattering direction. Detailed quantum-dynamics calculations on a highly accurate potential energy surface revealed that this feature originates from the reactivity oscillation in this HLH polyatomic reaction. We anticipate that such reactivity oscillations exist in many HLH reactions involving polyatomic reagents.

11.
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 36(1): 35-40, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32250076

RESUMO

Abstract: Objective To analyze the differences among electrical damage, burns and abrasions in pig skin using Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIR-MSP) combined with machine learning algorithm, to construct three kinds of skin injury determination models and select characteristic markers of electric injuries, in order to provide a new method for skin electric mark identification. Methods Models of electrical damage, burns and abrasions in pig skin were established. Morphological changes of different injuries were examined using traditional HE staining. The FTIR-MSP was used to detect the epidermal cell spectrum. Principal component method and partial least squares method were used to analyze the injury classification. Linear discriminant and support vector machine were used to construct the classification model, and factor loading was used to select the characteristic markers. Results Compared with the control group, the epidermal cells of the electrical damage group, burn group and abrasion group showed polarization, which was more obvious in the electrical damage group and burn group. Different types of damage was distinguished by principal component and partial least squares method. Linear discriminant and support vector machine models could effectively diagnose different damages. The absorption peaks at 2 923 cm-1, 2 854 cm-1, 1 623 cm-1, and 1 535 cm-1 showed significant differences in different injury groups. The peak intensity of electrical injury's 2 923 cm-1 absorption peak was the highest. Conclusion FTIR-MSP combined with machine learning algorithm provides a new technique to diagnose skin electrical damage and identification electrocution.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Animais , Análise de Fourier , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Suínos
12.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 91(3): 035112, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32259925

RESUMO

A towed Overhauser marine geomagnetic magnetometer used for weak magnetic anomaly detection in severe ocean conditions is studied to investigate means to reduce the negative effect of dynamic behavior and magnetic noise associated with ocean waves. For the dynamic effect, a continuous polarization workflow is proposed to enhance the free-induction-decay signal, and then, a multi-angle pickup coil and a self-tracking programmable amplifier are used to further reduce the adverse effect caused by uncontrollable changes in the towfish attitude on the signal quality. Furthermore, to achieve adaptive suppression of magnetic noise in different ocean conditions and areas, a modified adaptive Kalman algorithm is assessed. In addition, an optimized Overhauser sensor and a towfish were developed. Overall, the experimental results show that the sensor can effectively suppress the dynamic effect and magnetic noise. Regarding the magnetic sensitivity, uncertainty and range are 12 pT/Hz1/2@1Hz and 0.21 nT and 20 000 nT-100 000 nT, respectively. Moreover, underwater testing was performed to verify the function and the detection of the magnetic anomaly.

13.
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi ; 56(4): 258-265, 2020 Apr 11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32306617

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the characteristics of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in AIDS patients with normal fundus, HIV-related microvascular retinopathy (MVR), and cytomegalovirus retinitis (CMVR). Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 111 patients were diagnosed with AIDS from 2012 to 2017 by infectious disease physicians in Beijing You'an Hospital. There were 105 males and 6 females, aged 20-65 years. According to the results of ophthalmic examination, the patients were divided into three groups: 31 patients in the active-stage CMVR group, 47 patients in the MVR group, and 33 patients with normal fundus in the control group. RNFL thickness was measured by optical coherence tomography in all patients. At the same time, visual acuity, intraocular pressure, and fundus were examined, and AIDS-related systemic examination (CD4(+) T lymphocyte count, HAART treatment status, and blood cytomegalovirus DNA level) was performed. The measurement data were compared by t-test, variance analysis or rank sum test. The counting data were compared by chi square test or Fisher exact probability method. Results: In the control group, the thickness of RNFL in the superior quadrant in the left and right eyes was 145 (79, 231) µm and 142 (46, 179) µm, respectively; the difference was statistically significant (Z=-2.481, P=0.013). The RNFL thickness of the diseased and healthy eyes in the MVR group was 116 (91, 138) µm and 122 (82, 192) µm, respectively, with no significant difference (Z=-0.861, P=0.389); the best corrected visual acuity was 0.0 (0.0, 0.2) and 0.0 (0.0, 0.2), respectively, with no significant difference (Z=-0.378, P=0.705). In the CMVR group, the best corrected visual acuity of the diseased and healthy eyes was (0.23±0.48) and (0.02±0.82), respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (t=-2.944, P=0.003); the RNFL thickness was 133 (61, 219) µm and 121 (69, 146), respectively, in the whole optic disc, with statistically significant difference (Z=-2.385, P=0.017), 104 (41, 374) µm and 82 (55, 121) µm, respectively, in the nasal quadrant, and 99 (14, 173) µm and 72 (36, 111) µm, respectively, in the temporal quadrant, with statistically significant difference (Z=-2.045, -2.543; P=0.041, 0.011). The RNFL thickness in the CMVR group, the MVR group, and the control group was 149 (61, 350) µm, 126 (71, 304) µm, and 113 (87, 149) µm, respectively, with statistically significant difference (H=20.908, P=0.000). Conclusions: The fundus of AIDS patients had different characteristics on optical coherence tomography. In active CMVR patients, the thickness of RNFL was generally thickened. In MVR patients, the average thickness of RNFL was thicker than that in the normal control group.(Chin J Ophthalmol, 2020, 56:258-265).

14.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(4): 1593-1601, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141525

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Lid wiper epitheliopathy (LWE) has received more attention during the diagnosis and treatment of the dry eye. However, its causes and pathogenesis remain unclear. We aimed to explore the etiology of LWE by analyzing the association between the severity of LWE and different anatomical and tissue morphological examination characteristics using confocal microscopy on eyes with dry eye syndrome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We recruited 350 patients with LWE and dry eye syndrome (350 eyes). We examined the eyes with lid-wiper staining, conjunctival staining, a comprehensive ocular surface exam using the OCULUS keratography 5M, conjunctival impression cytology, and confocal microscopy observations. We analyzed the associations between each indicator and the LWE staining score. RESULTS: According to the Spearman's analysis, the LWE staining score was weakly associated with thickness of the lipid layer (r=0.1737, p=0.0005) and severity of Meibomian gland dysfunction (r=0.2026, p<0.0001); and strongly associated with staging of conjunctival impression cytology (r= -0.7694, p<0.0001). Pearson's correlation analysis indicated that, LWE staining score was moderately associated with age (r=0.4165, p<0.0001), tear meniscus height (r=0 -0.4019, p<0.0001), and NIKBUT-first (noninvasive keratography tear film breakup time) (r= -0.5108, p<0.0001); and strongly associated with NIKBUT-average (r= -0.7820, p<0.0001) and ocular staining score (r=0.6113, p<0.00001). Some patients presented abnormal blinking. We observed deeper lesion depths and more holes and fissures in the lid wipers of patients with more severe LWE than in patients with milder LWE. CONCLUSIONS: Abnormal friction factors caused by insufficient lubrication between the lid wiper area and the ocular surface seem to influence the development and/or the severity of LWE. Aggravation of LWE further increases the frictional damage between the lid wiper and the ocular surface.

15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32185925

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of two phenotypes of Paragonimus westermani isolated from Fujian Province with different sizes of metacercariae, and perform a phylogenetic analysis of various geographical isolates of P. westermani from Asia, so as to identify the possible genetic characteristics associated with the P. westermani phenotypes. METHODS: P. westermani metacercariae with different sizes (large metacercariae, 380-420 µm in diameter; small metacercariae, 320-340 µm) isolated from freshwater crabs were used to infect dogs, and the eggs and adult worms of P. westermani were collected from the dog stool samples and lung tissues. Then, the egg size and morphology were compared. In addition, genomic DNA was extracted from the adult worms of the two phenotypes of P. westermani and used for the PCR amplification to yield the complete mitochondrial genome sequence. Sequence structure and phylogenetic analyses were performed based on the complete mitochondrial genome of P. westermani. RESULTS: Following infection with large and small P. westermani metacercariae, the adult worms recovered from the dog lung had a thick body, and had oral and ventral suckers. The ventral sucker was located slightly in front of the midline of the body, and testes, ovary and vitelline gland were seen in the adult worms. Following fixation, the adults appeared oval, with an approximately 1.7∶1 of the length-width ratio. The length and width of the eggs isolated from the fecal samples of dogs infected with large and small P. westermani metacercariae varied significantly, and the large metacercariae produced bigger eggs than the smaller metacercariae. Based on the morphological features of adults and eggs and the ITS2 sequences, both phenotypes were identified as P. westermani. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence analysis of adults showed almost consistent sequences in the protein-coding region of the mitochondrial genome of adult worms derived from large and small metacercariae, with a major variation seen in the former non-coding region. Sliding window analysis revealed the most polymorphic region within the ND4 gene across the mitochondrial genome from various geographical isolates of P. westermani, and phylogenetic analysis showed that both phenotypes were clustered into the Chinese branch of P. westermani, which was close to the Japanese branch and distinct from the South/Southeast Asian branch. CONCLUSIONS: The genetic distance between the phenotypes of P. westermani isolated from Fujian Province is near at a mitochondrial genome level, with no remarkable genetic differentiation seen; however, the mutation and structural changes in the non-coding region may result in the phenotypic variations. In addition, there is a distinct variation of the evolutionary rate in the mitochondrial coding genes, suggesting the selection of appropriate molecular markers during the phylogenic researches.


Assuntos
Genoma Mitocondrial , Paragonimus westermani , Filogenia , Animais , Ásia , China , DNA de Helmintos/genética , Cães , Feminino , Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Paragonimus westermani/classificação , Paragonimus westermani/genética
16.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 43(2): 136-139, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062884

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the effect of a breathing trainer on relieving the peak airway pressure caused by forced exhalation at the end of deep inspiration, gentle coughing at the end of calm inspiration and forced coughing at the end of deep inspiration in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. Methods: From July to September 2018, 15 patients undergoing mechanical ventilation were selected from the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, including 5 patients with invasive ventilation (3 with tracheotomy and 2 with endotracheal intubation), and 10 patients with non-invasive ventilation through mask. The patients included 14 males and 1 female, aging 48-79 years, with an average age of (68±10) years. A Breathing Trainer developed by both Dongguan Yongsheng Medical Products Co., Ltd. and Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Health was used to relieve the peak airway pressure. A one-way expiratory valve connected with a spring at the expiratory end of the Breathing Trainer was not opened until the pressure inside the airway was higher than 20 cmH(2)O (1 cmH(2)O=0.098 kPa), and opened completely when the pressure was higher than 35 cmH(2)O. Both before and after the Breathing Trainer was connected to the respiratory circuit, the patients were asked to exhale hard at the end of deep inspiration, to cough gently at the end of calm inspiration and to cough forcefully at the end of deep inspiration and the airway pressure were measured respectively. Each action was tested 3 times, and the interval time of each test was 1 min, and the interval of each action was 10 min. Results: Among the patients with tracheotomy or endotracheal intubation for invasive mechanical ventilation, when the patients exhaled hard at the end of deep inspiration,coughed gently at the end of gentle inspiration and coughed forcefully at the end of deep inspiration, the peak airway pressure measured before the ventilation circuit was connected to the Breathing Trainer was (30.0±4.5), (31.4±5.0) and (34.9±5.0)cmH(2)O, respectively, which was significantly higher than that after the ventilation circuit was connected to the Breathing Trainer(26.3±2.9), (26.7±3.5) and (29.0±4.1) cmH(2)O (all P<0.01). Among the patients with non-invasive mechanical ventilation wearing face masks, when the patients exhaled hard at the end of deep inspiration, coughed gently at the end of gentle inspiration and coughed forcefully at the end of deep inspiration, the peak airway pressure was (17.7±1.9), (16.6±2.5) and (18.9±2.5) respectively, before the ventilation circuit was connected to the Breathing Trainer, and was (18.9±2.5), (16.3±1.9) and (18.8±2.0) cmH(2)O respectively, after the ventilation circuit was connected to the Breathing Trainer. There was no significant difference between them (P>0.05). Conclusion: The application of Breathing Trainer in the mechanical ventilation circuit of tracheotomy or endotracheal intubation could significantly reduce the peak airway pressure caused by hard exhalation and cough. It could be used as an active cough assist device for mechanical ventilation patients to prevent high airway pressure.


Assuntos
Tosse/complicações , Intubação Intratraqueal , Pico do Fluxo Expiratório/fisiologia , Respiração Artificial , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Respiração com Pressão Positiva , Respiração
17.
Ann Intern Med ; 172(6): 369-380, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066146

RESUMO

Background: Low-dose methotrexate (LD-MTX) is the most commonly used drug for systemic rheumatic diseases worldwide and is the recommended first-line agent for rheumatoid arthritis. Despite extensive clinical use for more than 30 years, few data on adverse event (AE) rates derive from randomized, placebo-controlled trials, where both causality and magnitude of risk can be inferred. Objective: To investigate AE rates, risk, and risk differences comparing LD-MTX versus placebo. Design: Prespecified secondary analyses of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01594333). Setting: North America. Participants: Adults with known cardiovascular disease and diabetes or metabolic syndrome. Intervention: Random allocation to LD-MTX (≤20 mg/wk) or placebo. All participants received folic acid, 1 mg/d, 6 days per week. Measurements: Risks for specific AEs of interest, as well as for all AEs, were compared across treatment groups after blinded adjudication. Results: After an active run-in period, 6158 patients were enrolled and 4786 randomly assigned to a group; median follow-up was 23 months and median dosage 15 mg/wk. Among the randomly assigned participants, 81.2% were male, median age was 65.7 years, and median body mass index was 31.5 kg/m2. Of 2391 participants assigned to LD-MTX, 2080 (87.0%) had an AE of interest, compared with 1951 of 2395 (81.5%) assigned to placebo (hazard ratio [HR], 1.17 [95% CI, 1.10 to 1.25]). The relative hazards of gastrointestinal (HR, 1.91 [CI, 1.75 to 2.10]), pulmonary (HR, 1.52 [CI, 1.16 to 1.98]), infectious (HR, 1.15 [CI, 1.01 to 1.30]), and hematologic (HR, 1.15 [CI, 1.07 to 1.23]) AEs were elevated for LD-MTX versus placebo. With the exception of increased risk for skin cancer (HR, 2.05 [CI, 1.28 to 3.28]), the treatment groups did not differ in risk for other cancer or mucocutaneous, neuropsychiatric, or musculoskeletal AEs. Renal AEs were reduced in the LD-MTX group (HR, 0.85 [CI, 0.78 to 0.93]). Limitation: The trial was done in patients without rheumatic disease who tolerated LD-MTX during an active run-in period. Conclusion: Use of LD-MTX was associated with small to moderate elevations in risks for skin cancer and gastrointestinal, infectious, pulmonary, and hematologic AEs, whereas renal AEs were decreased. Primary Funding Source: National Institutes of Health.

18.
Am J Transplant ; 2020 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32090413

RESUMO

The extent to which donor multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) affect organ utilization remains unclear. We performed a retrospective cohort study at 4 transplant centers between 2015 and 2016 to evaluate this question. All deceased donors who donated at least one organ were included. Exposed donors had at least one MDRO on culture. Unexposed donors had no MDRO-positive cultures. Only cultures obtained during the donor's terminal hospitalization were evaluated. Multivariable regression was used to determine the association between donor MDRO and (1) number of organs transplanted per donor and (2) the match run at which each organ was accepted. Subsequently, we restricted the analysis to donors with MDR-Gram-negative (GN) organisms. Of 440 total donors, 29 (7%) donors grew MDROs and 7 (2%) grew MDR-GNs. There was no significant association between donor MDRO and either measure of organ utilization. However, donor MDR-GNs were associated with a significant reduction in the number of organs transplanted per donor (incidence rate ratio 0.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.39-0.48, P < .01), and organs were accepted significantly further down the match list (relative count 5.08, 95% CI 1.64-15.68, P = .01). Though donor MDR-GNs were infrequent in our study, their growing prevalence could meaningfully reduce the donor pool over time.

19.
J Phys Chem A ; 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050071

RESUMO

The dynamics of microhydrated nucleophilic substitution reactions have been studied using crossed beam velocity map imaging experiments and quasiclassical trajectory simulations at different collision energies between 0.3 and 2.6 eV. For F-(H2O) reacting with CH3I, a small fraction of hydrated product ions I-(H2O) is observed at low collision energies. This product, as well as the dominant I-, is formed predominantly through indirect reaction mechanisms. In contrast, a much smaller indirect fraction is determined for the unsolvated reaction. At the largest studied collision energies, the solvated reaction is found to also occur via a direct rebound mechanism. The measured product angular distributions exhibit an overall good agreement with the simulated angular distributions. Besides nucleophilic substitution, also ligand exchange reactions forming F-(CH3I) and, at high collision energies, proton transfer reactions are detected. The differential scattering images reveal that the Cl-(H2O) + CH3I reaction also proceeds predominantly via indirect reaction mechanisms.

20.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 11(3): 851-855, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944117

RESUMO

Infrared (IR) spectroscopy provides detailed structural and dynamical information on clusters at the fingerprint level. Herein, we demonstrate the capability of a tunable vacuum ultraviolet free electron laser (VUV-FEL) for selective detection of a wide variety of neutral water clusters and for recording the size-dependent IR spectra. The present technique does not require the presence of an ultraviolet chromophore or a dipole moment and is generally applicable for IR spectroscopy of neutral clusters free from confinement. To show the features of our technique, we report here the IR spectra of neutral water dimer in the OH stretch region, providing benchmarks for theoretical study of the accurate description of hydrogen bonding structures involved in liquid water and ice. Quantum mechanical calculations on a 12-dimensional ab initio potential energy surface are utilized to simulate the anharmonic vibrational spectra of water dimer. These results help to resolve the controversy of the exact vibrational assignment of each band feature of the water dimer.

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