Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 494
Filtrar
1.
Food Chem ; 371: 131131, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563966

RESUMO

Sea urchin (class Echinoidea) gonads are a prized delicacy in Japan and many other world cultures. The complexity of its fatty acid (FA) profile, particularly minor FA, presents a formidable analytical challenge. We applied solvent mediated (SM) covalent adduct chemical ionization (CACI) tandem mass spectrometry to comprehensive de novo structural and quantitative characterization of the FA profile of Gulf of Mexico Atlantic sea urchin (Arbacia punctulata). >100 FA were detected including many with unusual double bond structure. Gulf sea urchin gonad lipids are rich in Δ5 monounsaturated FA 20:1(5Z) at 2.7% and the polymethylene-interrupted (PMI) diene 20:2(5Z,11Z) at 4.9%, as well as common omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 5Z, 8Z, 11Z, 14Z, 17Z) at 9.8%±3.1% and arachidonic acid (AA; 5Z, 8Z, 11Z, 14Z) at 6.1%±2.1%. We propose plausible desaturation/elongation-based biochemical pathways for the endogenous production of unusual unsaturates. Unusual unsaturates may modify mammalian signaling and present novel bioactivities.


Assuntos
Arbacia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Animais , Ácidos Graxos , Golfo do México , Espectrometria de Massas , Ouriços-do-Mar , Solventes
2.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 1): 131932, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455122

RESUMO

Efficient elimination of fluoride from wastewater is an urgent need for ensuring water safety. In the present study, a stable and reusable nanocomposite (NCO@PAE) was synthesized by impregnating nanosized cerium oxides (NCO) inside a porous polystyrene anion exchanger (PAE) host for efficient fluoride removal from wastewater. The newly fabricated NCO@PAE exhibited excellent resistance to acid and alkali environment, allowing it to be utilized in a wide pH range (2-12). Fluoride uptake onto NCO@PAE was a pH-dependent process, which could reach the maximum capacity at pH 3.0. Compared with its host PAE, NCO@PAE showed conspicuous adsorption affinity towards fluoride in the coexistence of other competing anions at high concentrations. Adsorption kinetics confirmed its high efficiency for achieving equilibrium within 120 min. Fixed-bed adsorption runs demonstrated that the effective processing capacity of NCO@PAE for synthetic fluoride-containing wastewater (initial fluoride 2.5 mg/L) was about ~330 BV (bed volume), while only 22 BV for the host PAE. The exhausted NCO@PAE could be effectively revived by a simple in-situ desorption method for long-term cycle operation without conspicuous capacity loss. All the results indicated that NCO@PAE is a reliable and promising adsorbent for water defluoridation.


Assuntos
Cério , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Adsorção , Ânions , Fluoretos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Poliestirenos , Porosidade , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
3.
J Immunol Res ; 2021: 1260140, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34849375

RESUMO

Background: As a common urological disease with a high recurrence rate, nephrolithiasis caused by CaOx may elicit a strong immunologic response. We present a CyTOF-based atlas of the immune landscape in nephrolithiasis models to understand how the immune system contributes to, and is affected by, the underlying response caused by SIRT3 knockout and CaOx inducement. Materials and Methods: We performed a large-scale CyTOF analysis of immune cell abundance profiles in nephrolithiasis. The immunophenotyping data were collected from four different mouse models, including the SIRT3 wild-type or knockout, including and excluding CaOx inducement. Unsupervised analysis strategies, such as SPADE and viSNE, revealed the intrarenal resident immune components and the immune alterations caused by SIRT3 knockout and CaOx-induced renal injury. Results: An overview analysis of the immune landscape identified T cells and macrophages as the main immune cell population in nephrolithiasis models. Highly similar phenotypes were observed among CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets, including cells expressing Ki67, Ly6C, Siglec-F, and TCRß. Macrophages expressed a characteristic panel of markers with varied expression levels including MHC II, SIRPα, CD11c, Siglec-F, F4/80, CD64, and CD11b, indicating more subtle differences in marker expression than T cells. The SIRT3KO/CaOx and SIRT3WT/CaOx groups exhibited global differences in the intrarenal immune landscape, whereas only small differences existed between the SIRT3KO/CaOx and SIRT3KO/Ctrl groups. Among the major immune lineages, the response of CD4+ T cells, NK cells, monocytes, and M1 to CaOx inducement was regulated by SIRT3 expression in contrast to the expression changes of B cells, DCs, and granulocytes caused by CaOx inducement. The panel of immune markers influenced by CaOx inducement significantly varied with and without SIRT3 knockout. Conclusion: In a CaOx-induced nephrolithiasis model, SIRT3 has a critical role in regulating the immune system, especially in reducing inflammatory injury. The characteristic panel of altered immune clusters and markers provides novel insights leading to improved prediction and management of nephrolithiasis.

4.
J Behav Addict ; 2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34727087

RESUMO

Background: Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is a type of behavioral addiction characterized by poorly controlled and interfering patterns of game playing. Studies have suggested that the IGD is usually accompanied by increased desire or craving for gaming, suggesting that secondary rewards related to gaming may become more salient than those for primary rewards like food. However, this hypothesis has not been formally tested and potential neural mechanisms remain unclear. Methods: This is a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study. Twenty-one IGD subjects and 23 matched individuals with recreational game use (RGU) were scanned when exposed to gaming (secondary rewards), food (primary rewards) and neutral cues. Group-by-cue-type interaction analyses and subsequent within-group analyses for fMRI data were performed and seed-based functional connectivity (FC) analyses explored further potential neural features. Results: IGD subjects' subjective craving responses to gaming cues were higher than to food cues, while the opposite was observed in RGU subjects. Group-by-cue interaction effects implicated the precuneus and precuneus-caudate FC. Simple effect analysis showed that for IGD subjects, gaming-related cues elicited higher FC in precuneus-caudate relationships than did food-related cues. In the RGU subjects, the opposite was observed. Significant correlations were found between brain features and craving scores. Conclusions: These results support the hypothesis regarding imbalances in sensitivities to different types of reward in IGD, and suggest neural mechanisms by which craving for gaming may make secondary rewards more salient than primary ones, thus promoting participation in addictive patterns of gaming.

5.
Nanoscale ; 13(44): 18780-18788, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34750598

RESUMO

Tactile sensors are of great significance for robotic perception improvement to realize stable object manipulation and accurate object identification. To date, developing a broad-range tactile sensor array with high sensitivity economically remains a critical challenge. In this study, a flexible capacitive tactile sensor array, consisting of a carbon nanotube (CNT)/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) film, parylene films, and two polyimide (PI) films patterned with electrodes, is facilely prepared. The CNT/PDMS film, acting as a giant dielectric permittivity material, is utilized to improve the sensitivity, while the parylene film serves as the scaffold architecture to extend the working range of the tactile sensor array. Also, it is promising to realize mass production for this sensor array due to the scalable fabrication procedure. The as-prepared sensor exhibits excellent sensing performance with a high sensitivity of 1.61% kPa-1 (<1 MPa), an ultra-broad pressure working range of 0.9 kPa-2.55 MPa, an outstanding durability, a stability up to 5000 cycles, and a fast response time. By integrating our tactile sensor array with a robotic gripper, we show that robots can successfully differentiate object shapes and manipulate light and heavy objects with a closed-loop pressure feedback, demonstrating its great potential in robotic perception and wearable applications.


Assuntos
Nanotubos de Carbono , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Robótica , Dimetilpolisiloxanos , Tato
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807804

RESUMO

This article presented the possible mechanism of arthritis damaged changes in cartilage's interstitial fluid flowing behavior. Firstly, the analytical solutions for the pore fluid pressure and velocity in the idealized cartilage defect model were obtained, which are employed to validate the finite element (FE) method. Then according to the MRI data, an articular cartilage FE model was developed to study the effects of defect characteristics on its poroelastic behaviors. The results showed the interstitial fluid pressure and velocity in defected articular cartilage is diminished, moreover, this trend is even more severe as the defect radius or thickness increased. As the development of osteoarthritis goes, the fluid velocity is decreased and cause the even serious nutrients loss.

7.
Entropy (Basel) ; 23(11)2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34828160

RESUMO

In log-polar coordinates, the conventional data sampling method is to sample uniformly in the log-polar radius and polar angle directions, which makes the sample at the fovea of the data denser than that of the peripheral. The central oversampling phenomenon of the conventional sampling method gives no more efficient information and results in computational waste. Fortunately, the adaptive sampling method is a powerful tool to solve this problem in practice, so the paper introduces it to quantum data processing. In the paper, the quantum representation model of adaptive sampled data is proposed first, in which the upper limit of the sampling number of the polar angles is related to the log-polar radius. Owing to this characteristic, its preparation process has become relatively complicated. Then, in order to demonstrate the practicality of the model given in the paper, the scaling up algorithm with an integer scaling ratio based on biarcuate interpolation and its circuit implementation of quantum adaptive sampled data is given. However, due to the special properties of the adaptive sampling method in log-polar coordinates, the interpolation process of adaptive sampled data becomes quite complicated as well. At the end of this paper, the feasibility of the algorithm is verified by a numerical example.

8.
ACS Omega ; 6(44): 30130-30139, 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34778684

RESUMO

Previous work has shown that the sterically shielded near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent heptamethine cyanine dye, s775z, with a reactive carboxyl group produces fluorescent bioconjugates with an unsurpassed combination of high photostability and fluorescence brightness. This present contribution reports two new reactive homologues of s775z with either a maleimide group for reaction with a thiol or a strained alkyne group for reaction with an azide. Three cancer-targeting NIR fluorescent probes were synthesized, each with an appended cRGDfK peptide to provide selective affinity for integrin receptors that are overexpressed on the surface of many cancer cells including the A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells used in this study. A set of cancer cell microscopy and mouse tumor imaging experiments showed that all three probes were very effective at targeting cancer cells and tumors; however, the change in the linker structure produced a statistically significant difference in some aspects of the mouse biodistribution. The mouse studies included a mock surgical procedure that excised the subcutaneous tumors. A paired-agent fluorescence imaging experiment co-injected a binary mixture of targeted probe with 850 nm emission, an untargeted probe with 710 nm emission and determined the targeted probe's binding potential in the tumor tissue. A comparison of pixelated maps of binding potential for each excised tumor indicated a tumor-to-tumor variation of integrin expression levels, and a heterogeneous spatial distribution of integrin receptors within each tumor.

9.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 12(46): 11288-11294, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34767371

RESUMO

Polarized emission, an inherent characteristic that correlated with structure and morphology, is very sensitive to orientation. For the upconversion (UC) emission of lanthanides, the mechanism of polarization is rarely discussed, and the highly polarized UC emissions are poorly developed. Herein, with the benefit of the strong anisotropic crystal field, well-resolved emissions from lanthanide-doped LiYF4 crystals were studied, and highly polarized UC emissions from Er3+ and Ho3+ were investigated. With multiple sub-energy level transitions, the UC emissions are classified into two sets, with transition dipoles being either parallel or perpendicular to the c-axis of the LiYF4 crystal. An optical three-dimensional orientation sensor was further investigated, in which the in-plane angle is referenced from the orientation of the transition dipoles. In contrast, the out-of-plane angle can be deduced from the change in the degree of polarization. This research deepens our understanding of the polarized photoluminescence, and it opens up an avenue toward unique UC orientation sensors.

10.
Chemosphere ; 285: 131568, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710968

RESUMO

Chloramphenicol (CAP) is widely used in daily life, and its abuse hurts human health, so a suitable method is needed to solve the problem. In this study, the Ti/PbO2 electrodes prepared by the electroplating method were characterized. The CAP degradation effect and mechanism were investigated. It was shown that the electrode surface had a dense plating with a characteristic peak of ß-PbO2 as the active component. The electrode had an oxygen precipitation potential of 1.695 V and a corrosion potential of 0.553 V, and a long service life (505.4 d). The degradation of CAP at Ti/PbO2 electrode followed a first-order kinetic reaction. The optimal degradation conditions (current density of 12.97 mA cm-2, electrolyte concentration of 50 mM, and solution pH of 6.38) were obtained by the response surface curve method. The degradation rate of CAP was 99.0% at 60 min. The results showed that the reactive groups leading to CAP degradation were mainly ·OH and SO42-, and only a tiny portion of CAP was directly oxidized on the electrode surface. The addition of Cl- favored the degradation of CAP, but reduced the mineralization rate. LC-MS analysis showed that ·OH mainly attacked the asymmetric centers (C1, C2) of weakly bound hydrogen atoms, resulting in underwent addition and substitution reactions. CAP was converted into two substances with m/z = 306 and m/z = 165. Finally, inorganic substances such as CO2 and H2O were generated. This study provided a new idea for preparing Ti/PbO2 electrode with high performance and the safe and efficient degradation of CAP.


Assuntos
Titânio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Cloranfenicol , Eletrodos , Humanos , Óxidos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
11.
Natl Sci Rev ; 8(4): nwaa179, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34691611

RESUMO

The human retina is a complex neural tissue that detects light and sends visual information to the brain. However, the molecular and cellular processes that underlie aging primate retina remain unclear. Here, we provide a comprehensive transcriptomic atlas based on 119 520 single cells of the foveal and peripheral retina of humans and macaques covering different ages. The molecular features of retinal cells differed between the two species, suggesting distinct regional and species specializations of the human and macaque retinae. In addition, human retinal aging occurred in a region- and cell-type-specific manner. Aging of human retina exhibited a foveal to peripheral gradient. MYO9A- rods and a horizontal cell subtype were greatly reduced in aging retina, indicating their vulnerability to aging. Moreover, we generated a dataset showing the cell-type- and region-specific gene expression associated with 55 types of human retinal disease, which provides a foundation to understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying human retinal diseases. Such datasets are valuable to understanding of the molecular characteristics of primate retina, as well as molecular regulation of aging progression and related diseases.

12.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 753099, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34671378

RESUMO

S1Fa-like transcription factors (TFs) are small molecular weight proteins that contain both nuclear localization and DNA binding domains. However, the functions of S1Fa-like TFs are poorly understood. In the present study, we identified the S1Fa-like TFs from the Populus trichocarpa genome, which revealed two S1Fa-like TF genes, PtS1Fa1 and PtS1Fa2. PtS1Fa1 and PtS1Fa2 expression was suppressed by drought and salt stress, and was also significantly altered by ABA, MeJA, or SA treatment. Both PtS1Fa1 and PtS1Fa2 are nuclear proteins. Transgenic P. trichocarpa plants overexpressing PtS1Fa1 and PtS1Fa2, respectively, were generated. The plants overexpressing PtS1Fa2 showed increased fresh weight, chlorophyll content, and root length and weight compared with those in wild-type (WT) P. trichocarpa under drought conditions. Meanwhile, these phenotype traits of plants overexpressing PtS1Fa1 were similar to those of WT plants. Furthermore, overexpression of PtS1Fa2 reduced the malondialdehyde (MDA) content, electrolyte leakage, H2O2 and O2- contents, and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities. The expression of SOD and POD was also induced by PtS1Fa2. However, overexpression of PtS1Fa1 failed to affect any of these physiological parameters or SOD and POD gene expression. These results suggested that PtS1Fa2 plays a role in drought tolerance, and confers drought tolerance by increase antioxidant activity to reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation.

13.
Small ; 17(47): e2104385, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643335

RESUMO

Multicompartment assemblies attract much attention for their wide applications. However, the fabrication of multicompartment assemblies usually requires elaborately designed building blocks and careful controlling. The emergence of droplet networks has provided a facile way to construct multiple droplet architectures, which can further be converted to multicompartment assemblies. Herein, the bind motif-free building blocks are presented, which consist of the hydrophobic Tf2 N- -based ionic liquid (IL) dissolving LiTf2 N salt, that can conjugate via arrested coalescence in confined-space templates to form IL droplet networks. Subsequent ultraviolent polymerization generates robust free-standing multicompartment assemblies. The conjugation of building blocks relies not on the peripheral bind motif but on the interfacial instability-induced arrested coalescence, avoiding tedious surface modification and assembly process. By tuning structures of templates and building blocks, multicompartment assemblies with 0D, 1D, 2D, and 3D structures are prepared in a facile and high-throughput way. Importantly, the bottom-up construction enables modular control over the compositions and spatial positions of individual building blocks. Combining with the excellent solvency of ILs, this system can serve as a general platform towards versatile multicompartment architectures. As demonstrations, by tailoring the chambers the multicompartment assemblies can spatiotemporally sense and report the chemical cues and perform various modes of motion.

14.
Onco Targets Ther ; 14: 4791-4804, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531665

RESUMO

Introduction: Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignancy of the bone among adolescents and children. Despite intensive chemotherapy and aggressive surgery, the 5-year survival rate of osteosarcoma still falls under 70%, mainly due to its tendency to metastasize and to develop drug resistance. Therefore, new treatments for osteosarcoma are urgently needed. HGF/c-Met signaling pathway, when dysregulated, is involved in the onset, progression and metastasis of various cancers, making the HGF/c-Met axis a promising therapeutic target. Methods: In this study, we found Met to be a cancer-promoting gene in osteosarcoma as well, and aimed to investigate the role of a c-met inhibitor (PHA-665752) in osteosarcoma. For this purpose, two human osteosarcoma cell lines (143B and U2OS) were introduced in this study and treated with PHA-665752. CCK8 cell proliferation assay was performed to obtain the IC50 value of PHA-665752 for 143B and U2OS. After that, colony formation assay, transwell migration and invasion assay and wound-healing assay were performed. Furthermore, a tumor-transplanted mouse model was used for in vivo experiments. Results: Our results showed that PHA-665752 could suppress osteosarcoma progression, promote apoptosis and inhibit proliferation of human osteosarcoma cells. Moreover, we found ERK1/2 pathway to be an important mediator underlying the osteosarcoma-suppressing function of PHA-665752. LY3214996, a highly selective inhibitor of the ERK1/2 pathway, was able to antagonize the effects of PHA-665752 in osteosarcoma. Finally, in vivo experiments indicated that PHA-665752 suppressed tumor growth in a tumor-transplanted mouse model. Conclusion: Taken together, Met provided a druggable target for osteosarcoma and PHA-665752 is a promising candidate for anti-osteosarcoma treatments.

15.
Small ; 17(41): e2103140, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510739

RESUMO

The miniaturization of lasers holds promise in ultradense data storage and biosensing, but greater pump power is required to reach the lasing thresholds to overcome increased optical losses with reduced resonant cavity sizes. Here, the whispering galley mode (WGM) of Yb3+ /Tm3+ doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) coupled with microcavities (≈5 µm) is used to achieve ultralow threshold upconverted lasing at 800 nm with excitation fluences as low as 4 W cm-2 . The continuous-wave (CW) upconverted lasing, with a Q factor on the order of 103 , can remain stable for more than 6 h. In addition, ultralow threshold upconverted microlasers spanning the full visible spectrum from Yb3+ /Er3+ , Yb3+ /Ho3+ , and Yb3+ /Tm3+ doped UCNPs are obtained with the same WGM cavity design. These upconverted microlasers working under low power CW 980 nm laser will enable promising applications in biosensing and imaging.


Assuntos
Elementos da Série dos Lantanídeos , Nanopartículas , Lasers
16.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 23(9): 927-932, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535208

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To study the association of animal protein diet with the recurrence of Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP)/skin rash and the risk factors for recurrence of HSP. METHODS: A prospective analysis was performed for 121 children with HSP who were admitted to the Beijing Children's Hospital from October to December 2020. The children were given the doctor's advice of the same diet (animal protein diet could be added after 1 week without new-onset skin rash). Follow-up was performed at the outpatient service for half a year. According to the presence or absence of animal protein intake, the children were divided into an observation group with 65 children and a control group with 56 children. The times of skin rash recurrence, the incidence of HSP recurrence, and the incidence of kidney injury were compared between the two groups. According to the presence or absence of recurrence, the children were divided into a recurrence group with 32 children and a non-recurrence group with 89 children. A questionnaire on food frequency was used to record the daily intake of animal protein in the two groups. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the risk factors for recurrence of HSP in children. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between the observation and control groups in the times of skin rash recurrence, the incidence rate of HSP recurrence, and the incidence rate of kidney injury (P>0.05). There was no significant difference in the daily intake of animal protein between the recurrence and non-recurrence groups (P>0.05). The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that presence of kidney injury at initial onset, respiratory infection after cure for the first time, and lack of exercise control after cure for the first time were independent risk factors for the recurrence of HSP in children (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: There is no significant association between animal protein diet and the recurrence of HSP or skin rash. Timely treatment of kidney injury, avoidance of infection after cure, and limitation of strenuous exercise may help to reduce the recurrence rate of HSP in children. Citation.


Assuntos
Púrpura de Schoenlein-Henoch , Animais , Dieta , Humanos , Rim , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
17.
Anal Chem ; 93(38): 12944-12953, 2021 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523923

RESUMO

For sensing low abundance of biomarkers, utilizing nanocarriers to load dyes is an efficient method to amplify the detected signal. However, the non-specific leak of the internal dyes in this approach is accompanied by false positive signals, resulting in inaccurate signal acquirement. To address this issue, in this work, we reported a novel signal amplification strategy with dye as a scaffold to construct a self-immolative dye-doped polymeric probe (SDPP). In our proposed approach, the dyes were covalently integrated into the main chain of a polymer, which can avoid the non-specific leak of the dye when used in a rigorous biological environment, thus evading the false positive signal. As a prototype of this concept, a SDPP, which responds to hydroxyl radicals (•OH), was rationally fabricated. Upon being activated by •OH, SDPP will liberate the dye through a self-immolative reaction to bind with protein for amplifying the fluorescence signal. Compared with a dye-loaded nanoprobe, SDPP can precisely track intracellular basal •OH levels and visualize the •OH associated with myocarditis in vivo. More importantly, the attempt in this work not only provides an effective molecular tool to investigate the role of •OH in cardiopathy, but also puts forward a new direction to current signal-amplifying strategies for precisely and reliably acquiring the intracellular molecular information.


Assuntos
Corantes , Radical Hidroxila , Diagnóstico por Imagem , Corantes Fluorescentes , Polímeros , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
18.
Front Immunol ; 12: 742925, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34557201

RESUMO

Periodontitis is a prevalent chronic disease that results in loss of periodontal ligament and bone resorption. Triggered by pathogens and prolonged inflammation, periodontitis is modulated by the immune system, especially pro-inflammatory cells, such as T helper (Th) 17 cells. Originated from CD4+ Th cells, Th17 cells play a central role for they drive and regulate periodontal inflammation. Cytokines secreted by Th17 cells are also major players in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. Given the importance of Th17 cells, modulators of Th17 cells are of great clinical potential and worth of discussion. This review aims to provide an overview of the current understanding of the effect of Th17 cells on periodontitis, as well as a brief discussion of current and potential therapies targeting Th17 cells. Lastly, we highlight this article by summarizing the causal relationship between A20 (encoded by TNFAIP3), an anti-inflammatory molecule, and Th17 cell differentiation.

19.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5223, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34471135

RESUMO

Electrochemical reduction of CO2 (CO2R) to formic acid upgrades waste CO2; however, up to now, chemical and structural changes to the electrocatalyst have often led to the deterioration of performance over time. Here, we find that alloying p-block elements with differing electronegativities modulates the redox potential of active sites and stabilizes them throughout extended CO2R operation. Active Sn-Bi/SnO2 surfaces formed in situ on homogeneously alloyed Bi0.1Sn crystals stabilize the CO2R-to-formate pathway over 2400 h (100 days) of continuous operation at a current density of 100 mA cm-2. This performance is accompanied by a Faradaic efficiency of 95% and an overpotential of ~ -0.65 V. Operating experimental studies as well as computational investigations show that the stabilized active sites offer near-optimal binding energy to the key formate intermediate *OCHO. Using a cation-exchange membrane electrode assembly device, we demonstrate the stable production of concentrated HCOO- solution (3.4 molar, 15 wt%) over 100 h.

20.
IEEE Trans Image Process ; 30: 7980-7994, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534086

RESUMO

Mammogram benign or malignant classification with only image-level labels is challenging due to the absence of lesion annotations. Motivated by the symmetric prior that the lesions on one side of breasts rarely appear in the corresponding areas on the other side, we explore to answer a counterfactual question to identify the lesion areas. This counterfactual question means: given an image with lesions, how would the features have behaved if there were no lesions in the image? To answer this question, we derive a new theoretical result based on the symmetric prior. Specifically, by building a causal model that entails such a prior for bilateral images, we identify to optimize the distances in distribution between i) the counterfactual features and the target side's features in lesion-free areas; and ii) the counterfactual features and the reference side's features in lesion areas. To realize these optimizations for better benign/malignant classification, we propose a counterfactual generative network, which is mainly composed of Generator Adversarial Network and a prediction feedback mechanism, they are optimized jointly and prompt each other. Specifically, the former can further improve the classi?cation performance by generating counterfactual features to calculate lesion areas. On the other hand, the latter helps counterfactual generation by the supervision of classification loss. The utility of our method and the effectiveness of each module in our model can be verified by state-of-the-art performance on INBreast and an in-house dataset and ablation studies.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...