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1.
Endocrine ; 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608552

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The differential diagnosis of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-dependent Cushing's syndrome remains a challenge in clinical practice. The present study was aimed at assessing the diagnostic performance of pituitary dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI), high-dose dexamethasone suppression test (HDDST), and a combination of both tests for patients with ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome. METHODS: A total of 119 consecutive patients with ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome confirmed surgically were enrolled: 101 with proven Cushing's disease and 18 with proven ectopic ACTH syndrome. All patients underwent pituitary dMRI and HDDST. The sensitivity and specificity of pituitary dMRI, HDDST, and a combination of both tests were determined. RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity of pituitary dMRI for diagnosing Cushing's disease were 80.2 and 83.3%, respectively, with a positive predictive value of 96.4%. The sensitivity and specificity of HDDST were 70.3 and 77.8%, respectively, with positive predictive value of 94.7%. A combination of both tests showed that the combined criteria of more than 50% suppression of serum cortisol on HDDST and a positive pituitary dMRI finding yielded a high specificity of 94.4 and sensitivity of 59.4%. The combined criteria of more than 68% suppression on HDDST and/or a positive pituitary dMRI finding yielded a sensitivity of 86.1% and specificity of 83.3%. CONCLUSIONS: Pituitary dMRI was superior to HDDST in the differential diagnosis of ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome. HDDST is recommended in combination with pituitary dMRI to establish a diagnosis process because of the significantly increased specificity with the combination.

2.
J Insect Sci ; 21(5)2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34636890

RESUMO

Hexamerins are members of the hemocyanin superfamily and play essential roles in providing amino acids and energy for the nonfeeding stages of insects. In this study, we cloned and analyzed the expression patterns of four hexamerin genes (hex 70a, hex 70b, hex 70c, and hex 110) at different worker development stages and queen diapause statuses in the bumble bee, Bombus terrestris. The results of this study showed that hex 110 has the longest open reading frame (ORF; 3,297 bp) compared to the ORFs of hex 70a (2,034 bp), hex 70b (2,067 bp), and hex 70c (2,055 bp). The putative translation product of Hex 70a, Hex 70b, Hex70c, and Hex 110 has 677, 688, 684, and 1,098aa with predicted molecular mass of 81.13, 79.69, 81.58, and 119 kDa. In the development stages of workers, the expression levels of hex 70a, hex 70b, and hex 70c increased gradually from the larval stage and exhibited high expression levels at the pink eyed and brown eyed pupae stage, whereas hex 110 exhibited the highest expression level at the larval period. Four hexamerin genes were highly expressed at the prediapause status of queen (P < 0.05), and compared to the eclosion queen, the lowest upregulation was 3.7-fold, and the highest upregulation was 1,742-fold. The expression levels of hex 70b, hex 70c, and hex 110 at diapause were significantly higher than those at postdiapause (P < 0.05). In conclusion, hexamerins may play important roles in queen diapause and metamorphosis of larval and pupal stages.

3.
Water Sci Technol ; 84(7): 1594-1607, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662299

RESUMO

The design and preparation of multifunctional adsorbent for practical wastewater treatment is still an enormous challenge. To remove multiple metal ions from wastewater, we developed a broad-spectrum metal ions trap named UIO-67-EDTA by incorporation of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid into robust UIO-67. The adsorption experiments for 15 kinds of heavy metal ions including hard acid (Mn2+, Ba2+, Al3+, Cr3+, Fe3+), borderline acid (Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Pb2+, Sn2+, Bi2+), soft acid (Ag+, Cd2+, Hg2+), and two kinds of dissolved minerals (Mg2+, Ca2+) show that the trap is very effective both in batch adsorption processes and breakthrough processes. At a pH value of 4.0, the removal efficiency for all metal ions was over 98% within 10 min, and the maximum static adsorption capacity for the representative metal ions Cr3+, Hg2+and Pb2+ was up to 416.67, 256.41, and 312.15 mg g-1, respectively. The adsorption kinetics fitted well with the pseudo-second-order model, indicating that the chemical adsorption was the rate-determining step in the adsorption process. Meanwhile, the material showed high stability and recyclability, the removal efficiency for the three representative metals was still maintained over 93% after five consecutive adsorption cycles.

4.
Trials ; 22(1): 587, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Falls are one of the most common accidents in older adults, often leading to injury, disability and quality-of-life declines. Foot core function contributes to postural stability in most static postures and dynamic activities. As efficient foot core training, the intrinsic-foot-muscle exercise has been proposed to improve postural control. However, the effects of the exercise on postural stability in the elderly remain unclear. Therefore, this study attempts to investigate the effect of 12-week intrinsic-foot-muscle exercise on postural stability in older adults with fall risk. METHODS: We will conduct a prospective, single-blind randomised controlled trail on 120 older adults with fall risk. Participants will be randomly assigned to an intrinsic-foot-muscle exercise combining the lower extremity resistance training group (IFM group), an extrinsic-foot-muscle exercise combining the lower extremity resistance training group (EFM group) and a control group. The control group will perform lower extremity resistance training. The IFM and EFM groups will be given additional short-foot exercise or towel-curl exercise training, respectively. After the intervention, participants will be followed up for another 12 weeks with no active intervention. The outcome measures will include the postural stability measurements, self-reported postural stability, number of falls, intrinsic-foot-muscle strength and foot arch function. Furthermore, adverse events will be recorded and analysed. If any participant withdraws from the trial, an intention-to-treat analysis will be performed. DISCUSSION: The trial is designed to investigate the efficacy of a 12-week intrinsic foot muscle training combined with the lower extremity resistance training on postural stability outcomes in elderly people with fall risk. The trial will also examine the comprehensive outcomes of postural stability during static standing and dynamic movements. The function of intrinsic foot muscle to support the arch will also be evaluated. Important features of this trial mainly include intervention setting, outcome measure selection and study duration. The results of this study will determine the effectiveness and provide scientific evidence to establish comprehensive fall prevention intervention. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR2000033623. Registered on 7 June 2020. http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=54741.


Assuntos
Treinamento de Força , Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Exercício Físico , Terapia por Exercício , , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético , Equilíbrio Postural , Estudos Prospectivos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Método Simples-Cego
5.
Chemosphere ; 282: 131092, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470156

RESUMO

Remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil with appropriate washing agents is crucial to the decline in the harmfulness of contaminated soil by heavy metals to the environment and human health. In this study, citric acid (CA) and water-soluble chitosan (WSCS) as natural and degradable washing agents were used to remove Zn in the soil by two-step washing method. Results indicated that the two-step washing with CA and WSCS were found to be suitable for the removal of Zn from the contaminated soils, which significantly decreased the total concentration of Zn in the soil. After the remediation process with two-step soil washing, the contents of Zn in different chemical species decreased, especially for the carbonate-bound fraction. Therefore, the two-step soil washing with CA and WSCS was advisable for the remediation of Zn-contaminated soils. The washing mechanism could include the acid dissolution, ion exchange and complexation reaction between zinc ions and functional groups such as hydroxyl, carboxyl, amine and amide groups. This study provided the theoretical support for the exploitation and application of suitable washing agents used for the remediation of contaminated soils by heavy metals.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Ácido Cítrico , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Água , Zinco
6.
Curr Alzheimer Res ; 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587885

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Type 2 diabetes(T2D) patients are more prone to develop Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have previously shown that Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agon- ist exendin-4 (Ex-4) reduces tau hyperphosphorylation in T2D animals through upregulating in- sulin signaling, and peripheral injected Ex-4 increases insulin levels in the T2D brain. This study aims to further clarify whether the elevated insulin in the brain is produced by nerve cells under the action of Ex-4. METHODS: The neuronal cell line-HT22 was treated with Ex-4 under high glucose or normal cultiva- tion, and the number of insulin-positive cells as well as the expression levels of insulin synthesis-re- lated genes were examined. The db/db mice were treated with a peripheral injection of Ex-4 and/or intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of siRNA to inhibit the expression of insulin synthesis-relat- ed genes and the behavior tests were carried on. Finally, plasma glucose, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) glucose, CSF insulin, phosphorylation of tau, phosphorylation of AKT and GSK-3ß of db/db mice were detected. RESULTS: We found that Ex-4 promoted the expression of insulin synthesis-related genes and in- duced an obvious increase of insulin-positive HT-22 neuronal cells in a high glucose environment. Peripheral injection of Ex-4 improved the cognitive function of db/db mice and increased brain in- sulin levels which activated brain insulin signaling and subsequently alleviated tau hyperphosphory- lation. However, when siRNA-neurod1 was injected to block insulin synthesis, the cognitive func- tion of db/db mice was not improved under the action of Ex-4 anymore. Moreover, the brain in- sulin levels dropped to an extremely low level, and the phosphorylation level of tau increased signi- ficantly. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that Ex-4 improved cognition function by promoting brain in- sulin synthesis followed by the activation of brain insulin signaling and alleviation of tau hyper- phosphorylation.

7.
Thorac Cancer ; 12(19): 2564-2573, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase 2 (SHP2) is a novel target for Kirsten rat sarcoma oncogene (KRAS) mutant cancer. We retrospectively studied the significance of SHP2 in KRAS mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with immunotherapy and its relationship with tumor microenvironment (TME). METHODS: Sixty-one advanced KRAS mutant NSCLC patients who underwent immunotherapy were enrolled. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) was used to profile mutation status. The expression of SHP2, phospho-SHP2 (pSHP2), and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) were analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Quantitative multiplexed immunofluorescence cytochemistry (mIFC) analysis was conducted to describe the TME. RESULTS: SHP2 was heterogeneously expressed in 32 samples in both tumor cells and immune cells and highly expressed (H-score >10) in 25 (78.1%) samples. The expression levels of SHP2 and pSHP2 were positively correlated. Stromal SHP2 (s-SHP2) was higher in tumors with PD-L1 ≥50% versus PD-L1 <50% (p = 0.039). By quantitative mIFC analysis, the expression of s-SHP2 had positive correlation with CD8, CD4, CD68, and PD-L1 levels in stromal area. Patients with high SHP2 expression made up 100.0% of the partial respond (PR) and 80.0% of the stable disease (SD), whereas 50.0% of the progress disease (PD). High SHP2 expression was associated with longer progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) (p < 0.001, p = 0.013). Patients with high expression of both SHP2 and PD-L1 had longer PFS (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: High SHP2 expression could predict the efficacy of immunotherapy and better survival in advanced KRAS mutant NSCLC. SHP2 may function in both tumor cells and immune cells, warranting further study on the potential diverse effects of SHP2 inhibition in TME.

8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502229

RESUMO

The two-pore domain K+ (K2P) channel, which is involved in setting the resting membrane potential in neurons, is an essential target for receptor agonists. Activation of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors (GABAAR and GABABR) reduces cellular excitability through Cl- influx and K+ efflux in neurons. Relatively little is known about the link between GABAAR and the K+ channel. The present study was performed to identify the effect of GABAR agonists on K2P channel expression and activity in the neuroblastic B35 cells that maintain glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) activity and express GABA. TASK and TREK/TRAAK mRNA were expressed in B35 cells with a high level of TREK-2 and TRAAK. In addition, TREK/TRAAK proteins were detected in the GABAergic neurons obtained from GABA transgenic mice. Furthermore, TREK-2 mRNA and protein expression levels were markedly upregulated in B35 cells by GABAAR and GABABR agonists. In particular, muscimol, a GABAAR agonist, significantly increased TREK-2 expression and activity, but the effect was reduced in the presence of the GABAAR antagonist bicuculine or TREK-2 inhibitor norfluoxetine. In the whole-cell and single-channel patch configurations, muscimol increased TREK-2 activity, but the muscimol effect disappeared in the N-terminal deletion mutant. These results indicate that muscimol directly induces TREK-2 activation through the N-terminus and suggest that muscimol can reduce cellular excitability by activating the TREK-2 channel and by inducing Cl- influx in GABAergic neurons.


Assuntos
Agonistas de Receptores de GABA-A/farmacologia , Neurônios GABAérgicos/metabolismo , Potenciais da Membrana , Muscimol/farmacologia , Canais de Potássio de Domínios Poros em Tandem/metabolismo , Receptores de GABA/química , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Neurônios GABAérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Canais de Potássio de Domínios Poros em Tandem/genética , Ratos
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4753, 2021 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362903

RESUMO

Gallbladder carcinoma is the most common cancer of the biliary tract with dismal survival largely due to delayed diagnosis. Biliary tract intraepithelial neoplasia (BilIN) is the common benign tumor that is suspected to be precancerous lesions. However, the genetic and evolutionary relationships between BilIN and carcinoma remain unclear. Here we perform whole-exome sequencing of coexisting low-grade BilIN (adenoma), high-grade BilIN, and carcinoma lesions, and normal tissues from the same patients. We identify aging as a major factor contributing to accumulated mutations and a critical role of CTNNB1 mutations in these tumors. We reveal two distinct carcinoma evolutionary paths: carcinoma can either diverge earlier and evolve more independently or form through the classic adenoma/dysplasia-carcinoma sequence model. Our analysis suggests that extensive loss-of-heterozygosity and mutation events in the initial stage tend to result in a cancerous niche, leading to the subsequent BilIN-independent path. These results reframes our understanding of tumor transformation and the evolutionary trajectory of carcinogenesis in the gallbladder, laying a foundation for the early diagnosis and effective treatment of gallbladder cancer.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Carcinoma/genética , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/genética , Genômica , Neoplasias/genética , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinoma in Situ/patologia , Feminino , Vesícula Biliar/patologia , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/classificação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Filogenia , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/genética
10.
Hypertens Pregnancy ; : 1-10, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34464226

RESUMO

Human placenta was obtained from early onset preeclampsia, late onset preeclampsia, and their gestational age-matched normal pregnancy. Using RT-qPCR, western blot, and immunohistochemistry, it was demonstrated that miR-21 expressions were significantly decreased in preeclampsia while RASA1 were increased. Suppression of miR-21 in placental HTR-8/SVneo cells, remarkably upregulated RASA1, decreased proliferation, inhibited invasion, and promoted apoptosis of trophoblast cells, while overexpression of miR-21 alleviated these effects. Dual-luciferase reporter assays revealed RASA1 to be a direct target of miR-21 in trophoblast cells. miR-21 may serve key roles in the development of preeclampsia by targeting RASA1.

11.
Environ Pollut ; 289: 117978, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426190

RESUMO

Over the past decades, the production and use of hazardous chemicals has increased worldwide, and the incidence of neurological diseases is increasing proportionately. Among these chemicals, Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is the most common member of the phthalate family used as a plasticizer. The present study assessed the consequences of daily DEHP ingestion and its effects on brain functions related to depressive-like behaviors. Adolescent C57BL/6 male mice ingested different concentrations of DEHP in their diet (2, 20, and 200 mg/kg of diet), and behavioral changes in anxiety, despair, anhedonia, and sociality were investigated. DEHP exposure evoked depressive-like behaviors in a dose-dependent manner for each symptom. The levels of corticosterone and reactive oxygen species/reactive nitrogen species increased in DEHP-exposed groups, suggesting chronic stress-like responses. In the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), glutamate and glutamine were decreased, and glutamine synthetase showed lower activity compared to the control group, suggesting imbalanced glutamatergic signaling. Measuring the spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current of glutamatergic neurons, we found that DEHP ingestion resulted in hypoactive glutamatergic signaling in the mPFC.


Assuntos
Dietilexilftalato , Animais , Dietilexilftalato/toxicidade , Ingestão de Alimentos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ácidos Ftálicos , Córtex Pré-Frontal
12.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol ; 80(9): 821-829, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363682

RESUMO

Polymorphous low-grade neuroepithelial tumor of the young (PLNTY) is a recently described epileptogenic tumor characterized by oligodendroglioma-like components, aberrant CD34 expression, and frequent mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway activation. We molecularly profiled 13 cases with diagnostic histopathological features of PLNTY (10 female; median age, 16 years; range, 5-52). Patients frequently presented with seizures (9 of 12 with available history) and temporal lobe tumors (9 of 13). MAPK pathway activating alterations were identified in all 13 cases. Fusions were present in the 7 youngest patients: FGFR2-CTNNA3 (n = 2), FGFR2-KIAA1598 (FGFR2-SHTN1) (n = 1), FGFR2-INA (n = 1), FGFR2-MPRIP (n = 1), QKI-NTRK2 (n = 1), and KIAA1549-BRAF (n = 1). BRAF V600E mutation was present in 6 patients (17 years or older). Two fusion-positive cases additionally harbored TP53/RB1 abnormalities suggesting biallelic inactivation. Copy number changes predominantly involving whole chromosomes were observed in all 10 evaluated cases, with losses of chromosome 10q occurring with FGFR2-KIAA1598 (SHTN1)/CTNNA3 fusions. The KIAA1549-BRAF and QKI-NTRK2 fusions were associated respectively with a 7q34 deletion and 9q21 duplication. This study shows that despite its name, PLNTY also occurs in older adults, who frequently show BRAF V600E mutation. It also expands the spectrum of the MAPK pathway activating alterations associated with PLNTY and demonstrates recurrent chromosomal copy number changes consistent with chromosomal instability.

13.
Clin Neuroradiol ; 2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34292360

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Intrathecal gadolinium magnetic resonance (MR) myelography can be used to localize various types of spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks; however, its diagnostic yield is not well known. We sought to determine the diagnostic yield of MR myelography in patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed on all patients who had undergone intrathecal gadolinium MR myelography at our institution from 2002 to 2020 for suspected spinal CSF leak. The MR myelography images were reviewed for the presence or absence of a spinal CSF leak site. Images were also evaluated for the presence an extradural fluid collection. RESULTS: A total of 97 patients were included in the final cohort. The average age was 52.6 years; 67.0% were female, 4 patients underwent 2 examinations each, yielding a total of 101 MR myelograms. The source of a spinal CSF leak was localized in 14 patients. The diagnostic yield for CSF leak localization on intrathecal gadolinium MR myelography was 14/101 (13.9%) per GdM examination and 14/97 (14.4%) per patient. Among the subset of patients without extradural fluid collections, the yield was 15.7% per examination. All detected leaks were either CSF-venous fistulas or distal nerve root sleeve tears. CONCLUSION: Intrathecal gadolinium MR myelography is capable of localizing CSF-venous fistulas and distal nerve root sleeve tears; however, our data show that it has a limited diagnostic yield. We suggest that other modalities may be a better first step before attempting intrathecal gadolinium MR myelography.

14.
J Insect Sci ; 21(4)2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214154

RESUMO

The hexagonal structure of the honey bee comb cell has been the source of many studies attempting to understand its structure and function. In the storage area of the comb, only honey is stored and no brood is reared. We predicted that honey bees may construct different hexagonal cells for brood rearing and honey storage. We used quantitative analyses to evaluate the structure and function of the natural comb cell in the Chinese bee, Apis cerana cerana and the Italian bee, A. mellifera ligustica. We made cell molds using a crystal glue solution and measured the structure and inclination of cells. We found that the comb cells of A. c. cerana had both upward-sloping and downward-sloping cells; while the A. m. ligustica cells all tilted upwards. Interestingly, the cells did not conform to the regular hexagonal prism structure and showed irregular diameter sizes. In both species, comb cells also were differentiated into worker, drone and honey cells, differing in their diameter and depth. This study revealed unique differences in the structure and function of comb cells and showed that honey bees design their cells with precise engineering to increase storage capacity, and to create adequate growing room for their brood.


Assuntos
Abelhas , Comportamento de Nidação , Ceras , Animais , Biometria , Feminino , Especificidade da Espécie
15.
J Vet Sci ; 22(4): e56, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34313041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fluorescent antibody virus neutralization (FAVN) test is a standard assay for quantifying rabies virus-neutralizing antibody (VNA) in serum. However, a safer rabies virus (RABV) should be used in the FAVN assay. There is a need for a new method that is economical and time-saving by eliminating the immunostaining step. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to improve the traditional FAVN method by rescuing and characterizing a new recombinant RABV expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP). METHODS: A new recombinant RABV expressing GFP designated as ERAGS-GFP was rescued using a reverse genetic system. Immuno-fluorescence assay, peroxidase-linked assay, electron microscopy and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were performed to confirm the recombinant ERAGS-GFP virus as a RABV expressing the GFP gene. The safety of ERAGS-GFP was evaluated in 4-week-old mice. The rabies VNA titers were measured and compared with conventional FAVN and FAVN-GFP tests using VERO cells. RESULTS: The virus propagated in VERO cells was confirmed as RABV expressing GFP. The ERAGS-GFP showed the highest titer (108.0 TCID50/mL) in VERO cells at 5 days post-inoculation, and GFP expression persisted until passage 30. The body weight of 4-week-old mice inoculated intracranially with ERAGS-GFP continued to increase and the survival rate was 100%. In 62 dog sera, the FAVN-GFP result was significantly correlated with that of conventional FAVN (r = 0.95). CONCLUSIONS: We constructed ERAGS-GFP, which could replace the challenge virus standard-11 strain used in FAVN test.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Vírus da Raiva/genética , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetinae , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Vírus da Raiva/imunologia , Vírus da Raiva/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/genética
16.
Anal Chem ; 93(26): 9200-9208, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34152733

RESUMO

Mitophagy plays a critical role in regulating and maintaining cellular functions, particularly regulating the quantity and quality of mitochondria. In this research, a multifunctional two-photon fluorescent probe Mito-PV with improved mitochondria-anchored ability was designed. The proposed probe can track the fluctuation of polarity and viscosity in mitochondria simultaneously with two well-distinguished emissions. It can also precisely visualize the change in mitochondrial morphology (including mitochondrial form factor and length). The real-time and accurate monitoring of mitophagy under two-photon excitation was successfully achieved by utilizing probe Mito-PV through supervising the alterations of diverse mitophagy-related parameters (including colocalization coefficient, polarity, viscosity, and mitochondrial morphology). In addition, probe Mito-PV can be applied to evaluate drug bpV(phen) as an effective mitophagy inhibitor. Therefore, our work may provide a more efficient and reliable method for precisely monitoring mitophagy from multiple evaluations.


Assuntos
Corantes Fluorescentes , Mitofagia , Mitocôndrias , Fótons , Viscosidade
17.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34191547

RESUMO

CSF-venous fistulas (CVFs), first described in 2014, represent an important cause of spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH). CVFs can be challenging to detect on conventional anatomic imaging because, unlike other types of spinal CSF leak, they do not typically result in pooling of fluid in the epidural space, and imaging signs of CVF may be subtle. Specialized myelographic techniques have been developed to help with CVF identification, but these techniques are not yet widely disseminated. This article reviews the current understanding of CVFs, emphasizing correlations between venous anatomy and imaging findings as well as potential mechanisms for pathogenesis, and describes current imaging techniques used for CVF diagnosis and localization. These techniques are broadly classified into fluoroscopy-based methods, including digital subtraction myelography and dynamic myelography, as well as cross-sectional methods, including decubitus CT myelography and MR myelography with intrathecal gadolinium. Knowledge of these various options, including their relative advantages and disadvantages, is critical in the care of patients with SIH. Investigation is ongoing, and continued advances are anticipated in understanding of CVFs as well as in optimal imaging detection.

18.
Small ; 17(29): e2101208, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34145747

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most malignant tumors with a low survival rate. The therapeutic effect of chemotherapy and immunotherapy for PDAC is disappointing due to the presence of dense tumor stroma and immunosuppressive cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME). Herein, a tumor-penetrating nanoparticle is reported to modulate the deep microenvironment of PDAC for improved chemoimmunotherapy. The tumor pH-sensitive polymer is synthesized by conjugating N,N-dipentylethyl moieties and monomethoxylpoly(ethylene glycol) onto PAMAM dendrimer, into whose cavity a hydrophobic gemcitabine (Gem) prodrug is accommodated. They self-assemble into nanoparticles (denoted as SPN@Pro-Gem) with the size around 120 nm at neutral pH, but switch into small particles (≈8 nm) at tumor site to facilitate deep delivery of Gem into the tumor parenchyma. In addition to killing cancer cells that resided deeply in the tumor tissue, SPN@Pro-Gem could modulate the TME by reducing the abundance of tumor-associated macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells as well as upregulating the expression level of PD-L1 of tumor cells. This collectively facilitates the infiltration of cytotoxic T cells into the tumors and renders checkpoint inhibitors more effective in previously unresponsive PDAC models. This study reveals a promising strategy for improving the chemoimmunotherapy of pancreatic cancer.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/tratamento farmacológico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Nanomedicina , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Microambiente Tumoral
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098629

RESUMO

Voice change is a common complaint after thyroid surgery and has significant impacts on quality of life. The Korean Society of Laryngology, Phoniatrics, and Logopedics set up a task force team to establish guideline recommendations on education, care, and management related to thyroid surgery. The guideline recommendations include preoperative voice education, management of anticipated voice change during surgery, and comprehensive voice care after thyroid surgery, including in-depth information and up-to-date knowledge based on validated literature. The committee constructed 14 key questions (KQ) in three categories: preoperative (KQ1-2), intraoperative (KQ 3-8), and postoperative (KQ 9-14) management and developed 18 evidence-based recommendations. The Delphi survey reached an agreement on each recommendation. Detailed evidence profiles are presented for each recommendation. The level of evidence for each recommendation is classified into high, moderate, and low-quality. The recommendation's strengths are adjusted to consider the level of evidence resulting in the recommendation and are divided into strong and weak. The guidelines are primarily targeted toward physicians who treat thyroid surgery patients and speech-language pathologists participating in patient care. These guidelines will also help primary care physicians, nurses, healthcare policymakers, and patients improve their understanding of voice changes and voice care after thyroid surgery.

20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9589, 2021 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33953274

RESUMO

Fusarium wilt in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fabae (FOF), which reduces the yield of crop. We used greenhouse, field and laboratory experiments to evaluate the role of organic acids in the occurrence of Fusarium wilt of faba bean to confirm the mechanism of rational application of nitrogen (N) and intercropping to alleviate Fusarium wilt. We investigated the response of organic acids exuded from the roots of faba bean to different N levels and cropping patterns (monocropping and intercropping with wheat). The results showed that the application of N and intercropping with wheat could control the Fusarium wilt of faba bean, which was closely related to the components and quantity of organic acids exuded from its roots. Among them, tartaric acid and malic acid are the most abundant and important, because they have a significant inhibitory effect on the growth and reproduction of FOF and substantially aid in the control of Fusarium wilt. The application of 90 kg ha-1 of N combined with wheat intercropping significantly controlled the Fusarium wilt and increased the grain yield of faba bean. Our results suggest that 90 kg ha-1 of N combined with intercropping is the most effective way to control Fusarium wilt and should be incorporated into agricultural management practices.

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