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1.
J Org Chem ; 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633802

RESUMO

Herein, we have reported a nickel-catalyzed cascade reductive thiolation of aryl halides with sulfinates driven by paired electrolysis. This protocol uses sulfinates as the sulfur source, and various thioethers could be synthesized under mild conditions. By mechanism exploration, we find that a cascade chemical step is allowed on the electrode interface and could alter the reaction pathway in paired electrolysis, whose findings could help the discovery of novel cascade reactions with unique reactivity.

2.
Plant Physiol ; 2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601582

RESUMO

AKT2 potassium (K+) channels are members of the plant Shaker family which mediate dual-directional K+ transport with weak voltage-dependency. Here we show that OsAKT2 of rice (Oryza sativa) functions mainly as an inward rectifier with strong voltage-dependency and acutely suppressed outward activity. This is attributed to the presence of a unique K191 residue in the S4 domain. The typical bi-directional leak-like property was restored by a single K191R mutation, indicating that this functional distinction is an intrinsic characteristic of OsAKT2. Further, the opposite R195K mutation of AtAKT2 changed the channel to an inward-rectifier similar to OsAKT2. OsAKT2 was modulated by OsCBL1/OsCIPK23, evoking the outward activity and diminishing the inward current. The physiological relevance in relation to the rectification diversity of OsAKT2 was addressed by functional assembly in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) akt2 mutant. Overexpression of OsAKT2 complemented the K+ deficiency in the phloem sap and leaves of the mutant plants but did not significantly contribute to the transport of sugars. However, the expression of OsAKT2-K191R overcame both the shortage of phloem K+ and sucrose of the akt2 mutant, which was comparable to the effects of the overexpression of AtAKT2, while the expression of the inward mutation AtAKT2-R195K resembled the effects of OsAKT2. Additionally, overexpression of OsAKT2 ameliorated the salt tolerance of Arabidopsis.

3.
Phytomedicine ; 93: 153765, 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610527

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyperuricemia (HUA) is an important risk factor for gout, renal dysfunction and cardiovascular diseases. The whole plant of Persicaria capitata (Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don) H. Gross, namely Persicaria capitata herba, is a well-known ethnic herb with potent therapeutic effects on urinary tract infections and urinary calculus, yet previous reports have only focused on its effect on urinary tract infections. PURPOSE: To evaluate the therapeutic potential of P. capitata herba against gout by investigating its antihyperuricemia and antigouty arthritis effects and possible mechanisms. METHODS: The ethanol extract (EP) and water extract (WP) of P. capitata herba were prepared by extracting dried and ground whole plants of P. capitata with 75% ethanol and water, respectively, followed by removal of solvents and characterization by UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS. The antihyperuricemia and antigouty arthritis effects of the two extracts were evaluated in a potassium oxonate- and hypoxanthine-induced hyperuricemia mouse model and a monosodium urate crystal (MSUC)-induced acute gouty arthritis mouse model, respectively. The mechanisms were investigated by testing their effects on the expression of correlated proteins (by Western blot) and mRNAs (by RT-PCR). RESULTS: UHPLC-HRMS fingerprinting and two chemical markers (i.e., quercetin and quercitrin) determination were used for the characterization of the WP and EP extracts. Both WP and EP extracts showed pronounced antihyperuricemia activities, with a remarkable decline in serum uric acid and a marked increase in urine uric acid in hyperuricemic mice. Unlike the clinical xanthine oxidase (XOD) inhibitor allopurinol, WP and EP did not show any distinct renal toxicities. The underlying antihyperuricemia mechanism involves the inhibition of the activity and expression of XOD and the downregulation of the mRNA and protein expression of glucose transporter 9 (GLUT9) and urate transporter 1 (URAT1). The extracts of P. capitata herba also demonstrated remarkable anti-inflammatory activity in MSUC-induced acute gouty arthritis mice. The mechanism might involve inhibitory effects on the expression of proinflammatory factors. CONCLUSIONS: The extracts of P. capitata herba possessed pronounced antihyperuricemia and antigouty arthritis effects and were, therefore, promising natural medicines for hyperuricemia-related disorders and gouty arthritis. The use of P. capitata herba for the treatment of urinary calculus may be, at least to some degree, related to its potential as an antihyperuricemia and antigouty arthritis drug.

4.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1619, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate global burden of refraction disorders by year, age, region, gender, socioeconomic status and other national characteristics in terms of disability adjusted life years (DALYs) and prevalence from Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study 2019 and World Bank Open Data 2019. METHODS: Global, regional, and national DALY numbers, crude DALY rates, age-standardized DALY and prevalence rates of refraction disorders were acquired from the GBD study 2019. Mobile cellular subscriptions, urban population, GDP per capita, access to electricity and total fertility rate were obtained from the World Bank to explore the factors that influenced the health burden of refraction disorders. Kruskal-Wallis test, linear regression and multiple linear regression were performed to evaluate the associations between the health burden with socioeconomic levels and other national characteristics. Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test was used to investigate the gender disparity. RESULTS: Globally, age-standardized DALY rates of refraction disorders decreased from 88.9 (95% UI: 60.5-120.3) in 1990 to 81.5 (95% UI: 55.0-114.8) in 2019, and might fall to 73.16 (95% UI: 67.81-78.51) by 2050. Age-standardized prevalence rates would also reduce to 1830 (95% UI: 1700-1960) by 2050, from 2080 (95% UI: 1870-2310) in 1990 to 1960 (95% UI: 1750-2180) in 2019. In low SDI region, age-standardized DALY rates (equation: Y = 114.05*X + 27.88) and prevalence rates (equation: Y = 3171.1*X + 403.2) were positively correlated with SDI in linear regression respectively. East Asia had the highest blindness rate caused by refraction disorders in terms of age-standardized DALY rates (11.20, 95% UI: 7.38-16.36). Gender inequality was found among different age groups and SDI regions. CONCLUSION: Health burden of refraction disorders decreased in recent years, and may continue to alleviate in the next three decades. Older ages, females and lower socioeconomic status were associated with higher refraction disorders health burden.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Carga Global da Doença , Idoso , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida
5.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 23(9): 877-881, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535200

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To study the efficacy of Huaiqihuang granules as adjuvant therapy for bronchial asthma in children. METHODS: A multicenter, prospective, and registered real-world study was performed for the children, aged 2-5 years, who had a confirmed diagnosis of bronchial asthma in the outpatient service of 21 hospitals in China. Among these children, the children treated with medications for long-term asthma control (inhaled corticosteroid and/or leukotriene receptor antagonist) without Huaiqihuang granules were enrolled as the control treatment group, and those treated with medications for long-term asthma control combined with Huaiqihuang granules were enrolled as the combined treatment group. The medical data of all children were collected. Outpatient or telephone follow-up was performed at weeks 4, 8, 12, 20, 28, and 36 after treatment, including asthma attacks and rhinitis symptoms. A statistical analysis was performed for the changes in these indices. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the frequency of asthma attacks or rhinitis attacks between the two groups before treatment (P>0.05). After treatment, the combined treatment group had significantly lower frequencies of asthma attacks, severe asthma attacks, and rhinitis attacks compared with the control treatment group (P<0.05). There was no signification difference in the incidence rate of adverse reactions between the two groups (P=0.667). CONCLUSIONS: Huaiqihuang granules in addition to medications for long-term asthma control can alleviate the symptoms of bronchial asthma and rhinitis and improve the level of asthma control in children with bronchial asthma, with good safety and little adverse effect. Citation.


Assuntos
Asma , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533874

RESUMO

Highly selective CO 2 electroreduction reaction (CO 2 RR) into desired value-added multicarbon products such as C 2 H 4 is of great importance but largely limited by the multi-electron transfer process and sluggish C-C coupling step at one single active site. Herein, an effective tandem catalysis strategy is developed to improve the selectivity of the CO 2 RR towards C 2 H 4 by multiple distinct catalytic sites in local vicinity. An earth-abundant elements-based tandem electrocatalyst PTF(Ni)/Cu is constructed by uniformly dispersing Cu nanoparticles (NPs) on the porphyrinic triazine framework anchored with atomically isolated nickel-nitrogen sites (PTF(Ni)) for the enhanced CO 2 RR to produce C 2 H 4 . The Faradaic efficiency of C 2 H 4 reaches 57.3% at -1.1 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), which is about 6 times higher than the non-tandem catalyst PTF/Cu, which produces CH 4 as the major carbon product. The operando infrared spectroscopy and theoretic density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal that the local high concentration of CO generated by PTF(Ni) sites can facilitate the C-C coupling to form C 2 H 4 on the nearby Cu NP sites. The work offers an effective avenue to design electrocatalysts for the highly selective CO 2 RR to produce multicarbon products via a tandem route.

7.
J Pept Sci ; : e3368, 2021 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34514664

RESUMO

Coupling reagents play crucial roles in the iterative construction of amide bonds for the synthesis of peptides and peptide-based derivatives. The novel DIC/Oxyma condensation system featured with the low risk of explosion displayed remarkable abilities to inhibit racemization, along with efficient coupling efficiency in both manual and automated syntheses. Nevertheless, an ideal reaction molar ratio in DIC/Oxyma condensation system and the moderate reaction temperature by manual synthesis remain to be further investigated. Herein, the synthetic efficiencies of different reaction ratios between DIC and Oxyma under moderate reaction temperature were systematically evaluated. The robustness and efficiency of DIC/Oxyma condensation system are validated by the rapid synthesis of linear centipede toxin RhTx. Different folding strategies were applied for the construction of disulfide bridges in RhTx, which was further confirmed in assays of circular dichroism and patch-clamp electrophysiology evaluation. This work establishes the DIC/Oxyma-based accelerated synthesis of peptides under moderate condensation conditions, which is especially useful for the manual synthesis of peptides. Besides, the strategy presented here provides robust technical supports for the large-scale synthesis and oxidative folding of RhTx.

8.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 23(8): 802-808, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511169

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To study the association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism with susceptibility to bronchial asthma and glucocorticoid (GC) efficacy in children. METHODS: A total of 173 children with bronchial asthma who were hospitalized between June 2018 and December 2020 were selected as the observation group. The children received aerosol inhalation of GC for three consecutive months. A total of 178 healthy children who underwent physical examination during the same period were selected as the control group. PCR was used to detect the genotypes of the MTHFR C677T for the two groups. The differences in genotype distribution between the two groups were analyzed. Children with different genotypes in the observation group were compared in terms of immunoglobulin E (IgE), interleukin-8 (IL-8), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), lung function, and clinical outcome before and after treatment. RESULTS: TT genotype and T allele were significantly more frequent in the observation group than in the control group (P<0.001). TT/CT genotypes and T allele were independent risk factors for bronchial asthma (OR=6.615 and 7.055 respectively; P<0.001). After GC treatment, the children with CC, CT or TT genotypes experienced significantly decreased levels of IgE, IL-8, and LTB4 and significantly increased forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and FEV1/FVC ratio (P<0.001). The children with TT genotype showed significantly lower levels of IL-8 and LTB4 than those with CC genotype, a significantly lower level of LTB4 than those with CT genotype, significantly higher FVC than those with CT genotype, and a significantly higher FEV1/FVC ratio than those with CC genotype (P<0.05). The children with TT genotype had better GC efficacy compared with those with CC genotype (P<0.05). TT genotype was an independent factor for good GC efficacy (OR=2.111, P=0.018). CONCLUSIONS: MTHFR gene polymorphism is associated with asthma susceptibility and GC efficacy in children. Children carrying TT/CT genotypes have a higher risk of developing asthma, and those with TT genotype are more sensitive to GC treatment.


Assuntos
Asma , Glucocorticoides , Alelos , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Asma/genética , Criança , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Redutase (NADPH2)/genética , Polimorfismo Genético
9.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(38): 46065-46075, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533938

RESUMO

Biomaterial-associated infections caused by pathogenic bacteria have important implications on human health. This study presents the design and preparation of a smart surface with pH-responsive wettability. The smart surface exhibited synergistic antibacterial function, with high liquid repellency against bacterial adhesion and highly effective bactericidal activity. The wettability of the surface can switch reversibly between superhydrophobicity and hydrophobicity in response to pH; this controls bacterial adhesion and release. Besides, the deposited silver nanoparticles of the surface were also responsible for bacterial inhibition. Benefiting from the excellent liquid repellency, the surface could highly resist bacterial adhesion after immersing in a bacterial suspension for 10 s (85%) and 1 h (71%). Adhered bacteria can be easily eliminated using deposited silver nanoparticles during the subsequent treatment of alkaline bacterial suspension, and the ratio of deactivated bacteria was above 75%. After the pH returned to neutral, the deactivated bacteria can be easily released from the surface. This antibacterial surface showed an improved bacterial removal efficiency of about 99%. The results shed light on future antibacterial applications of the smart surface combining both bactericidal and adhesion-resistant functionalities.

11.
Cancer Biol Med ; 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34570441

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Approximately 5%-10% of breast cancer (BC) patients display familial traits that are genetically inherited among the members of a family. The purpose of this study was to profile the germline mutations in 43 genes with different penetration rates and their correlations with phenotypic traits in Chinese familial BC families. METHODS: Ion Torrent S5™-based next generation sequencing was conducted on 116 subjects from 27 Chinese familial BC families. RESULTS: Eighty-one germline mutations in 27 BC predisposition genes were identified in 82.8% (96/116) of the cases. Among these, 80.8% of the mutated genes were related to DNA damage repair. Fourteen possible disease-causing variants were identified in 13 of 27 BC families. Only 25.9% (7/27) of the BC families exhibited hereditary deficiency in BRCA1/2 genes, while 22.2% of the BC families exhibited defects in non-BRCA genes. In all, 41.7% (40/96) of the mutation carriers had BRCA mutations, 88.5% (85/96) had non-BRCA mutations, and 30.2% (29/96) had both BRCA and non-BRCA mutations. The BC patients with BRCA mutations had a higher risk of axillary lymph node metastases than those without mutations (P < 0.05). However, the BC patients with non-BRCA mutations frequently had a higher occurrence of benign breast diseases than those without mutations (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In addition to BRCA1/2, genetic variants in non-BRCA DNA repair genes might play significant roles in the development of familial/hereditary BC. Therefore, profiling of multiple BC predisposition genes should be more valuable for screening potential pathogenic germline mutations in Chinese familial/hereditary BC.

12.
Food Chem ; 368: 130816, 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416489

RESUMO

Acrylamide (AA), a potential carcinogen, is commonly formed in foods rich in carbohydrates at high heat. It is known that AA-induced mitochondrial dysfunction is responsible for its toxicity. Previously we found AA exposure increased miR-27a-5p expression in livers of SD rats. Here, the regulation mechanism of miR-27a-5p in mitochondrial dysfunction was investigated in rat liver cell lines (IAR20) and SD rats. The results showed that the overexpressed miR-27a-5p contributes to modulating mitochondrial dysfunction and Btf3 is identified as its target gene. The knockdown of Btf3 increases the cleaved PARP1 level and the phosphorylation of ATM and p53, which results in mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. Therefore, the miR-27a-5p-Btf3-ATM-p53 axis might play a vital role in the promotion of AA-induced cell apoptosis through disrupting mitochondrial structure and function. This would provide a potential target for the assessment and intervention of AA toxicity.

13.
J Neurosci ; 41(37): 7727-7741, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34349001

RESUMO

Chronic itch is a troublesome condition and often difficult to cure. Emerging evidence suggests that the periaqueductal gray (PAG)-rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) pathway may play an important role in the regulation of itch, but the cellular organization and molecular mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Here, we report that a group of RVM neurons distinctively express the G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER), which mediates descending inhibition of itch. We found that GPER+ neurons in the RVM were activated in chronic itch conditions in rats and mice. Selective ablation or chemogenetic suppression of RVM GPER+ neurons resulted in mechanical alloknesis and increased scratching in response to pruritogens, whereas chemogenetic activation of GPER+ neurons abrogated itch responses, indicating that GPER+ neurons are antipruritic. Moreover, GPER-deficient mice and rats of either sex exhibited hypersensitivity to mechanical and chemical itch, a phenotype reversible by the µ type opioid receptor (MOR) antagonism. Additionally, significant MOR phosphorylation in the RVM was detected in chronic itch models in wild-type but not in GPER-/- rats. Therefore, GPER not only identifies a population of medullary antipruritic neurons but may also determine the descending antipruritic tone through regulating µ opioid signaling.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Therapeutic options for itch are limited because of an as yet incomplete understanding of the mechanisms of itch processing. Our data have provided novel insights into the cellular organization and molecular mechanisms of descending regulation of itch in normal and pathologic conditions. GPER+ neurons (largely GABAergic) in the RVM are antipruritic neurons under tonic opioidergic inhibition, activation of GPER promotes phosphorylation of MOR and disinhibition of the antipruritic GPER+ neurons from inhibitory opioidergic inputs, and failure to mobilize GPER+ neurons may result in the exacerbation of itch. Our data also illuminate on some of the outstanding questions in the field, such as the mechanisms underlying sex bias in itch, pain, and opioid analgesia and the paradoxical effects of morphine on pain and itch.

14.
Curr Med Sci ; 41(4): 782-787, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403104

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Combined surgical and endovascular treatment for vascular disorders has become prevalent in recent years. However, reports on one-session hybrid surgery for arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are relatively rare. The safety and efficiency of combined treatment for brain AVMs were analyzed in biplanar hybrid operating room (OR) at one stage. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 20 patients with AVMs undergoing combined surgical and endovascular treatment from October 2015 to June 2018. The data for resection rate, microcatheter adhesion, surgical position and postoperative outcomes were analyzed. Total resection or near-total resection was achieved in all cases. RESULTS: A total of 13 patients were under combined endovascular and surgical procedures, and 7 experienced surgery with intraoperative digital subtraction angiography. Sitting position was applied in 3 of them; 2 niduses in cerebellum, and 1 in parietal lobe. Compared with admission modified Rankin Scale (mRS) in all patients, postoperative 12-month mRS showed a significant decline. Besides, 3 patients experienced microcatheter adhesion after endovascular embolization, thereafter underwent surgical adhesion removal while nidus resection was done. CONCLUSION: Combined endovascular and surgical modality in a hybrid OR at one stage provides a safe strategy for the treatment of AVMs. The biplanar hybrid neurointerventional suite is endowed with unconstrained operating angle which enables combined endovascular and surgical treatment in sitting position. It also reduces the risk of microcatheter adhesion, which enables interventional radiologists to perform aggressively.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34398376

RESUMO

With the rapid development of ultra-high-voltage (UHV) direct-current (DC) transmissions, the impact of static electric fields (SEF) in the vicinity of overhead UHV DC transmission lines on health has aroused much public concern. This study explored the effects of 56.3kV/m SEF on the spleen of mice. Results showed that SEF exposure of 21days significantly increased malonic dialdehyde content, superoxide dismutase activity, calcineurin activity, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, and the mRNA expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in the spleen and caused the separation of nucleus and nuclear membrane, the disappearance of mitochondrial membrane, and the deficiency of mitochondrial cristae in splenic lymphocytes. By analysis and discussion, it was deduced that SEF could induce oxidative stress of the spleen by increasing the activity of NOS. Oxidative stress could further cause ultrastructural changes of splenic lymphocytes. Moreover, oxidative stress could cause the increase of the mRNA expression levels of TNF-α and NF-κB, which contributed to the occurrence of spleen inflammation.

16.
Parasite ; 28: 61, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374643

RESUMO

Eimeria spp. cause the disease coccidiosis, which results in chronic wasting of livestock and can lead to the death of the animal. The disease, common worldwide, has caused huge economic losses to the cattle industry in particular. This is the first systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of bovine Eimeria in China. Our search of five databases including PubMed, ScienceDirect, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chongqing VIP, and Wan Fang for articles published up to February 29, 2020 on the prevalence of Eimeria in cattle in mainland China yielded 46 articles, in which the prevalence of cattle ranged from 4.6% to 87.5%. The rate of bovine Eimeria infection has been decreasing year by year, from 57.9% before 2000 to 25.0% after 2015, but it is still high. We also analyzed the region, sampling years, detection methods, feeding model, seasons, and species of bovine Eimeria. We recommend that prevention strategies should focus on strengthening detection of Eimeria in calves in the intensive farming model.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Coccidiose , Eimeria , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Fezes , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375293

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a severe worldwide health emergency and is spreading at a rapid rate. Segmentation of COVID lesions from computed tomography (CT) scans is of great importance for supervising disease progression and further clinical treatment. As labeling COVID-19 CT scans is labor-intensive and time-consuming, it is essential to develop a segmentation method based on limited labeled data to conduct this task. In this paper, we propose a self-ensembled co-training framework, which is trained by limited labeled data and large-scale unlabeled data, to automatically extract COVID lesions from CT scans. Specifically, to enrich the diversity of unsupervised information, we build a co-training framework consisting of two collaborative models, in which the two models teach each other during training by using their respective predicted pseudo-labels of unlabeled data. Moreover, to alleviate the adverse impacts of noisy pseudo-labels for each model, we propose a self-ensembling strategy to perform consistency regularization for the up-to-date predictions of unlabeled data, in which the predictions of unlabeled data are gradually ensemble via moving average at the end of every training epoch. We evaluate our framework on a COVID-19 dataset containing 103 CT scans. Experimental results show that our proposed method achieves better performance in the case of only 4 labeled CT scans compared to the state-of-the-art semi-supervised segmentation networks.

18.
J Bone Miner Metab ; 2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34350522

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Osteoporosis is the most susceptible disease for people over 60. The main cause of osteoporosis is the decreased osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Here we showed that upstream stimulatory factor 2 (USF2)/microRNA-34a (miR-34a)/bone morphogenetic protein 3 (BMP3) axis regulated osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: USF2 and miR-34a expression were examined using qPCR. Protein levels of BMP3 and osteogenic markers expression were evaluated using both western blot and qPCR. Activity of ALP was determined by ALP assay kit. Mineralization capacity of hBMSCs was assessed using ARS. Besides, CHIP assay was employed to verify whether USF2 could bind to miR-34a promoter. Finally, RIP assay and dual-luciferase reporter assay were employed to verify whether miR-34a directly bound to BMP3. RESULTS: Our results suggested that miR-34a was upregulated during osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs, and miR-34a overexpression could enhance osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. USF2 could positively regulate miR-34a expression by interacting with its promoter. USF2 overexpression enhanced osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs, while miR-34a inhibition reversed the effect. Besides, BMP3 was the target of miR-34a. MiR-34a overexpression enhanced osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs, which was abolished by BMP3 overexpression. CONCLUSION: Taken together, USF2 enhanced osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs via downregulating BMP3 by interacting with miR-34a promoter.

19.
Bioorg Chem ; 116: 105291, 2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438122

RESUMO

In this study, twenty novel cinnamic acid magnolol derivatives were synthesized, and screened for their anti-hyperglycemic potential. All synthesized compounds exhibited good to moderate α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activities with IC50 values: 5.11 ± 1.46-90.26 ± 1.85 µM and 4.27 ± 1.51-49.28 ± 2.54 µM as compared to the standard acarbose (IC50: 255.44 ± 1.89 µM and 80.33 ± 2.95 µM, respectively). Compound 6j showed the strongest inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase (IC50 = 5.11 ± 1.46 µM) and α-amylase (IC50 = 4.27 ± 1.51 µM). Kinetic study indicated that compound 6j was reversible and a mixed type inhibitor against α-glucosidase and α-amylase. In silico studies revealed the binding interaction between 6j and two enzymes, respectively. Finally, cells cytotoxicity assay revealed that compound 6j showed low toxicity against 3 T3-L1 cells and HepG2 cells.

20.
Can J Anaesth ; 68(11): 1601-1610, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34357567

RESUMO

PURPOSE: There is a paucity of data on the effect of intraoperative end-tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO2) levels on postoperative mortality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between intraoperative EtCO2 and 90-day mortality in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery under general anesthesia. METHODS: We conducted a historical cohort study of patients undergoing major abdominal surgery under general anesthesia at Kyoto University Hospital. We measured the intraoperative EtCO2, and patients with a mean EtCO2 value < 35 mm Hg were classified as low EtCO2. The time effect was determined based on minutes below an EtCO2 of 35 mm Hg, and cumulative effects were evaluated by measuring the area under the threshold of 35 mm Hg for each patient. RESULTS: Of 4,710 patients, 1,374 (29%) had low EtCO2 and 55 (1.2%) died within 90 days of surgery. Multivariable Cox regression analysis-adjusted for age, American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status classification, sex, laparoscopic surgery, emergency surgery, blood loss, mean arterial pressure, duration of surgery, type of surgery, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-revealed an association between low EtCO2 and 90-day mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2 to 3.8; P = 0.006). In addition, severity of low EtCO2 was associated with an increased 90-day mortality (area under the threshold; adjusted hazard ratio; 2.9, 95% CI, 1.2 to 7.4; P =0.02); for long-term exposure to an EtCO2 < 35 mm Hg (≥ 226 min), the adjusted hazard ratio for increased 90-day mortality was 2.3 (95% CI, 0.9 to 6.0; P = 0.08). CONCLUSION: A mean intraoperative EtCO2 < 35 mm Hg was associated with increased postoperative 90-day mortality.

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