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1.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0258717, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731176

RESUMO

There remains a large gender imbalance in the science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) workforce deriving from a leaky pipeline where women start losing interest and confidence in science and engineering as early as primary school. To address this disparity, the Science Research & Engineering Program (SREP) at Hathaway Brown School was established in 1998 to engage and expose their all-female high school students to STEM fields through an internship-like multi-year research experience at partnering institutions. We compare data from existing Hathaway Brown School SREP alumnae records from 1998-2018 (n = 495) to Non-SREP students and national datasets (National Center for Educational Statistics, National Science Foundation, and US Census data) to assess how SREP participation may influence persistence in the STEM pipeline and whether SREP alumnae attribute differences in these outcomes to the confidence and skill sets they learned from the SREP experience. The results reveal that women who participate in the SREP are more likely to pursue a major in a STEM field and continue on to a STEM occupation compared to non-SREP students, national female averages, and national subsets. Participants attribute their outcomes to an increase in confidence, establishment of technical and professional skills, and other traits strengthened through the SREP experience. These data suggest that implementing similar experiential programs for women in science and engineering at the high school stage could be a promising way to combat the remaining gender gap in STEM fields.

2.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(7): 1389-1397, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349967

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sex plays an important role in the incidence, prognosis, and mortality of cancers, but often is not considered in disease treatment. METHODS: We quantified sex differences in cancer incidence using the United States Cancer Statistics (USCS) public use database and sex differences in cancer survival using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) public use data from 2001 to 2016. Age-adjusted male-to-female incidence rate ratios (IRR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were generated by primary cancer site, race, and age groups. In addition, age-adjusted hazard ratios with 95% CI by sex within site were generated. RESULTS: In general, cancer incidence and overall survival were lower in males than females, with Kaposi sarcoma (IRR: 9.751; 95% CI, 9.287-10.242; P < 0.001) having highest male-to-female incidence, and thyroid cancers (HR, 1.774; 95% CI, 1.707-1.845) having largest male-to-female survival difference. Asian or Pacific Islanders had particularly high male-to-female incidence in larynx cancers (IRR: 8.199; 95% CI, 7.203-9.363; P < 0.001), relative to other races. Among primary brain tumors, germ cell tumors had the largest male-to-female incidence (IRR: 3.03; 95% CI, 2.798-3.284, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, incidence and survival of cancer vary significantly by sex, with males generally having lower incidence and survival compared with females. Male-to-female incidence differences were also noted across race and age groups. These results provide strong evidence that the fundamental biology of sex differences affects cancers of all types. IMPACT: This study represents the most recent and comprehensive reporting of sex differences in cancer incidence and survival in the United States. Identifying disadvantaged groups is critical as it can provide useful information to improve cancer survival, as well as to better understand the etiology and pathogenesis of specific cancers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida
3.
Water Res ; 144: 642-655, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30096690

RESUMO

The consumption of saline groundwater has contributed to a growing incidence of renal diseases, particularly in coastal communities of India. Although reverse osmosis (RO) is routinely used to remove salt from groundwater, conventional RO systems (i.e. centralized systems using spiral wound RO elements) have limited utility in these communities due to high capital and maintenances costs, and lack of infrastructure to distribute the water. Consequently, there is a need to develop an appropriate solution for groundwater treatment based on small-scale, mobile and community-led systems. In this work, we designed a mobile desalination system to provide a simple platform for water treatment and delivery of goods to rural communities. The system employs tubular RO membranes packed in a single, low-profile vessel which fits below the cargo space. The low-profile enables minimal intrusion on the space available for the transportation of goods. Pressure is delivered by a belt driven clutch pump, powered by the engine. Water is treated locally by connecting the intake to the village well while the vehicle idles. A combined numerical and experimental approach was used to optimise the module/system design, resulting in ∼20% permeate flux enhancement. Experimental results revealed that the system can produce 16 L per square meter of membrane area per hour (LMH) at a salinity level of 80 ppm from a ∼2000 ppm groundwater when it is feed at 1 m3/h at 8 bars. This indicates that a vehicle equipped with 12 m2 of tubular RO membranes can deliver 1 m3 of drinkable water by using ∼0.9 L of diesel. Assuming eight such systems could be implemented in a community to fulfil the water demands for a village with 2000 residents, a social business study revealed that a payback time of 2.5 years is achievable, even if the sale price of the water is relatively low, USD 0.18 (Rs 12, which is half of the lowest market price) per 20 L, including providing a goods transportation service at price of USD 5.25 (Rs 350) per 100 km.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Purificação da Água , Humanos , Índia , Membranas Artificiais , Osmose , População Rural
4.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 14(6): 625-629, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27794473

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We evaluated the performance of stool microscopy, serology, and real time PCR (qPCR) for the diagnosis of strongyloidiasis at our reference laboratory. METHODS: Using a convenience sample of specimens submitted between April 1, 2014 and May 31, 2015, positivity rates and performance characteristics were calculated. RESULTS: During the enrolment period, 17,933 stool specimens were examined for O&P, 14 of which were positive for Strongyloides larvae. For stool specimens serially positive for larvae, mean duration of larval shedding was 12.7 days following the initial positive specimen, while for sputum and urine, it was 12 and 2 days, respectively. During the enrolment period, 3258 specimens were processed for Strongyloides serology, 200 of which were reactive (6.1%), 210 indeterminate (6.5%), and 2848 non-reactive (87.4%). qPCR was positive in 11 of 12 (91.7%) stool specimens containing larvae, and negative in all stool specimens without larvae by microscopy. There was no cross-reactivity of Strongyloides-specific qPCR to other stool protozoa or helminths. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of immunosuppression, larval burden in strongyloidiasis is low, limiting the utility of microscopy, and favoring serologic testing. However, false negative serology can occur in those with hyperinfection necessitating a combined diagnostic approach. qPCR was insufficiently sensitive to replace microscopy for detection of larvae.


Assuntos
Fezes/parasitologia , Carga Parasitária , Strongyloides/isolamento & purificação , Estrongiloidíase/diagnóstico , Estrongiloidíase/epidemiologia , Animais , Humanos , Larva/genética , Larva/ultraestrutura , Microscopia , Doenças Negligenciadas/diagnóstico , Doenças Negligenciadas/parasitologia , Ontário/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Escarro/parasitologia , Strongyloides/genética , Strongyloides/imunologia , Strongyloides/ultraestrutura , Estrongiloidíase/parasitologia , Urina/parasitologia
5.
Res Sports Med ; 21(3): 229-39, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23777378

RESUMO

Female lacrosse has grown 219% in the last decade. This descriptive study explored the epidemiology of elite female high school lacrosse injuries and compared them with those in the collegiate player. Five hundred surveys were completed at tournaments in the northeast United States. Over 60% played other sports; 50% experienced a new injury while playing lacrosse, and 16% had a recurrent injury from another sport. The ankle, knee, and head were most commonly injured. Eleven percent of respondents sustained a concussion; 35% of these experienced some loss of consciousness. Eighty-four percent of injuries occurred via contact. Forty-two percent (42%) of athletes lost 10 or more days of playing time. Frequency data showed that reported injuries are high for elite lacrosse, which is classified as a noncontact sport, and are comparable with those seen in the collegiate player.


Assuntos
Traumatismos do Tornozelo/epidemiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Concussão Encefálica/epidemiologia , Traumatismos do Joelho/epidemiologia , Esportes com Raquete/lesões , Adolescente , Traumatismos do Tornozelo/etiologia , Concussão Encefálica/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Traumatismos do Joelho/etiologia , Vigilância da População , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Saúde da Mulher
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