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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 807(Pt 1): 150784, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624282

RESUMO

The effects of multiple antibiotics on the anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox) process were investigated. The resistance of the anammox system to high-concentration antibiotics was also demonstrated through gradual acclimation experiments. Inhibition of the anammox process (R1) occurred when the concentrations of erythromycin (ERY), sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and tetracycline (TC) were 0.1, 5.0 and 0.1 mg L-1, respectively. The nitrogen removal efficiency (NRE) of R1 was reduced from 97.2% to 60.7% within 12 days and then recovered to 88.9 ± 9.5% when the nitrogen loading declined from 4.52 ± 0.69 to 2.11 ± 0.58 kg N m-3 d-1. Even when the concentrations of ERY, SMX and TC were as high as 1.0, 15.0 and 1.0 mg L-1, respectively, R1 maintained stable operation. The increases in the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) content showed that the anammox process alleviated stress from multiple antibiotics mainly by producing ARGs and secreting EPS. The molecular docking simulation results illustrated the potential binding sites between ammonium transporter and different antibiotics. The upregulation of functional gene expression and the stable abundance of Candidatus Kuenenia in R1 compared with that in the control suggested that the R1 reactor generally maintained more stable long-term operation. This work provides a new understanding of the application of the anammox process to treat wastewater containing multiple antibiotics.

2.
Cereb Cortex ; 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643680

RESUMO

Sex differences in human emotion and related decision-making behaviors are recognized, which can be traced back early in development. However, our understanding of their underlying neurodevelopmental mechanisms remains elusive. Using developmental functional magnetic resonance imaging and computational approach, we investigated developmental sex differences in latent decision-making dynamics during negative emotion processing and related neurocognitive pathways in 243 school-aged children and 78 young adults. Behaviorally, girls exhibit higher response caution and more effective evidence accumulation, whereas boys show more impulsive response to negative facial expression stimuli. These effects parallel sex differences in emotion-related brain maturity linking to evidence accumulation, along with age-related decrease in emotional response in the basolateral amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) in girls and an increase in the centromedial amygdala (CMA) in boys. Moreover, girls exhibit age-related decreases in BLA-MPFC coupling linked to evidence accumulation, but boys exhibit increases in CMA-insula coupling associated with response caution. Our findings highlight the neurocomputational accounts for developmental sex differences in emotion and emotion-related behaviors and provide important implications into the neurodevelopmental mechanisms of sex differences in latent emotional decision-making dynamics. This informs the emergence of sex differences in typical and atypical neurodevelopment of children's emotion and related functions.

3.
Int J Cancer ; 2021 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605013

RESUMO

Patients with conventional adenoma removal are recommended to undergo colonoscopy surveillance to prevent colorectal cancer (CRC). However, evidence supporting the guidelines of colonoscopy surveillance is limited, especially among the Chinese population. We investigated the association between colonoscopy adenoma findings and CRC risk among individuals aged 40-74 years who underwent baseline colonoscopy from 2007 to 2016 in Jiashan and Haining, Zhejiang, China. 34 382 participants were categorized into advanced adenoma, nonadvanced adenoma and no adenoma based on adenoma findings. Multivariable Cox regression model was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of CRC incidence with adjustment for potential confounding factors. After a median follow-up time of 7.7 years, 113 incident cases of CRC were identified (18 occurred in 1632 participants with advanced adenoma, 16 in 3973 participants with nonadvanced adenoma and 79 in 28 777 participants with no adenoma). Compared with no adenoma group, the adjusted HR for CRC in advanced adenoma group was 4.01 (95% CI, 2.37, 6.77). For nonadvanced adenomas, individuals with ≥3 adenomas showed an increased risk of CRC (HR, 3.65; 95% CI, 1.43, 9.31), but no significantly increased risk of CRC was found for 1-2 nonadvanced adenomas, compared with those with no adenoma. Our study suggested that the risk of subsequent CRC increased in individuals with high-risk adenoma (at least one advanced adenoma or ≥3 nonadvanced adenomas), but not in those with 1-2 nonadvanced adenomas. These results provide the first evidence from the Chinese population for the current surveillance guidelines. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

4.
Dis Markers ; 2021: 1923636, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34504626

RESUMO

Objective: To find risk markers and develop new clinical predictive models for the differential diagnosis of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) with varying degrees of disease. Methods: 19766 children with HFMD and 64 clinical indexes were included in this study. The patients included in this study were divided into the mild patients' group (mild) with 12292 cases, severe patients' group (severe) with 6508 cases, and severe patients with respiratory failure group (severe-RF) with 966 cases. Single-factor analysis was carried out on 64 indexes collected from patients when they were admitted to the hospital, and the indexes with statistical differences were selected as the prediction factors. Binary multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to construct the prediction models and calculate the adjusted odds ratio (OR). Results: SP, DP, NEUT#, NEUT%, RDW-SD, RDW-CV, GGT, CK/CK-MB, and Glu were risk markers in mild/severe, mild/severe-RF, and severe/severe-RF. Glu was a diagnostic marker for mild/severe-RF (AUROC = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.78-0.82); the predictive model constructed by temperature, SP, MOMO%, EO%, RDW-SD, GLB, CRP, Glu, BUN, and Cl could be used for the differential diagnosis of mild/severe (AUROC > 0.84); the predictive model constructed by SP, age, NEUT#, PCT, TBIL, GGT, Mb, ß2MG, Glu, and Ca could be used for the differential diagnosis of severe/severe-RF (AUROC > 0.76). Conclusion: By analyzing clinical indicators, we have found the risk markers of HFMD and established suitable predictive models.

5.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 150009, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492484

RESUMO

The anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process has been recognized as an efficient nitrogen removal technology. However, anammox bacteria are susceptible to surrounding environments and different pollutants, which limits the extensive application of the anammox process worldwide. Numerous researchers investigate the effects of various pollutants on the anammox process or bacteria, and related findings have also been reviewed with the focused on their inhibitory effects on process performance and microbial community. This review systemically summarized the recent advances in the inhibition, mechanism and recovery process of traditional and emerging pollutants on the anammox process over a decade, such as organics, metals, antibiotics, nanoparticles, etc. Generally, low-concentration pollutants exhibited a promotion on the anammox activity, while high-concentration pollutants showed inhibitory effects. The inhibitory threshold concentration of different pollutants varied. The combined effects of multipollutant also attracts more attentions, including synergistic, antagonistic and independent effects. Additionally, remaining problems and research needs are further proposed. This review provides a foundation for future research on the inhibition in anammox process, and promotes the proper operation of anammox processes treating different types of wastewaters.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500401

RESUMO

Extracts from the bran of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (QBE) were reported to be active in inhibiting α-glycosidase, a promising target for treatment of diabetes mellitus. However, the constituents responsible for the α-glucosidase-inhibiting activity of QBE have not been fully characterized. The present study aimed to set up a method for rapid identification of glycosidase inhibiting compounds from the quinoa bran. With surface plasmon resonance (SPR) coupled with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), we identified eight flavonoids and ten triterpenoid saponins that may bind to the α-glycosidase. Analysis of the interaction kinetics by molecular docking supported their α-glucosidase-inhibiting activity and revealed the potential mechanisms for the inhibitory effects. In summary, this study established a SPR and LC-MS-based method for rapid in vitro screening of α-glucosidase inhibitors and suggested the quinoa bran a potential natural source of α-glucosidase inhibitors.

7.
Nanoscale ; 13(37): 15743-15754, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34528655

RESUMO

Extensive full-thickness skin defect lacks self-healing ability. Tissue engineering wound dressing is considered as the most promising approach to promote wound healing. In this study, a series of biocompatible and hemostatic nanofiber dressings were fabricated. Soy protein isolate (SPI) and poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) solutions were mixed in certain proportions for high-voltage electrospinning. The obtained products were coded as SPNF-n (n = 100, 80, 60 and 40, corresponding to the weight percentage of PLLA solution). We found that SPNF-n (n = 100, 80, 60 and 40) could facilitate the adhesion and spread of L929 cells. In particular, SPNF-80 was capable of promoting fibroblast proliferation and diminishing inflammation. Compared with the neat PLLA film (SPNF-100), the biosafety and hemostatic effect of SPNF-80 got significantly improved. The hemostatic effect of SPNF-80 was comparable with that of a commercial gelatin sponge. In vivo wound healing assay demonstrated that SPNF-80 could accelerate the wound healing process by enhancing vascularization, re-epithelization and collagen formation. In conclusion, our results reveal that SPNF-n has good biocompatibility and hemostatic effect, and exhibits great application potential in wound healing.


Assuntos
Hemostáticos , Nanofibras , Hemostáticos/farmacologia , Pele , Proteínas de Soja , Cicatrização
8.
Orthop Surg ; 2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351066

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the midterm outcomes and the capsular healing in patients who had interportal capsulotomy versus periportal capsulotomy of hip arthroscopy. METHODS: Retrospectively reviewed 33 patients with labral tear received hip arthroscopy, with an average age of 41 (27-67) years, including 13 cases of Cam deformity and three cases of Pincer deformity. All patients had positive sign of flexion adduction internal rotation or flexion abduction external rotation. With MRI and radiographic (CT, X plain) imageological examination. MRI showed that all patients had labral tear. Radiographic finding (CT, X plain) showed the pathological changes of acetabular and femoral neck osteophyte. One group with 23 patients were treated with periportal capsulotomy. Another group with 10 patients were treated with interportal capsulotomy. All patients did not close the capsule. Clinical outcomes were measured with the Hip Outcome Score Activities of Daily Living (HOS-ADL) and the modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), patient satisfaction measured with visual analogue scale (VAS). The healing of the capsule was evaluated by MRI. MRI showed continuous capsular indicated healing, discontinuous capsular indicated unhealing. Postoperatively 6 months, mHHS and HOS-ADL were obtained. Randomized controlled trials were used in this study for analysis. RESULTS: All patients were followed up with average time of 9.3 months(3-29 months). The postoperative symptoms were obviously relieved, the VAS decreased from (4.9 ± 0.6) to (1.2 ± 0.2) after 3 months postoperative. Follow up 6 months post-operation, patients in the interportal group, the mHHS and HOS-ADL scores improvement were respectively 69.4 ± 9.3 & 70 ± 8.8 pre-operation, and 92.5 ± 5.0 & 86.6 ± 5.4 post-operation (P < 0.05); Patients in the periportal group, the mHHS and HOS-ADL scores improvement were respectively 69.9 ± 15.8, 68.1 ± 15.0 pre-operation, and 90.1 ± 9.3 & 86.7 ± 7.9 post-operation (P < 0.05).The differences were statistically significant. Six months after operation, MRI showed that 23 patients with periportal capsulotomy, the capsule have healed, without other complications. Three of the ten patients with interportal capsulotomy were healed and seven were not. CONCLUSION: Interportal and periportal capsulotomy had good outcomes. The technique of periportal capsulotomy had little damage to the joint capsule. Although the capsule did not close, the capsule healed well in postoperative follow-up. The nonunion rate of the joint capsule was high in the interportal capsulotomy without close the capsule.

9.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361714

RESUMO

α-glucosidase is a major enzyme that is involved in starch digestion and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, the inhibition of hypericin by α-glucosidase and its mechanism were firstly investigated using enzyme kinetics analysis, real-time interaction analysis between hypericin and α-glucosidase by surface plasmon resonance (SPR), and molecular docking simulation. The results showed that hypericin was a high potential reversible and competitive α-glucosidase inhibitor, with a maximum half inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 4.66 ± 0.27 mg/L. The binding affinities of hypericin with α-glucosidase were assessed using an SPR detection system, which indicated that these were strong and fast, with balances dissociation constant (KD) values of 6.56 × 10-5 M and exhibited a slow dissociation reaction. Analysis by molecular docking further revealed that hydrophobic forces are generated by interactions between hypericin and amino acid residues Arg-315 and Tyr-316. In addition, hydrogen bonding occurred between hypericin and α-glucosidase amino acid residues Lys-156, Ser-157, Gly-160, Ser-240, His-280, Asp-242, and Asp-307. The structure and micro-environment of α-glucosidase enzymes were altered, which led to a decrease in α-glucosidase activity. This research identified that hypericin, an anthracene ketone compound, could be a novel α-glucosidase inhibitor and further applied to the development of potential anti-diabetic drugs.


Assuntos
Antracenos/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Perileno/análogos & derivados , alfa-Glucosidases/química , Antracenos/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Humanos , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Hipoglicemiantes/metabolismo , Cinética , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Nitrofenilgalactosídeos/química , Nitrofenilgalactosídeos/metabolismo , Perileno/química , Perileno/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice , Conformação Proteica em Folha beta , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/classificação , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/enzimologia , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445549

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common liver diseases which lacks ideal treatment options. Kaempferol and kaempferide, two natural flavonol compounds isolated from Hippophae rhamnoides L., were reported to exhibit a strong regulatory effect on lipid metabolism, for which the mechanism is largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of kaempferol and kaempferide on oleic acid (OA)-treated HepG2 cells, a widely used in vitro model of NAFLD. The results indicated an increased accumulation of lipid droplets and triacylglycerol (TG) by OA, which was attenuated by kaempferol and kaempferide (5, 10 and 20 µM). Western blot analysis demonstrated that kaempferol and kaempferide reduced expression of lipogenesis-related proteins, including sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD-1). Expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT enhancer binding proteins ß (C/EBPß), two adipogenic transcription factors, was also decreased by kaempferol and kaempferide treatment. In addition, western blot analysis also demonstrated that kaempferol and kaempferide reduced expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and nuclear transcription factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Molecular docking was performed to identify the direct molecular targets of kaempferol and kaempferide, and their binding to SCD-1, a critical regulator in lipid metabolism, was revealed. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that kaempferol and kaempferide could attenuate OA-induced lipid accumulation and oxidative stress in HepG2 cells, which might benefit the treatment of NAFLD.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Fígado Gorduroso/tratamento farmacológico , Quempferóis/farmacologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Oleico/efeitos adversos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Fígado Gorduroso/induzido quimicamente , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/patologia , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Lipogênese , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Transdução de Sinais
11.
J Food Sci ; 86(10): 4365-4375, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431095

RESUMO

Anthocyanins are a group of flavonoids widely used as natural pigments and in functional foods. However, the sensitivity of anthocyanins to environment factors limits their utilization. The present study examined the stabilizing effects of polyphenol extracts from raspberry, sea-buckthorn, Lonicera edulis, and blackcurrant on Lycium ruthenicum Murr (LRM)-derived anthocyanins. After light and heat exposure, contents of total anthocyanins and the monomers were detected with the pH differential method and the HPLC. Remarkably, polyphenol extracts from raspberry, Lonicera edulis and blackcurrant extended the half-lives of anthocyanins, while the effect of the sea-buckthorn extracts was negligible. Noticeably, petunidin-3-O-[6-O-(4-O-trans-p-coumaroyl-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside]-5-O-[beta-D-glucopyranoside], the major component of LRM-derived anthocyanins, exhibited a dramatic increase in half-life with the presence of polyphenol extracts from raspberry, Lonicera edulis, and blackcurrant. In summary, our findings suggest the polyphenol extracts could be developed into copigments for stabilization of anthocyanins.

12.
ACS Nano ; 2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34423972

RESUMO

High entropy alloy nanoparticles (HEA-NPs) are reported to have superior performance in catalysis, energy storage, and conversion due to the broad range of elements that can be incorporated in these materials, enabling tunable activity, excellent thermal and chemical stability, and a synergistic catalytic effect. However, scaling the manufacturing of HEA-NPs with uniform particle size and homogeneous elemental distribution efficiently is still a challenge due to the required critical synthetic conditions where high temperature is typically involved. In this work, we demonstrate an efficient and scalable microwave heating method using carbon-based materials as substrates to fabricate HEA-NPs with uniform particle size. Due to the abundant functional group defects that can absorb microwave efficiently, reduced graphene oxide is employed as a model substrate to produce an average temperature reaching as high as ∼1850 K within seconds. As a proof-of-concept, we utilize this rapid, high-temperature heating process to synthesize PtPdFeCoNi HEA-NPs, which exhibit an average particle size of ∼12 nm and uniform elemental mixing resulting from decomposition nearly at the same time and liquid metal solidification without diffusion. Various carbon-based materials can also be employed as substrates, including one-dimensional carbon nanofibers and three-dimensional carbonized wood, which can achieve temperatures of >1400 K. This facile and efficient microwave heating method is also compatible with the roll-to-roll process, providing a feasible route for scalable HEA-NPs manufacturing.

13.
Cereb Cortex ; 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378030

RESUMO

Functional brain networks require dynamic reconfiguration to support flexible cognitive function. However, the developmental principles shaping brain network dynamics remain poorly understood. Here, we report the longitudinal development of large-scale brain network dynamics during childhood and adolescence, and its connection with gene expression profiles. Using a multilayer network model, we show the temporally varying modular architecture of child brain networks, with higher network switching primarily in the association cortex and lower switching in the primary regions. This topographical profile exhibits progressive maturation, which manifests as reduced modular dynamics, particularly in the transmodal (e.g., default-mode and frontoparietal) and sensorimotor regions. These developmental refinements mediate age-related enhancements of global network segregation and are linked with the expression profiles of genes associated with the enrichment of ion transport and nucleobase-containing compound transport. These results highlight a progressive stabilization of brain dynamics, which expand our understanding of the neural mechanisms that underlie cognitive development.

14.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 149(6): 4607, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34241439

RESUMO

Noise makes speech perception much more challenging for non-native listeners than for native listeners. Training for non-native speech perception is usually implemented in quiet. It remains unclear if background noise may benefit or hamper non-native speech perception learning. In this study, 51 Chinese-native listeners were randomly assigned into three groups, including vowel training in quiet (TIQ), vowel training in noise (TIN), and watching videos in English as an active control. Vowel identification was assessed before (T1), right after (T2), and three months after training (T3) in quiet and various noise conditions. Results indicated that compared with the video watching group, the TIN group improved vowel identification in both quiet and noise significantly more at T2 and at T3. In contrast, the TIQ group improved significantly more in quiet and also in non-speech noise conditions at T2, but the improvement did not hold at T3. Moreover, compared to the TIQ group, the TIN group showed significantly less informational masking at both T2 and T3 and less energetic masking at T3. These results suggest that L2 speech training in background noise may improve non-native vowel perception more effectively than TIQ background only. The implications for non-native speech perception learning are discussed.


Assuntos
Mascaramento Perceptivo , Percepção da Fala , Humanos , Idioma , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Fonética
15.
Adv Mater ; : e2100726, 2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34288146

RESUMO

Solid-state batteries (SSBs) promise better safety and potentially higher energy density than the conventional liquid- or gel-based ones. In practice, the implementation of SSBs often necessitates 3D porous scaffolds made by ceramic solid-state electrolytes (SSEs). Herein, a general and facile method to sinter 3D porous scaffolds with a range of ceramic SSEs on various substrates at high temperature in seconds is reported. The high temperature enables rapid reactive sintering toward the desired crystalline phase and expedites the surface diffusion of grains for neck growth; meanwhile, the short sintering duration limits the coarsening, thus accurately controlling the degree of densification to preserve desired porous structures, as well as reducing the loss of volatile elements. As a proof-of-concept, a composite SSE with a good ionic conductivity (i.e., ≈1.9 × 10-4 S cm-1 at room temperature) is demonstrated by integrating poly(ethylene oxide) with the 3D porous Li6.5 La3 Zr1.5 Ta0.5 O12 scaffold sintered by this method. This method opens a new door toward sintering a variety of ceramic-SSE-based 3D scaffolds for all-solid-state battery applications.

16.
Dev Sci ; : e13157, 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34258830

RESUMO

A long-standing question in developmental science is how the neurodevelopment of the brain influences cognitive functions. Here, we examined the developmental change of resting EEG power and its links to vocabulary acquisition in school-age children. We further explored what mechanisms may mediate the relation between brain rhythm maturation and vocabulary knowledge. Eyes-opened resting-state EEG data were recorded from 53 typically-developing Chinese children every 2 years between the ages of 7 and 11. Our results showed first that delta, theta, and gamma power decreased over time, whereas alpha and beta power increased over time. Second, after controlling for general cognitive abilities, age, home literacy environment, and phonological skills, theta decreases explained 6.9% and 14.4% of unique variance in expressive vocabulary at ages 9 and 11, respectively. We also found that beta increase from age 7 to 9 significantly predicted receptive vocabulary at age 11. Finally, theta decrease predicted expressive vocabulary through the effects of phoneme deletion at age 9 and tone discrimination at age 11. These results substantiate the important role of brain oscillations at rest, especially theta rhythm, in language development. The developmental change of brain rhythms could serve as sensitive biomarkers for vocabulary development in school-age children, which would be of great value in identifying children at risk of language impairment.

17.
Water Res ; 202: 117453, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320444

RESUMO

The anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process is regarded as a promising approach to treat antibiotic-containing wastewater. Therefore, it is urgent to elucidate the effects of various antibiotics on the anammox process. Moreover, the mechanism of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) as protective barriers to relieve antibiotic stress remain unclear. Therefore, the single and combined effects of erythromycin (ETC) and sulfamethoxazole (SMZ), and interactions between EPS and antibiotics were investigated in this study. Based on a 228-day continuous flow experiment, high concentrations of ETC and SMZ had significant inhibitory effects on the nitrogen removal performance of the anammox process, with the abundances of corresponding antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) increasing. In addition, the combined inhibitory effect of the two antibiotics on the anammox process was more significant and longer-lasting than that of the single. However, the anammox process was able to quickly recover from deterioration. The tolerance of anammox granules to the stress of low-concentration antibiotics was probably attributed to the increase in ARGs and secretion of EPS. Molecular docking simulation results showed that proteins in EPS could directly bind with SMZ and ETC at the sites of GLU-307, HYS-191, ASP-318 and THR-32, respectively. These findings improved our understanding of various antibiotic effects on the anammox process and the interaction mechanism between antibiotics and proteins in EPS.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Matriz Extracelular de Substâncias Poliméricas , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Reatores Biológicos , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Nitrogênio , Oxirredução , Esgotos , Águas Residuárias
18.
Mol Immunol ; 137: 212-220, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280771

RESUMO

As a proinflammatory cytokine of the interleukin-1 (IL-1) family, IL-18 plays important roles in host protection against bacterial, viral, and fungal infection. We cloned the open reading frame of snakehead (Channa argus) IL-18 (shIL-18) and found that it contained 609 base pairs and encoded 202 amino acid residues. The shIL-18 included a conserved IL-1-like family signature and two potential IL-1ß-converting enzyme cutting sites; one was conserved in all analyzed IL-18s, but the other was unique to shIL-18. Unlike other IL-18s, shIL-18 also contained a predicted signal peptide. In this study, shIL-18 was constitutively expressed in all tested tissues, and its expression was induced by Aeromonas schubertii and Nocardia seriolae in the head kidney and spleen in vivo and by lipoteichoic acid, lipopolysaccharides, and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid in head kidney leukocytes in vitro. Moreover, recombinant shIL-18 upregulated the expression of interferon-γ, IL-1ß, and tumor necrosis factor-α1 and -α2 and promoted the proliferation of leukocytes. Taken together, these results showed that IL-18 played crucial roles in host defense against bacterial infection in fish, as it does in mammals.


Assuntos
Aeromonas/patogenicidade , Doenças dos Peixes/metabolismo , Peixes/metabolismo , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/metabolismo , Interleucina-18/metabolismo , Nocardiose/metabolismo , Nocardia/patogenicidade , Animais , Clonagem Molecular/métodos , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Peixes/microbiologia , Rim Cefálico/metabolismo , Rim Cefálico/microbiologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Baço/metabolismo , Baço/microbiologia , Ácidos Teicoicos/metabolismo
19.
Oncogene ; 40(27): 4604-4614, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34131286

RESUMO

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play key regulatory roles in breast cancer. However, population-level differential expression analysis methods disregard the heterogeneous expression of lncRNAs in individual patients. Therefore, we individualized lncRNA expression profiles for breast invasive carcinoma (BRCA) using the method of LncRNA Individualization (LncRIndiv). After evaluating the robustness of LncRIndiv, we constructed an individualized differentially expressed lncRNA (IDElncRNA) profile for BRCA and investigated the subtype-specific IDElncRNAs. The breast cancer subtype-specific IDElncRNA showed frequent co-occurrence with alterations of protein-coding genes, including mutations, copy number variation and differential methylation. We performed hierarchical clustering to subdivide TNBC and revealed mesenchymal subtype and immune subtype for TNBC. The TNBC immune subtype showed a better prognosis than the TNBC mesenchymal subtype. LncRNA PTOV1-AS1 was the top differentially expressed lncRNA in the mesenchymal subtype. And biological experiments validated that the upregulation of PTOV1-AS1 could downregulate TJP1 (ZO-1) and E-Cadherin, and upregulate Vimentin, which suggests PTOV1-AS1 may promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition and lead to migration and invasion of TNBC cells. The mesenchymal subtype showed a higher fraction of M2 macrophages, whereas the immune subtype was more associated with CD4 + T cells. The immune subtype is characterized by genomic instability and upregulation of immune checkpoint genes, thereby suggesting a potential response to immunosuppressive drugs. Last, drug response analysis revealed lncRNA ENSG00000230082 (PRRT3-AS1) is a potential resistance biomarker for paclitaxel in BRCA treatment. Our analysis highlights that IDElncRNAs can characterize inter-tumor heterogeneity in BRCA and the new TNBC subtypes indicate novel insights into TNBC immunotherapy.

20.
Food Chem ; 364: 130412, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174646

RESUMO

Nitraria tangutorum Bobr. (NTB), mainly distributed in the Qaidam Basin of Tibetan Plateau, have high economic, ecological and medicinal value. The chemical compositions in the NTB fruits were tentatively analyzed and characterized by applying UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS. Total 45 constituents, including 9 hydroxycinnamic acids derivatives, 12 flavonols, 4 flavonoids, 1 trolox derivative, 8 ß-carboline alkaloids, 4 tryptophan derivatives, and 7 other amino acid derivatives were identified by comparing with standard products, and analyzing their retention times, characteristic fragment ions and deprotonated molecule ions. The activity studies in vitro indicated that NTB-Z and NTB-C extracts had marked inhibitory effects against sucrase and maltase. Further sucrose/maltose/starch tolerance experiment demonstrated that both NTB-Z and NTB-C extracts at 400 mg/kg could markedly lower the postprandial blood glucose (PBG) level in diabetic animals. All these results indicated that the NTB fruits could be used as the functional health food or medicine for controlling postprandial blood glucose level.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Frutas , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Glucosidases , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
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