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1.
J Food Biochem ; 43(2): e12730, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353647

RESUMO

Methodology to enhance the intestinal absorption of peptides is an important challenge due to their easily degradation and poor permeability across the intestinal epithelium. In this study, the fish-derived peptide (DGDDGEAGKIG)-loaded chitosan (CS) nanoparticles (CS/PEP-NPs) were prepared and investigated in Caco-2 monolayer model. The results indicated zeta potential of CS/PEP-NPs increased with the increase in molecular weight of CS (10-50 kDa). Transmission electron microscopy images revealed the CS/PEP-NPs were uniform spherical-shaped nanoparticles with a diameter of 50-200 nm (150 kDa). Compared to other CS/PEP-NPs, 150-kDa CS/PEP-NPs performed an outstanding apparent permeability coefficient (Papp, 2.29 × 10-5  cm s-1 ) and cumulative amount of peptide (120 min, 2,987 ng) in Caco-2 cells. CS/PEP-NPs could reduce the tight junction integrity of Caco-2 cells and enhance the intracellular fluorescence intensities of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled peptide. These findings suggest that chitosan nanoparticles are promising carriers to promote intestinal absorption of fish-derived peptide via paracellular pathway mediated by tight junctions. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Chitosans are promising carriers to promote intestinal absorption of fish-derived peptide. The 150-kDa CS/PEP-NPs performed an outstanding apparent permeability coefficient (Papp, 2.29 × 10-5  cm s-1 ) and cumulative amount of peptide (120 min, 2,987 ng) in Caco-2 cells. CS/PEP-NPs could reduce the tight junction integrity of Caco-2 cells and enhance the peptide uptake by paracellular pathway. Chitosan nanoparticles can be developed as vehicles for enhancing the cellular uptake of peptide in food industry.

2.
Food Funct ; 10(6): 3439-3451, 2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31139782

RESUMO

This study first investigates how the intake level of glycated fish protein (GP), enriched with Amadori products, affects gut health by modifying the fermentation of gut microbiota and accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in rats fed a high-fat diet. Hyperlipidemic rats were fed a fish protein (FP) control diet, 6% low-level GP (L-GP) diet, and 12% high-level GP (H-GP) diet for four weeks. Compared to the FP diet, the GP diet greatly changed the pattern of protein fermentation and reduced inflammation markers and blood lipids, but increased the AGE plasma accumulation and fecal excretion. Furthermore, the GP supplementation significantly decreased Ruminiclostridium_6 and Desulfovibrio (p < 0.05), and the L-GP diet showed more effects on the increase of butyrate-producing Ruminococcus_1 and Roseburia, while the H-GP diet considerably decreased Helicobacter and Lachnospiraceae_NK4A136_group. Correlation-type principal-component analysis (PCA) clearly indicated that these biological effects of intake of GP were related to the modulation of gut microbiota composition and fermentation metabolite profiles. Overall, the low intake level of glycated fish protein may have a more beneficial effect on gut health.

3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(8): 2201-2211, 2019 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30719912

RESUMO

Soybean protein exhibits nutritional significance for the control of metabolic syndrome, and evidence suggests that gut microbiota are implicated in the control of metabolic disorders. This study aimed to investigate the modulation of pepsin-released peptides of soybean 7S globulin on gut microbiota and possible association between changes of gut microbiota composition and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-peptide interaction. In vitro fermentation experiments showed that the extension region (ER) fragments of soybean 7S globulin selectively suppressed proinflammatory Gram-negative bacteria. ER peptides also promoted the highest production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which were associated with increase of the relative abundance of Lachnospiraceae and Lactobacillaceae. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and Langmuir monolayer studies demonstrated that ER peptides exhibited high affinity to LPS in the presence of Ca2+ and developed into ß-sheet-rich aggregate structures, thus weakening the stability of LPS monolayers. This finding supplies a possible explanation for improvement of the effects of soybean 7S globulin on metabolic disease.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Plantas/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Globulinas/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Armazenamento de Sementes/metabolismo , Proteínas de Soja/metabolismo , Antígenos de Plantas/química , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Globulinas/química , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos/química , Peptídeos/química , Proteínas de Armazenamento de Sementes/química , Proteínas de Soja/química
4.
Food Chem ; 285: 130-138, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30797327

RESUMO

The present work investigated the impact of incubation time (0, 1, 3, and 5 day) on the properties and functionalities of conjugates formed between pea protein isolate (PPI) and gum Arabic (GA). The participation of both 11S and 7S to form conjugates with GA was proved by SDS-PAGE. The degree of conjugation reaction of conjugated was characterized by measuring the formation of Maillard reaction products, the loss of free amino groups, and color changes. The results suggested that PPI intimately incorporated into GA after 1 day incubation, giving a non-homogeneous microstructure with a reduction of nearly 18% available free amino and an increase of relative solubility to 15.5%. Additionally, emulsions prepared by PPI-GA conjugates showed smaller particle size, higher surface charge, and stronger steric hindrance to stabilize the emulsion droplets against environmental stresses and lipid oxidation. The findings provide a practical means to improve the functionality of pea proteins.


Assuntos
Acacia/metabolismo , Goma Arábica/química , Proteínas de Ervilha/química , Emulsões/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Reação de Maillard , Óleos/química , Concentração Osmolar , Oxirredução , Tamanho da Partícula , Proteínas de Ervilha/metabolismo , Solubilidade , Água/química
5.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 16(1): 86, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30384844

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are attracting interest as potential therapeutic agents to treat inflammatory diseases, but their anti-inflammatory mechanism of action is not clear yet. In addition, the effect of orally administered AuNPs on gut microbiota has been overlooked so far. Here, we evaluated the therapeutic and gut microbiota-modulating effects, as well as the anti-inflammatory paradigm, of AuNPs with three different coatings and five difference sizes in experimental mouse colitis and RAW264.7 macrophages. RESULTS: Citrate- and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-stabilized 5-nm AuNPs (Au-5 nm/Citrate and Au-5 nm/PVP) and tannic acid (TA)-stabilized 5-, 10-, 15-, 30- and 60-nm AuNPs were intragastrically administered to C57BL/6 mice daily for 8 days during and after 5-day dextran sodium sulfate exposure. Clinical signs and colon histopathology revealed more marked anti-colitis effects by oral administration of Au-5 nm/Citrate and Au-5 nm/PVP, when compared to TA-stabilized AuNPs. Based on colonic myeloperoxidase activity, colonic and peripheral levels of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, and peripheral counts of leukocyte and lymphocyte, Au-5 nm/Citrate and Au-5 nm/PVP attenuated colonic and systemic inflammation more effectively than TA-stabilized AuNPs. High-throughput sequencing of fecal 16S rRNA indicated that AuNPs could induce gut dysbiosis in mice by decreasing the α-diversity, the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, certain short-chain fatty acid-producing bacteria and Lactobacillus. Based on in vitro studies using RAW264.7 cells and electron spin resonance oximetry, AuNPs inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-triggered inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase expression and NO production via reduction of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and attenuated LPS-induced nuclear factor kappa beta activation and proinflammatory cytokine production via both TLR4 reduction and catalytic detoxification of peroxynitrite and hydrogen peroxide. CONCLUSIONS: AuNPs have promising potential as anti-inflammatory agents; however, their therapeutic applications via the oral route may have a negative impact on the gut microbiota.

6.
Mar Drugs ; 16(10)2018 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30308963

RESUMO

In this paper, a novel natural influenza A H1N1 virus neuraminidase (NA) inhibitory peptide derived from cod skin hydrolysates was purified and its antiviral mechanism was explored. From the hydrolysates, novel efficient NA-inhibitory peptides were purified by a sequential approach utilizing an ultrafiltration membrane (5000 Da), sephadex G-15 gel column and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The amino acid sequence of the pure peptide was determined by electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI-FTICR-MS) was PGEKGPSGEAGTAGPPGTPGPQGL, with a molecular weight of 2163 Da. The analysis of the Lineweacer⁻Burk model indicated that the peptide was a competitive NA inhibitor with Ki of 0.29 mM and could directly bind free enzymes. In addition, docking studies suggested that hydrogen binding might be the driving force for the binding affinity of PGEKGPSGEAGTAGPPGTPGPQGL to NA. The cytopathic effect reduction assay showed that the peptide PGEKGPSGEAGTAGPPGTPGPQGL protected Madin⁻Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells from viral infection and reduced the viral production in a dose-dependent manner. The EC50 value was 471 ± 12 µg/mL against H1N1. Time-course analysis showed that PGEKGPSGEAGTAGPPGTPGPQGL inhibited influenza virus in the early stage of the infectious cycle. The virus titers assay indicated that the NA-inhibitory peptide PGEKGPSGEAGTAGPPGTPGPQGL could directly affect the virus toxicity and adsorption by host cells, further proving that the peptide had an anti-viral effect with multiple target sites. The activity of NA-inhibitory peptide was almost inactivated during the simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, suggesting that oral administration is not recommended. The peptide PGEKGPSGEAGTAGPPGTPGPQGL acts as a neuraminidase blocker to inhibit influenza A virus in MDCK cells. Thus, the peptide PGEKGPSGEAGTAGPPGTPGPQGL has potential utility in the treatment of the influenza virus infection.

7.
Mar Drugs ; 16(9)2018 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30201855

RESUMO

Probiotic-derived polyphosphates have attracted interest as potential therapeutic agents to improve intestinal health. The current study discovered the intracellular accumulation of polyphosphates in a marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 as nano-sized granules. The maximum accumulation of polyphosphates in Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 was found at the late logarithmic growth phase when the medium contained 0.74 mM of KH2PO4, 11.76 mM of NaNO3, and 30.42 mM of Na2SO4. Biogenic polyphosphate nanoparticles (BPNPs) were obtained intact from the algae cells by hot water extraction, and were purified to remove the organic impurities by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration. By using 100 kDa ultrafiltration, BPNPs were fractionated into the larger and smaller populations with diameters ranging between 30⁻70 nm and 10⁻30 nm, respectively. 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole fluorescence and orthophosphate production revealed that a minor portion of BPNPs (about 14⁻18%) were degraded during simulated gastrointestinal digestion. In vitro studies using lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW264.7 cells showed that BPNPs inhibited cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase expression, and the production of proinflammatory mediators, including NO, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1ß through suppressing the Toll-like receptor 4/NF-κB signaling pathway. Overall, there is promise in the use of the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 to produce BPNPs, an anti-inflammatory postbiotic.

8.
Food Res Int ; 113: 189-196, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30195513

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the fermentation properties of fish protein (FP) glycated with glucose at two different heating time (24 h and 48 h, 50 °C, GFP24 and GFP48), using an in vitro batch fermentation model of human distal colon. The heated fish protein in absent of glucose was also as controls. The lower glycation extent of fish protein, with a lower browning intensity and bound sugar, enhanced the production of acetate and propionate. The formation of indole and ammonia was inhibited by the glycation of fish protein, but less affected by its glycation extent. Compared to FP, the glycation of fish protein significantly increased (p < .05) the relative abundance of genera Lactococcus for GFP24 (47%) and GFP48 (71%), whereas decreased dominant genera Bacteroides for GFP24 (32%) and GFP48 (23%). Compared to GFP24, GFP48 indicated significantly higher relative abundance of Holdemania, Streptococcus, Enterococcus and Lactobacillus, and lower amounts of Parabacteroides (p < .05). In the meantime, the heated treatments in the absent of glucose resulted in the increase of some genera Dialister, Arobacter, Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1, Phascolarctobacterium and Veillonella, and also ammonia production. Furthermore, the correlation analysis confirmed that the glycation of fish protein for the decrease of ammonia and indole production was associated with the changes of some proteolytic bacteria genera, including Bacteroides, Dialister and Parabacteroides. Thus, the glycated fish protein rich in Amadori products greatly change the profiles of fermentation metabolite and gut microbiota, and these changes can have a potential impact on host health.

9.
Mar Drugs ; 16(8)2018 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30081563

RESUMO

Natural angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory peptides, which are derived from marine products, are useful as antihypertensive drugs. Nevertheless, the activities of these natural peptides are relatively low, which limits their applications. The aim of this study was to prepare efficient ACE-inhibitory peptides from sea cucumber-modified hydrolysates by adding exogenous proline according to a facile plastein reaction. When 40% proline (w/w, proline/free amino groups) was added, the modified hydrolysates exhibited higher ACE-inhibitory activity than the original hydrolysates. Among the modified hydrolysates, two novel efficient ACE-inhibitory peptides, which are namely PNVA and PNLG, were purified and identified by a sequential approach combining a sephadex G-15 gel column, reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS), before we conducted confirmatory studies with synthetic peptides. The ACE-inhibitory activity assay showed that PNVA and PNLG exhibited lower IC50 values of 8.18 ± 0.24 and 13.16 ± 0.39 µM than their corresponding truncated analogs (NVA and NLG), respectively. Molecular docking showed that PNVA and PNLG formed a larger number of hydrogen bonds with ACE than NVA and NLG, while the proline at the N-terminal of peptides can affect the orientation of the binding site of ACE. The method developed in this study may potentially be applied to prepare efficient ACE-inhibitory peptides, which may play a key role in hypertension management.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Hidrolisados de Proteína/química , Pepinos-do-Mar , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/química , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cromatografia de Fase Reversa/métodos , Desenho de Drogas , Ensaios Enzimáticos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/isolamento & purificação , Prolina/química , Hidrolisados de Proteína/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Especificidade por Substrato , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
10.
Food Funct ; 9(8): 4135-4142, 2018 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30019729

RESUMO

In this study, with grass fish bones as the substrate, after flavourzyme treatment, and fermentation with Leuconostoc mesenteroides, a fermentation solution with a high content of soluble calcium was obtained. High performance liquid chromatography and GC-MS analysis indicated that free calcium (11.29 mmol L-1) in the fermentation solution was composed of calcium lactate (3.89 mmol L-1), calcium acetate (6.21 mmol L-1), calcium amino acids and small peptide calcium. Animal experiments show that the fermentation solution of grass fish bones could promote the growth and development of calcium-deficient rats. Complex organic calcium could be well absorbed and utilized by rats so that serum calcium, alkaline phosphatase levels, femur weight and other indicators in calcium-deficient rats could be returned to normal levels. The fermentation solution of grass fish bones can avoid the waste of aquatic proteins and fish bone calcium, and it exhibited high calcium bioavailability. Therefore, the fermentation solution of grass fish bones might be used as a new efficient calcium supplement.

11.
Food Funct ; 9(5): 2853-2864, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29700505

RESUMO

The aim of this research was to investigate the impact of a diet containing galactooligosaccharide (GOS)-fish peptide (FP) conjugates prepared via Maillard reaction on the colonic fermentation properties and the composition of gut microbiota in Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were fed the GOS diet, FP diet, GOS and FP mixture (GOS/FP) diet, GOS glycated with FP (80 °C for 120 min, G-GOS/FP) diet, or control (CK) diet for three weeks. Compared to the GOS/FP diet, the G-GOS/FP diet greatly changed the pattern of SCFA production in the hindgut of rats, by increasing the total SCFA (44%), butyrate (55%) and propionate (1.23-fold) levels in the proximal colon, and the butyrate levels (74%) in the distal colon, and decreased the production of ammonia in feces (P < 0.05). The G-GOS/FP altered the colonic microbiota by increasing (P < 0.05) the relative abundance of Anaerovibrio (7.43-fold) and Prevotella-9 (2.47-fold), and by decreasing (P < 0.05) the relative abundance of Alloprevotella (0.57-fold) and Holdemanella (0.64-fold), and showed a similar relative abundance of Bifidobacterium, when compared with GOS/FP. The GOS/FP diet increased the number of Lactobacillus and the intensity of fermentation in the cecum, but the G-GOS/FP diet and GOS diet did not have these effects, showing that the glycation clearly altered the fermentability of the fish peptide. It is concluded that the glycation-induced modification of GOS by mild thermal treatments showed its fermentation persistence in the colon of the host, and improved some prebiotic activities of GOS. These results may provide new strategies for oligosaccharides in combination with peptides to modulate the intestinal environment to promote human health.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Ácido Butírico/metabolismo , Carpas , Colo/metabolismo , Colo/microbiologia , Fermentação , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Masculino , Prebióticos/análise , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
12.
Food Res Int ; 103: 390-397, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29389628

RESUMO

Much attention has been given to investigate the formation of Maillard reaction products in thermal processing food due to potential health risks. This study aimed to the profiles of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) and changes of nutrient composition in hairtail (Thichiurus lepturus) fillets prepared by three cooking method: boiling, baking and frying. The Nε-carboxymethyllysine (CML) level ranged from non-detectable to 4.24mg/100g protein and furosine ranged from 4.25 to 20.95mg/100g protein. The levels of CML and furosine in boiled hairtail fillets were much lower than baked and fried ones. The formation of CML was only affected by the cooking method. The changes of the lipid and moisture content, and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) content in cooked hairtail fillet had different effects on the formation of different stages of Maillard reaction. Furosine level significantly correlated with absorbance in 420nm (r=0.74, p<0.05) and 280nm (r=0.73, p<0.05) and fluorescence Intensity (FI) (r=0.65, p<0.05), but did not correlate with CML. The CML level linearly correlated with the moisture (r=0.79, p<0.01) and lipid content (r=0.73, p<0.05), and the formation of TBARS value (r=0.92, p<0.01), but did not correlate with the FI. Overall, the findings may help to better control the cooking conditions of hairtail meat based on the profiles of MRPs.

13.
Food Funct ; 9(2): 1070-1078, 2018 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29355277

RESUMO

Iron fortification has been associated with a modest increase in diarrhea risk among children. Herein, we investigate the correction for this unwanted side effect with probiotic/prebiotic supplementation in weaning mice. Iron fortification with 250 ppm and 500 ppm ferrous sulfate for 30 days significantly increased the species richness of the mouse gut microbiota compared to controls. The 500 ppm-FeSO4 diet caused a significantly decreased abundance of potentially beneficial Lactobacillus. During infection with the foodborne pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), mice on the 500 ppm-FeSO4 diet showed earlier appearance of poisoning symptoms, higher rates of weight and appetite loss, and lower survival rates, all of which were effectively reversed by supplementation with a probiotic (Lactobacillus acidophilus) or a prebiotic (inulin) for 7 days before infection. Iron fortification with 500 ppm ferrous sulfate also increased fecal shedding and spleen and liver load of viable S. Typhimurium, suggesting its promoting effect on pathogen colonization and translocation, and this negative effect was found to be well corrected by supplementation with Lactobacillus acidophilus or inulin. Light and transmission electron microscopic observation on the ileal villus structure revealed the histopathological impairment of the intestine by iron fortification with both 250 ppm and 500 ppm ferrous sulfate, and the intestinal lesions were markedly alleviated by supplementation with Lactobacillus acidophilus or inulin. These results provide experimental evidence for the increased diarrhea risk upon iron fortification with high pathogen load, and demonstrate that probiotic or prebiotic supplementation can be used to eliminate the potential harm of iron fortification on gut health.


Assuntos
Intestinos/microbiologia , Ferro/efeitos adversos , Prebióticos/administração & dosagem , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Salmonella/tratamento farmacológico , Salmonella typhimurium/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Inulina/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Lactobacillus acidophilus/fisiologia , Camundongos , Probióticos/metabolismo , Infecções por Salmonella/metabolismo , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/fisiopatologia , Salmonella typhimurium/fisiologia , Desmame
14.
Food Funct ; 8(3): 1184-1194, 2017 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28197578

RESUMO

In this study, the chemical characterization of glycoconjugates of myofibrillar proteins from grass carp conjugated with glucose via Maillard reaction for up to 24 h of dry-heating was investigated, and their impacts on the microbial community in vitro human fecal fermentation were firstly evaluated by high-throughput sequencing technologies. The glycation greatly increased the furosine levels in glycoconjugates, which reached the maximum level (2.87 ± 0.08 mg per 100 mg protein) for 9 h of heating, and resulted in the structural changes of myofibrillar proteins based on the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) analysis of digested glycoconjugates showed that the gradually increased proportion between 1423 Da (bacitracin)-12 588 Da (cytochrome C) with the prolongation of heating time, suggesting that glycation decreased the digestibility of myofibrillar proteins. Furthermore, glycoconjugates with a higher level of Amadori products and lower browning intensity enhanced fecal microbiota diversity based on species-level phylotypes. The production of butyrate in fermentation of digested glycoconjugates was affected by the glycation extent of myofibrillar proteins, and significantly and positively correlated with Mitsuokella, Lachnospiraceae_UCG-004, Sutterella, Salinimicrobium, Fodinibius and Nitriliruptor (p < 0.05), but negatively correlated with Enterococcus, Dorea (p < 0.05), Escherichia-Shigella and Phascolarctobacterium (p < 0.01). Our findings demonstrated that the glycation of myofibrillar proteins could have potentially positive effects to intestinal health.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Proteínas Musculares/química , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Carpas/metabolismo , Fermentação , Glicosilação , Humanos , Miofibrilas/química , Miofibrilas/metabolismo
15.
Food Funct ; 7(11): 4709-4719, 2016 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27805212

RESUMO

The aim of this research was to investigate the accumulation and excretion of AGEs including fluorescent compounds and N-ε-carboxymethyllysine (CML) in streptozotocin-induced diabetes C57BL/6J mice fed on a diet containing Maillard reaction products (MRPs) from a silver carp peptide-glucose model system at different heating temperatures for the first time, and analyze the relationship between their in vitro antioxidant activity based on DPPH and ORAC assays and in vivo oxidative stress. The in vitro antioxidant activity of MRPs positively correlated with their AGEs level and molecular weight distribution. However, the opposite results were found by malondialdehyde (MDA) and super oxide dismutase (SOD) assays that MRPs from a higher heating temperature could aggravate the oxidative stress of diabetic mice. CML accumulation in serum was aggravated, but changes of MRPs in diets hardly affected CML accumulation in the kidney and liver. Therefore, the high AGEs levels from a diet containing peptide MRPs have negative effects on the oxidative stress of diabetic mice.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/química , Carne/análise , Peptídeos/química , Animais , Peso Corporal , Carpas , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Intolerância à Glucose , Rim , Fígado , Reação de Maillard , Estresse Oxidativo
16.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 91: 867-71, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27316763

RESUMO

In vitro fermentation of the sulfated polysaccharides from seaweeds Enteromorpha prolifera and Laminaria japonica and their prebiotic effects on human fecal microbiota were investigated in this study. The sulfated polysaccharides were fermented in vitro for 48h by human fecal cultures. When 0.8g MWCOL (polysaccharides MWCO<30kD) from L. japonica was fermented, the pH in fecal cultures decreased from 6.5 to 5.1 and the levels of short chain fatty acids, such as acetic, butyric and lactic acids all significantly increased. After 48h fermentation, 0.8g MWCOL showed good effect on modulating the gut microflora balance, because the beneficial strains (Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium) were both significantly higher than those in control group (p<0.05). As far as we know, this is the first report that consumption of sulfated polysaccharides from E. prolifera and L. japonica is beneficial to the ecosystem of the intestinal tract by increasing the populations of probiotics and short chain fatty acids. Furthermore, our reports indicated that molecular weight of sulfated polysaccharide from marine algae is related to its prebiotic effects.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Laminaria/química , Microbiota , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Humanos , Polissacarídeos/química
17.
J Food Sci Technol ; 52(8): 4841-51, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26243904

RESUMO

Three freezing-point regulators (glycine, sodium chloride and D-sorbitol) were employed to optimize thermophysical properties of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) using response surface methodology (RSM). The independent variables were glycine content (0.250-1.250 %), sodium chloride content (0.500-2.500 %) and D-sorbitol content (0.125-0.625 %) and analysis of variance showed that the effects of glycine, sodium chloride and D-sorbitol on the thermophysical properties were statistically significant (P < 0.05). The coefficient of determination, R (2) values for initial freezing point (T i ), unfreezable water mass fraction (W u ), apparent specific heat (C app ) and Enthalpy (H) were 0.896 ~ 0.999. The combined effects of these independent variables on T i , W u , C app and H were investigated. The results indicated that T i , C app and H varied curvilinearly with increasing of glycine, sodium chloride and D-sorbitol content whereas W u increased nearly linearly. Based on response plots and desirability functions, the optimum combination of process variables for Pacific white shrimp previously treated with freezing-point regulators were 0.876 % for glycine content, 2.298 % for sodium chloride content and 0.589 % for D-sorbitol content, correspondently the optimized thermophysical properties were T i , - 5.086 °C; W u , 17.222 %; C app , 41.038 J/g °C and H, 155.942 J/g, respectively. Briefly, the application of freezing-point regulators depressed T i and obtained the optimum W u , C app and H, which would be obviously beneficial for the exploitation of various thermal processing and food storage.

18.
Food Funct ; 6(6): 1919-27, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25965854

RESUMO

Recently, much attention has been given to improving the antioxidant activity of protein hydrolysates via the Maillard reaction, but little is known about the cellular antioxidant activity of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) from protein hydrolysates. We first investigated chemical characterization and the cellular antioxidant activity of MRPs in a shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) by-product protein hydrolysate (SBH)-glucose system at 110 °C for up to 10 h of heating. Solutions of SBH and glucose were also heated alone as controls. The Maillard reaction greatly resulted in the increase of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and browning intensity, high molecular weight fraction, and reduction of the total amino acid in SBH with the heating time, which correlated well with the free radical scavenging activity of MRPs. MRPs had stronger inhibiting effects on oxidative stress of human HepG2 cells than the original SBH, and its cellular antioxidant activity strongly correlated with free radical scavenging activity, but less affected by the browning intensity and HMF level. The caramelization of glucose partially affected the HMF level and free radical scavenging activity of MRPs, but it was not related to the cellular antioxidant activity. The cellular antioxidant activity of MRPs for 5 h of heating time appeared to reach a maximum level, which was mainly due to carbonyl ammonia condensation reaction. In conclusion, the Maillard reaction is a potential method to increase the cellular antioxidant activity of a shrimp by-product protein hydrolysate, but the higher HMF levels and the lower amino acid content in MRPs should also be considered.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Proteínas de Artrópodes/química , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Penaeidae/química , Hidrolisados de Proteína/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Antioxidantes/economia , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Proteínas de Artrópodes/economia , Proteínas de Artrópodes/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Artrópodes/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular , China , Proteínas na Dieta/química , Proteínas na Dieta/economia , Proteínas na Dieta/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais/economia , Conservantes de Alimentos/química , Conservantes de Alimentos/economia , Conservantes de Alimentos/isolamento & purificação , Conservantes de Alimentos/metabolismo , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/economia , Furaldeído/análogos & derivados , Furaldeído/análise , Furaldeído/química , Glucose/química , Células Hep G2 , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Resíduos Industriais/economia , Reação de Maillard , Peso Molecular , Hidrolisados de Proteína/economia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
19.
J Agric Food Chem ; 62(34): 8632-9, 2014 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25074419

RESUMO

The mechanisms by which meat enhances human absorption of non-heme iron remain unknown. Recently, anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) muscle protein hydrolysate (AMPH) was found to mediate the formation of nanosized ferric hydrolysis products in vitro. The current paper evaluates the effects of AMPH on the bioavailability and the intestinal speciation of non-heme iron in rats, followed by an investigation of cellular uptake pathways of in vitro-formed AMPH-stabilized nanosized ferric hydrolysis products (ANPs) by polarized human intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells. The hemoglobin regeneration efficiencies in anemic rats followed the order ferric citrate (9.79 ± 2.02%) < commercial bare α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles (16.37 ± 6.65%) < mixture of ferric citrate and AMPH (40.33 ± 6.36%) ≈ ferrous sulfate (40.88 ± 7.67%) < ANPs (56.25 ± 11.35%). Percentage contents of intestinal low-molecular-weight iron in the groups of FC+AMPH, FeSO4, and ANPs were significantly lower than the corresponding hemoglobin regeneration efficiencies (P < 0.05), providing strong evidence for the involvement of nanosized iron in intestinal iron absorption from FC+AMPH, FeSO4, and ANPs. Calcein-fluorescence measurements of the labile iron pool of polarized Caco-2 cells revealed the involvement of both divalent transporter 1 and endocytosis in apical uptake of ANPs, with endocytosis dominating at acidic extracellular pH. Overall, AMPH enhancement of non-heme iron absorption involves a nanoparticle-mediated mechanism.


Assuntos
Anemia/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Absorção Intestinal , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Anemia/dietoterapia , Anemia/fisiopatologia , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Células CACO-2 , Feminino , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Peixes , Humanos , Hidrólise , Intestinos/fisiopatologia , Ferro/química , Masculino , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Ratos
20.
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi ; 49(2): 122-5, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23714027

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the risk factors of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) in women. METHODS: This retrospective, case-control study collected 128 female patients with POAG and 142 female with normal controls without POAG from 2009 to 2010. The risk factors including family history, hypertension, diabetes, age of menarche, age of menopause, parity, oral contraceptive (OC) use, hormone therapy were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Compared with normal control group using logistic regression analysis, there were significant differences in such risk factors in POAG group as family history (OR = 43.36, 95%CI: 5.69 - 346.67; P < 0.001), hypertension(OR = 3.29, 95%CI: 1.82 - 5.94; P < 0.001), age of menarche (OR = 2.046, 95%CI: 1.17 - 3.54; P = 0.011), age of menopause (OR = 0.57, 95%CI: 0.32 - 0.99; P = 0.049), hormone therapy (OR = 0.29, 95%CI: 0.09 - 0.92; P = 0.036). CONCLUSIONS: Family history and hypertension are high risk factors to develop POAG for women. However, female hormones may play a protective role in women with POAG.


Assuntos
Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
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