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1.
Sleep Med Rev ; : 101203, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494051

RESUMO

Changes in nighttime sleep consolidation and daytime discontinuation have been observed in early life. Yet information about societal or cultural factors remains scant for implementing sleep recommendations. We aimed to provide pooled estimates of subjective sleep duration, number of nightwakings and sleep timing; to describe their age-related trends; and to determine potential cross-cultural disparities between predominantly-Asian (PA) and predominantly-Caucasian (PC) regions during the first three years of life. We performed this review according to the PRISMA guidelines. Overall, 102 studies with 167,886 children aged 0-3 y from 26 different countries/regions were included. Compared to PC regions, PA toddlers had shorter sleep duration and more frequent nightwakings. When PC regions were further divided into Pacific Rim and Europe, differences were much more evident between PA and Pacific Rim for all nighttime sleep parameters. Trends of nighttime sleep duration and bedtime for PC regions showed rapid changes over the first 3-6 mo before stabilizing to a plateau, whereas a different change was found for PA regions. In conclusion, an apparent cross-cultural disparity of the subjective sleep parameters already exists in early childhood. Improved operationalization of sleep parameters and more objective evidence are needed to establish cultural-sensitive recommendations this early in life.

2.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 17(1): 96, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate a gender-specific association between oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) and depressive symptoms in college students, as there are limited relevant studies conducted among youths. METHODS: In 2017, a cross-sectional study of 3461 Chinese college students was conducted in Shenyang, China. OHRQoL and depressive symptoms were screened by a 14-item oral health impact profile questionnaire and a Self-rating Depression Scale, respectively. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association of OHRQoL with depressive symptoms. RESULTS: The number of youths reported to have depressive symptoms was 20.7%. A univariate analysis showed that categories with a OHRQoL score over 6 were more likely to have a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms compared to the category with a score of 0 (male: ORs [95% CI]: 3.10, 2.05-4.68, P < 0.001; female: ORs [95% CI]: 3.11, 2.38-4.05, P < 0.001). Similar results were observed after adjusting for sociodemographic, anthropometric, and lifestyle-related covariates (male: ORs [95% CI]: 3.07, 1.98-4.76, P < 0.001; female: ORs [95% CI]: 2.90, 2.21-3.81, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: College students who have higher OHRQoL tend to have a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Aptidão Física , Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
3.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 95: 101-107, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30776419

RESUMO

Eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) is regulated during the innate immune response. However, its translational regulation under innate immune suppression remains largely unexplored. Microplitis bicoloratus bracovirus (MbBV), a symbiotic virus harbored by the parasitoid wasp, Microplitis bicoloratus, suppresses innate immunity in parasitized Spodoptera litura. Here, we generated eIF4E dsRNA and used it to silence the eIF4E gene of S. litura, resulting in a hallmark immunosuppressive phenotype characterized by increased apoptosis of hemocytes and retardation of head capsule width development. In response to natural parasitism, loss of eIF4E function was associated with similar immunosuppression, and we detected no significant differences between the response to parasitism and treatment with eIF4E RNAi. Under MbBV infection, eIF4E overexpression significantly suppressed MbBV-induced increase in apoptosis and suppressed apoptosis to the same extent as co-expression of both eIF4E and eIF4A. There were no significant differences between MbBV-infected and uninfected larvae in which eIF4E was overexpressed. More importantly, in the eIF4E RNAi strain, eIF4A RNAi did not increase apoptosis. Collectively, our results indicate that eIF4E plays a nodal role in the MbBV-suppressed innate immune response via the eIF4E-eIF4A axis.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/imunologia , Proteínas de Insetos/imunologia , Polydnaviridae/imunologia , Spodoptera/imunologia , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Apoptose/imunologia , Linhagem Celular , Fator de Iniciação 4A em Eucariotos/genética , Fator de Iniciação 4A em Eucariotos/imunologia , Fator de Iniciação 4A em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Fator de Iniciação 4E em Eucariotos/genética , Fator de Iniciação 4E em Eucariotos/imunologia , Fator de Iniciação 4E em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Feminino , Imunidade Inata , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Spodoptera/parasitologia , Simbiose/imunologia , Vespas/imunologia , Vespas/microbiologia
4.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 92: 129-139, 2018 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30471301

RESUMO

In the parasitoid/polydnavirus/host system, polydnaviruses protect larva development in the host hemocoel by suppressing the host immune response. However, the negative effects on the parasitoid and the strategy of the parasitoid to deal with this disadvantage are still unknown. Microplitis bicoloratus bracovirus induces granulocyte apoptosis to suppress immune responses, resulting in an apoptotic haemolymph environment in which immature M. bicoloratus larva develop. Here, we determined the transcriptional profiles of immature M. bicoloratus across five time-points throughout the immature developmental process from egg to third instar. Dynamic gene expression pattern analysis revealed clear rapid changes in gene expression characteristic of each developmental stage, indicating faster sequential unambiguous functional division during development. Combined with the proteome of the host haemolymph, immature parasitoids likely secreted a Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase to reduce reactive oxygen species generation by symbiotic bracovirus. These data established a basis for further studies of parasitoid/host interactions and identified a novel positive self-protection mechanism for the parasitoid.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28940716

RESUMO

Apoptotic hemocytes induced by Microplitis bicoloratus parasitism have been reported, and M. bicoloratus bracovirus (MbBV) is known to be the apoptosis inducer. However, the mechanism how MbBV regulates apoptosis remains unclear. eIF4A, one of translation initiation factors, was found from a Spodoptera litura transcriptome, the expression of which in the parasitized hemocytes of S. litura was inhibited in RT-qPCR analysis. The western blot also illustrated eIF4A at 6-day post-parasitization was inhibited in hemocytes. For testing interaction of MbBV-eIF4A-apoptosis, a cDNA clone encoding 1,266 bp of eIF4A was obtained from S. litura hemocytes and sequenced. Then, a 48 kDa V5-fusion protein of the eIF4A was detected by using the anti-V5 antibody at 72-h post-transfection in the High Five cells, which is located in the cell cytoplasm. In vitro, overexpression of eIF4A rescued the apoptotic High Five cells induced by MbBV. Conversely, in vivo, loss of eIF4A proteins by dsRNA feeding increased apoptosis of hemocytes. Furthermore, RNAi and parasitism significantly increased apoptosis of hemocytes in S. litura. These findings suggested that MbBV inhibited the expression of eIF4A, which was required for apoptosis mediated by MbBV. This study will contribute to biological pest control and enhance our understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying polydnavirus-parasitoid-host interaction.


Assuntos
Apoptose/fisiologia , Fatores de Iniciação em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Hemócitos/metabolismo , Vírus dos Insetos/fisiologia , Mariposas/virologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Fatores de Iniciação em Eucariotos/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Mariposas/metabolismo
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28557004

RESUMO

Two physiological changes of Spodoptera litura parasitized by Microplitis bicoloratus are hemocyte-apoptosis and retarded immature development. ß-Chain of Fo F1 -ATPase was found from a S. litura transcriptome. It belongs to a conserved P-loop NTPase superfamily, descending from a common ancestor of Lepidopteran clade. However, the characterization of ß-chain of ATPase in apoptotic cells and its involvement in development remain unknown. Here, the ectopic expression and endogenous Fo F1 -ATPase ß-chain occurred on S. litura cell membrane: in vivo, at the late stage of apoptotic hemocyte, endogenous Fo F1 -ATPase ß-chain was stably expressed during M. bicoloratus larva development from 4 to 7 days post-parasitization; in vitro, at an early stage of pre-apoptotic Spli221 cells by infecting with M. bicoloratus bracovirus particles, the proteins were speedily recover expression. Furthermore, endogenous Fo F1 -ATPase ß-chain was localized on the apoptotic cell membrane. RNA interference (RNAi) of Fo F1 -ATPase ß-chain led to significantly decreased head capsule width. This suggested that Fo F1 -ATPase ß-chain positively regulated the development of S. litura. The RNAi effect on the head capsule width was enhanced with parasitism. Our research found that Fo F1 -ATPase ß-chain was expressed and localized on the cell membrane in the apoptotic cells, and involved in the development of S. litura.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Polydnaviridae/fisiologia , ATPases Translocadoras de Prótons/metabolismo , Spodoptera/parasitologia , Vespas/virologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Apoptose , Hemócitos/enzimologia , Larva/parasitologia , Spodoptera/enzimologia , Spodoptera/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vespas/fisiologia
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