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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 389: 122152, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004847

RESUMO

Glufosinate ammonium (GLA) is a widely used organophosphate herbicide, which could be commonly detected in body fluids of both pregnant women and newborns. Existing evidences indicate that GLA has reproductive toxicity, while data concerning the effects of prenatal GLA exposure on neurodevelopment is rather limited. Here we employed a mouse model exposed to GLA prenatally. Reduced locomotor activity, impaired memory formation and autism-like behaviors were observed in the treatment group. Marked alteration in gut microbiome of the treatment offspring mice could be found at 4th week, and seemed to recover over time. Fecal metabolomics analysis indicated remarkable changes in microbiome-related metabolism in the treatment group, which could be the cause of behavioral abnormality in mice. Present study suggested that prenatal exposure to GLA disturbed gut microbiome and metabolism, and thereby induced behavioral abnormalities in mice.

2.
mSphere ; 5(1)2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915218

RESUMO

The contribution of human gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota and metabolites to host health has recently become much clearer. However, many confounding factors can influence the accuracy of gut microbiome and metabolome studies, resulting in inconsistencies in published results. In this study, we systematically investigated the effects of fecal sampling regions and storage and retrieval conditions on gut microbiome and metabolite profiles from three healthy children. Our analysis indicated that compared to homogenized and snap-frozen samples (standard control [SC]), different sampling regions did not affect microbial community alpha diversity, while a total of 22 of 176 identified metabolites varied significantly across different sampling regions. In contrast, storage conditions significantly influenced the microbiome and metabolome. Short-term room temperature storage had a minimal effect on the microbiome and metabolome profiles. Sample storage in RNALater showed a significant level of variation in both microbiome and metabolome profiles, independent of the storage or retrieval conditions. The effect of RNALater on the metabolome was stronger than the effect on the microbiome, and individual variability between study participants outweighed the effect of RNALater on the microbiome. We conclude that homogenizing stool samples was critical for metabolomic analysis but not necessary for microbiome analysis. Short-term room temperature storage had a minimal effect on the microbiome and metabolome profiles and is recommended for short-term fecal sample storage. In addition, our study indicates that the use of RNALater as a storage medium of stool samples for microbial and metabolomic analyses is not recommended.IMPORTANCE The gastrointestinal microbiome and metabolome can provide a new angle to understand the development of health and disease. Stool samples are most frequently used for large-scale cohort studies. Standardized procedures for stool sample handling and storage can be a determining factor for performing microbiome or metabolome studies. In this study, we focused on the effects of stool sampling regions and stool sample storage conditions on variations in the gut microbiome composition and metabolome profile.

3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 189: 110037, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812018

RESUMO

As an emerging class of nitrogenous disinfection by-products (N-DBPs), haloacetamides (HAcAms) have been widely detected in drinking water. Limited toxicity studies have shown an inconsistent toxicity of monoHAcAms, including CAcAm, BAcAm and IAcAm. In this study, the developmental toxicity of monoHAcAms was evaluated in embryo-larval stage of zebrafish. Embryos were exposed to one concentration of 2.50, 5.00, 10.0, 20.0, 40.0 and 80.0 mg/L monoHAcAms from 4 h post-fertilization (hpf) to 120 hpf. Multiple endpoints, including hatching rate, morphological abnormalities, mortality as well as locomotor behavior were assessed at specified stages (24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hpf). Results showed that 80 mg/L CAcAm and 40 mg/L BAcAm significantly decreased the hatching rate, IAcAm decreased the hatching rate and delayed the hatching process in a concentration-dependent manner with an EC50 of 16.37 mg/L at 72 hpf. The frequency and severity order of morphological abnormalities increased with the raised exposure concentrations and prolonged exposure time, and the corresponding EC50 at 96 hpf were 21.10, 9.77 and 16.60 mg/L for CAcAm, BAcAm and IAcAm, respectively. MonoHAcAms exposure resulted in a time- and dose-dependent response in mortality and the calculated LC50 at 72 hpf were 38.44, 17.74 and 28.82 mg/L for CAcAm, BAcAm and IAcAm, respectively. Based on EC50 for morphological abnormalities and LC50, a toxicity rank order of BAcAm > IAcAm > CAcAm was observed. Different degrees of hyperactivity and hypoactivity were observed from locomotor behavior analysis in larvae from ≤10.0 mg/L monoHAcAms exposure groups. The light-dark periodic change was disappeared in larvae of 10.0 mg/L BAcAm exposure group. In summary, our study showed that monoHAcAms were developmentally toxic to zebrafish even at very low concentrations and BAcAm exerted higher toxicity than IAcAm and CAcAm. These results will further our understanding of the toxicity of HAcAms and its potential toxicological impact on human and ecological environment.

4.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(12)2019 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31835855

RESUMO

De novo shoot regeneration is one of the important manifestations of cell totipotency in organogenesis, which reflects a survival strategy organism evolved when facing natural selection. Compared with tissue regeneration, and somatic embryogenesis, de novo shoot regeneration denotes a shoot regeneration process directly from detatched or injured tissues of plant. Studies on plant shoot regeneration had identified key genes mediating shoot regeneration. However, knowledge was derived from Arabidopsis; the regeneration capacity is hugely distinct among species. To achieve a comprehensive understanding of the shoot regeneration mechanism from tree species, we select four genetic lines of Populus euphratica from a natural population to be sequenced at transcriptome level. On the basis of the large difference of differentiation capacity, between the highly differentiated (HD) and low differentiated (LD) groups, the analysis of differential expression identified 4920 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), which were revealed in five groups of expression patterns by clustering analysis. Enrichment showed crucial pathways involved in regulation of regeneration difference, including "plant hormone signal transduction", "cell differentiation", "cellular response to auxin stimulus", and "auxin-activated signaling pathway". The expression of nine genes reported to be associated with shoot regeneration was validated using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). For the specificity of regeneration mechanism with P. euphratica, large amount of DEGs involved in "plant-pathogen interaction", ubiquitin-26S proteosome mediated proteolysis pathway, stress-responsive DEGs, and senescence-associated DEGs were summarized to possibly account for the differentiation difference with distinct genotypes of P. euphratica. The result in this study helps screening of key regulators in mediating the shoot differentiation. The transcriptomic characteristic in P. euphratica further enhances our understanding of key processes affecting the regeneration capacity of de novo shoots among distinct species.

5.
Mol Med Rep ; 20(4): 3802-3810, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485625

RESUMO

Glial cell line­derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is critical for the proliferation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this study, an unbiased metabolomic analysis was performed to examine the metabolic modifications in SSCs following GDNF deprivation, and 11 metabolites were observed to decrease while three increased. Of the 11 decreased metabolites identified, glycylglycine was observed to significantly rescue the proliferation of the impaired SSCs, while no such effect was observed by adding sorbitol. However, the expression of self­renewal genes, including B­cell CLL/lymphoma 6 member B, ETS variant 5, GDNF family receptor α1 and early growth response protein 4 remained unaltered following glycylglycine treatment. This finding suggests that although glycylglycine serves an important role in the proliferation of SSCs, it is not required for the self­renewal of SSCs.

6.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 411(19): 4401-4414, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30707267

RESUMO

Rapid, low-cost, and sensitive nucleic acid detection and quantification assays enabled by microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (µPADs) hold great promise for point-of-care disease diagnostics and field-based molecular tests. Through the capillary action in µPAD, flexible manipulation of nucleic acid samples can be achieved without the need for external pumps or power supplies, making it possible to fabricate highly integrated sample-to-answer devices that streamline the nucleic acid extraction, separation, concentration, amplification, and detection. To detect minute amounts of genetic materials from clinical and biological samples, it is also critical to develop sensitive signal readouts that generate physically detectable signals for in-device nucleic acid detection and/or quantification. In this review, we will focus on µPAD approaches for the facile manipulation of nucleic acids and emerging signal transduction strategies allowing sensitive and specific nucleic acid detection in µPAD. Graphical abstract ᅟ.


Assuntos
Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas/instrumentação , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/instrumentação , Ácidos Nucleicos/análise , Papel , Corantes/química , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Transdução de Sinais , Biologia Sintética
7.
R Soc Open Sci ; 6(1): 180735, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30800341

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of single-stranded non-coding small RNAs (sRNAs) that are 20-24 nucleotides (nt) in length. Extensive studies have indicated that miRNAs play important roles in plant growth, development and stress responses. With more copper (Cu) and copper containing compounds used as bactericides and fungicides in plants, Cu stress has become one of the serious environmental problems that affect plant growth and development. In order to uncover the hidden response mechanisms of Cu stress, two small RNA libraries were constructed from Cu-treated and water-treated (Control) leaves of 'Summer Black' grapevine. Following high-throughput sequencing and filtering, a total of 158 known and 98 putative novel miRNAs were identified in the two libraries. Among these, 100 known and 47 novel miRNAs were identified as differentially expressed under Cu stress. Subsequently, the expression patterns of nine Cu-responsive miRNAs were validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). There existed some consistency in expression levels of Cu-responsive miRNAs between high throughput sequencing and qRT-PCR assays. The targets prediction of miRNAs indicates that miRNA may regulate some transcription factors, including AP2, SBP, NAC, MYB and ARF during Cu stress. The target genes for two known and two novel miRNAs showed specific cleavage sites at the 10th and/or 11th nucleotide from the 5'-end of the miRNA corresponding to their miRNA complementary sequences. The findings will lay the foundation for exploring the role of the regulation of miRNAs in response to Cu stress and provide valuable gene information for breeding some Cu-tolerant grapevine cultivars.

8.
Nanoscale Res Lett ; 14(1): 26, 2019 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30656437

RESUMO

Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) were used worldwide for decades, and pregnant women are unable to avoid exposing to them. Studies revealed that TiO2 NPs could kill many kinds of bacteria, but whether they would affect the composition of gut microbiota, especially during pregnancy, was seldom reported. And, what adverse effects may be brought to pregnant females was also unknown. In this study, we established the prenatal exposure model of rats to explore the effects of TiO2 NPs on gut microbiota. We observed an increasing trend, but not a significant change of alpha-diversity among control and exposure groups at gestation day (GD) 10 and GD 17 during normal pregnancy process. Each different time point had unique gut microbiota operational taxonomic units (OTUs) characteristics. The abundance of Ellin6075 decreased at GD 10 and GD 17, Clostridiales increased at GD 10, and Dehalobacteriaceae decreased at GD 17 after TiO2 NPs exposure. Further phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt) prediction indicated that the type 2 diabetes mellitus related genes were enhanced, and taurine metabolism was weakened at the second-trimester. Further study showed that the rats' fasting blood glucose levels significantly increased at GD 10 (P < 0.05) and GD 17 (P < 0.01) after exposure. Our study pointed out that TiO2 NPs induced the alteration of gut microbiota during pregnancy and increased the fasting blood glucose of pregnant rats, which might increase the potential risk of gestational diabetes of pregnant women.

9.
Environ Int ; 123: 325-336, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30557812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The evaluation of the chemical impact on human health is usually constrained to the analysis of the health effects of exposure to a single chemical or a group of similar chemicals at one time. The effects of chemical mixtures are seldom analyzed. In this study, we applied three statistical models to assess the association between the exposure to a mixture of seven xenobiotics (three phthalate metabolites, two phenols, and two pesticides) and obesity. METHODS: Urinary levels of environmental phenols, pesticides, and phthalate metabolites were measured in adults who participated in the U.S.-based National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2013 to 2014. Body examination was conducted to determine obesity. We fitted multivariable models, using generalized linear (here both logistic and linear) regression, weighted quantile sum (WQS) regression, and Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR) models to estimate the association between chemical exposures and obesity. RESULTS: Of 1269 individuals included in our final analysis, 38.5% had general obesity and 58.0% had abdominal obesity. In the logistic regression model established for each single chemical, bisphenol S (BPS), mono (carboxyoctyl) phthalate (MCOP), and mono (2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP) were associated with both general and abdominal obesity (fourth vs. first quartile). In linear regression, MCOP was associated with BMI and waist circumference. In WQS regression analysis, the WQS index was significantly associated with both general obesity (OR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.21-2.20) and abdominal obesity (OR = 1.66, 95% CI: 1.18-2.34). MCOP, bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol S (BPS), and mono ethyl phthalate (MEP) were the most heavily weighing chemicals. In BKMR analysis, the overall effect of mixture was significantly associated with general obesity when all the chemicals were at their 60th percentile or above it, compared to all of them at their 50th percentile. MCOP, BPA, and BPS showed positive trends. By contrast, MECPP showed a flat and modest inverse trend. CONCLUSION: When comparing results from these three models, MCOP, BPA, and BPS were identified as the most important factors associated with obesity. We recommend estimating the joint effects of chemical mixtures by applying diverse statistical methods and interpreting their results together, considering their advantages and disadvantages.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Modelos Estatísticos , Obesidade/etiologia , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Fenóis/toxicidade , Ácidos Ftálicos/toxicidade , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , Exposição Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade/urina , Praguicidas/análise , Fenóis/urina , Ácidos Ftálicos/urina , Sulfonas , Circunferência da Cintura
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30487447

RESUMO

Background: Humans are constantly exposed to low concentrations of 4-tert-octylphenol (OP). However, studies investigating the effects of low-dose OP on the liver are scarce, and the mechanism of these effects has not been thoroughly elucidated to date. Methods: Adult male institute of cancer research (ICR) mice were exposed to low-dose OP (0, 0.01 and 1 µg/kg/day) for 7 consecutive days. Weights of mice were recorded daily during the experiment. Blood serum levels of OP, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were determined, and haematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining of the liver was performed. We applied an integrated metabolomic and enzyme gene expression analysis to investigate liver metabolic changes, and the gene expression of related metabolic enzymes was determined by real-time PCR and ELISA. Results: OP in blood serum was increased after OP exposure, while body weights of mice were unchanged. Liver weight and its organ coefficient were decreased significantly in the OP (1 µg/kg/day) group, but ALT and AST, as well as the HE staining results, were unchanged after OP treatment. The levels of cytidine, uridine, purine and N-acetylglutamine were increased significantly, and the level of vitamin B6 was decreased significantly in mice treated with OP (1 µg/kg/day). The mRNA and protein levels of Cda and Shmt1 were both increased significantly in OP (1 µg/kg/day)-treated mice. Conclusions: Through metabolomic analysis, our study firstly found that pyrimidine and purine synthesis were promoted and that N-acetylglutamine was upregulated after low-dose OP treatment, indicating that the treatment disturbed nucleic acid and amino acid metabolism in mice liver.


Assuntos
Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/farmacologia , Alanina Transaminase/efeitos dos fármacos , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Metabolômica , Camundongos , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Mensageiro
11.
Chem Biol Interact ; 296: 124-133, 2018 Dec 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30273564

RESUMO

Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) exist in many nano-products and concerns have been raised about their potential toxicity on human beings. One such issue is their potential effects on placental function, and the studies on this topic are limited and the mechanism remains unclear. Here we employed human trophoblast HTR-8/SVneo cells to investigate the effects of TiO2 NPs on trophoblast. Results showed that TiO2 NPs could enter cells and were mostly distributed in lysosomes, with some in the cytoplasm. TiO2 NPs and protein aggregation were found in both fetal bovine serum (FBS) in culture medium and cytoplasm of HTR-8/SVneo cells. In consistence with that, proteostasis of HTR-8/SVneo cells was significantly disrupted and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress related markers including PERK, IRE1-α were increased. After high speed centrifugation, the proteins PERK and IRE1-α were dramatically decreased in the highest TiO2 NPs treatment group, which indicated interactions between TiO2 NPs and these two proteins. Meanwhile, the protein expressions of LC3-II/LC3-I and P62, the autophagy biomarkers, were increased and the autophagy flux was not blocked. Cellular ROS stress increased and mitophagy related genes including PINK and Parkin increased along with the increased co-localization of LC3 and mitochondria. Taken together, these results indicated that TiO2 NPs interacted with intracellular proteins and activated ER stress and mitophagy in HTR-8/SVneo cells, which might do damage to placental function.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/química , Proteostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Titânio/farmacologia , Trofoblastos/citologia , Trofoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/análise , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Trofoblastos/metabolismo
12.
Clin Transl Gastroenterol ; 9(9): 182, 2018 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30237489

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Neonatal jaundice is a common disease that affects up to 60% of newborns. Gut microbiota mediated the excretion of bilirubin from the human body. However, the relationship between early gut microbiome and development of neonatal jaundice is not fully understood. Here we sought to characterize meconium microbiome of newborns and to clarify its association with risk of neonatal jaundice. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study with 301 newborns providing meconium samples from 2014 to 2015. The main outcome was the development of neonatal jaundice at 42 day follow-up. 16S rRNA gene sequencing was performed to profile the meconium microbiome. LEfSe was employed to identify different features between control and case groups. Logistic regression was used to estimate the risk effect of early gut microbiome on neonatal jaundice. RESULTS: Logistic regression models suggested that higher ɑ-diversity was significantly associated with lower risk of jaundice in cesarean infants (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.52-0.98), but not in infants born naturally. Higher relative abundance of Bifidobacterium pseudolongum in newborn meconium was significantly associated with lower risk of jaundice both in cesarean-born infants and in the total subjects (OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.07-0.68; OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.31-0.95, respectively). Spearman's correlations showed that relative abundance of B. pseudolongum was significantly correlated with ɑ-diversity (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Preventive and treatment methods implying early gut microbiome intervention could be promising for the management of neonatal jaundice.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Icterícia Neonatal/diagnóstico , Icterícia Neonatal/microbiologia , Mecônio/microbiologia , Adulto , Bifidobacterium longum/isolamento & purificação , Bilirrubina/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cesárea , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Icterícia Neonatal/metabolismo , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
13.
ACS Nano ; 12(5): 4123-4139, 2018 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29617109

RESUMO

Excess iron deposition in the brain often causes oxidative stress-related damage and necrosis of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and has been reported to be one of the major vulnerability factors in Parkinson's disease (PD). Iron chelation therapy using deferoxamine (DFO) may inhibit this nigrostriatal degeneration and prevent the progress of PD. However, DFO shows very short half-life in vivo and hardly penetrates the blood brain barrier (BBB). Hence, it is of great interest to develop DFO formulations for safe and efficient intracerebral drug delivery. Herein, we report a polymeric nanoparticle system modified with brain-targeting peptide rabies virus glycoprotein (RVG) 29 that can intracerebrally deliver DFO. The nanoparticle system penetrates the BBB possibly through specific receptor-mediated endocytosis triggered by the RVG29 peptide. Administration of these nanoparticles significantly decreased iron content and oxidative stress levels in the substantia nigra and striatum of PD mice and effectively reduced their dopaminergic neuron damage and as reversed their neurobehavioral deficits, without causing any overt adverse effects in the brain or other organs. This DFO-based nanoformulation holds great promise for delivery of DFO into the brain and for realizing iron chelation therapy in PD treatment.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Desferroxamina/administração & dosagem , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Glicoproteínas/química , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/química , Proteínas Virais/química , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Desferroxamina/farmacocinética , Desferroxamina/farmacologia , Desferroxamina/uso terapêutico , Glicoproteínas/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/administração & dosagem , Sideróforos/administração & dosagem , Sideróforos/farmacocinética , Sideróforos/farmacologia , Sideróforos/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Virais/administração & dosagem
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 157: 457-462, 2018 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29655847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have investigated prenatal air pollution and shown that air pollutants have adverse effect on birth outcomes. However, which trimester was the most sensitive and whether the effect was related to maternal age is still ambiguous. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to explore the association between maternal air pollution exposure during pregnancy and preterm birth, and if this relationship is modified by maternal age. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we examine the causal relationship of prenatal exposure to air pollutants including particulate matters, which are less than 10 µm (PM10), and ozone (O3), which is one of the gaseous pollutants, on preterm birth by gestational age. A total of 6693 pregnant women were recruited from Wuxi Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital. The participants were dichotomized into child-bearing age group (< 35 years old) and advanced age group (> = 35 years old) in order to analyze the effect modification by maternal age. Logistic and linear regression models were performed to assess the risk for preterm birth (gestational age < 37 weeks) caused by prenatal air pollution exposure. RESULTS: With adjustment for covariates, the highest level of PM10 exposure significantly increased the risk of preterm birth by 1.42-fold (95% CI: 1.10, 1.85) compared those with the lowest level in the second trimester. Trimester-specific PM10 exposure was positively associated with gestational age, whereas O3 exposure was associated with gestational age in the early pregnancy. When stratified by maternal age, PM10 exposure was significantly associated with an increased risk of preterm birth only in the advanced age group during pregnancy (OR:2.15, 95% CI: 1.13, 4.07). The results suggested that PM10 exposure associated with preterm birth was modified by advanced maternal age (OR interaction = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.02, 3.91, Pinteraction = 0.032). CONCLUSION: Prenatal air pollution exposure would increase risk of preterm birth and reduced gestational age. Thus, more attention should be paid to the effects of ambient air pollution exposure on preterm birth especially in pregnant women with advanced maternal age.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Idade Materna , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
15.
ACS Sens ; 3(1): 205-210, 2018 01 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29336569

RESUMO

Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are a global health issue affecting nearly one-third of the world's population. As most endemic areas of STH are impoverished countries or regions with limited healthcare resources, the accurate diagnosis of STH requires analytical tools that are not only quantitative, but also portable, inexpensive, and with no or minimal demand for external instrument. Herein, we introduce a novel paper-based diagnostic device, termed quantitative paper-based DNA reader (qPDR), capable of quantifying STH at the molecular level by measuring distance as readout, thus eliminating the need for external readers. On the basis of the unique interfacial interaction of a DNA intercalating dye, SYBR Green I, with native cellulose on a chromatographic paper, qPDR allows the distance-based quantification of minute amounts of double-stranded DNA as short as 6 min. By integrating qPDR with polymerase chain reactions that were performed using a smartphone-controlled portable thermal cycler, we were able to quantify minute amount of genetic markers from adult worms of an STH (Trichuris trichiura) that were expelled post-treatment by infected children living in the rural areas of Honduras.


Assuntos
DNA de Helmintos/genética , Helmintíase/diagnóstico , Solo/parasitologia , Animais , Marcadores Genéticos , Helmintíase/genética , Helmintíase/transmissão , Honduras , Humanos , Substâncias Intercalantes , Compostos Orgânicos , Papel , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Trichuris/genética , Trichuris/isolamento & purificação
16.
Reprod Toxicol ; 76: 63-70, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29294364

RESUMO

Some large population-based cohort studies highlighted the risk of maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) for children attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the causality of this association is still controversial. Here we performed a meta-analysis trying to clarify the association between prenatal exposure to MSDP and ADHD in offspring. After publication screening, 27 eligible original articles with a total of 3076173 subjects were included. The results showed that either prenatal exposure to MSDP or smoking cessation during first trimester was significantly associated with childhood ADHD after adjusting for parental psychiatric history and social socioeconomic status. Smoking cessation before pregnancy, which was not significantly associated with childhood ADHD, was strongly recommended for female smokers planning to conceive. Inconsistent results were obtained in the meta-analysis on the risk of maternal passive smoking during pregnancy caused by paternal smoking. We also found that risk of MSDP for childhood ADHD varied across geographic regions.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/etiologia , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 615: 369-374, 2018 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28988071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have identified that exposure to particulate matter during pregnancy could result in adverse birth outcomes, but the effects of exposure at trimester-specific intervals are inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: Our primary goal was to investigate whether particulate matter exposure during pregnancy could affect birth weight and gestational age of neonates. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted to examine the relationship between maternal particulate matter exposure and neonatal birth weight. We collected 14,455 births records linked to hospital admission records (delivery and antenatal) from January 2013 to December 2015 in Suzhou Municipal Hospital. Air monitoring data in the same timeframe were also collected from Suzhou Environmental Protection Agency. The risk of low birth weight due to the exposure to PM2.5 (with median aerodynamic diameter≤2.5µm) and PM10 (with median aerodynamic diameter≤10µm) at each trimester and throughout the entire pregnancy were assessed. Linear regression models were applied and potential confounding factors were adjusted for data analysis. Gestational age, which was another important birth outcome, and its association with maternal particulate matter exposure were also studied. RESULTS: The final analysis included 10,915 singleton live births. Using multiple linear regression models, we found that gestational exposure to PM2.5 and PM10 at 10µg/m3 increments in the second trimester led to decreases in birth weight of 4.94g (95% confidence interval: -9.828, -0.046) and 5.65g (95% confidence interval: -10.110, -1.188), respectively. However, gestational age was not significantly associated with maternal particulate matter exposure in term neonates. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that pregnant women might be more susceptible to particulate matter during the second trimester which may lead to decreased neonatal birth weight.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Peso ao Nascer , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Adulto , China , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Environ Int ; 105: 56-65, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28501790

RESUMO

Both bisphenol A (BPA) and obesity affect male reproductive system. However, whether there is an interaction between them remains poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the interaction between BPA exposure and obesity on semen quality and elucidate the mechanism in humans and animals. We firstly analyzed the interaction on semen volume, sperm count per ejaculate, sperm concentration and sperm motility in 357 men, and found that urinary BPA concentration was significantly correlated with sperm count per ejaculate in obese men (ß=-34.62; 95% CI: -60.75, -8.48; P=0.01). Then we validated the interaction using lean and obese mice with administration of BPA. Significant interactions between BPA exposure and obesity on sperm count and sperm concentration was observed in mice. Finally, we conducted metabolomics analyses to identify metabolites related to the interaction. Metabolites related to the interaction, including capric acid, dodecanoic acid, l-palmitoylcarnitine, niacinamide, etc., are known to play critical roles in fatty acid oxidation and tricarboxylic acid cycle indicating increased oxidative stress associated with male reproductive dysfunction. Thus, our study finds an interaction between BPA exposure and obesity on sperm count and reveals potential metabolic mechanisms. It emphasizes the importance to study interactions between endocrine disrupting chemicals and obesity, and opens avenues for the possible use of animal models in identifying the interactions.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Infertilidade Masculina/etiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Fenóis/toxicidade , Espermatogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Compostos Benzidrílicos/urina , Índice de Massa Corporal , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Metabolômica , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/urina , Análise do Sêmen , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Motilidade Espermática/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
19.
Cell Death Dis ; 8(3): e2676, 2017 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28300826

RESUMO

Inflammatory responses involving microglia and astrocytes contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases (NDs). In addition, inflammation is tightly linked to iron metabolism dysregulation. However, it is not clear whether the brain inflammation-induced iron metabolism dysregulation contributes to the NDs pathogenesis. Herein, we demonstrate that the expression of the systemic iron regulatory hormone, hepcidin, is induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) through the IL-6/STAT3 pathway in the cortex and hippocampus. In this paradigm, activated glial cells are the source of IL-6, which was essential in the iron overload-activated apoptosis of neurons. Disrupting astrocyte hepcidin expression prevented the apoptosis of neurons, which were able to maintain levels of FPN1 adequate to avoid iron accumulation. Together, our data are consistent with a model whereby inflammation initiates an intercellular signaling cascade in which activated microglia, through IL-6 signaling, stimulate astrocytes to release hepcidin which, in turn, signals to neurons, via hepcidin, to prevent their iron release. Such a pathway is relevant to NDs in that it links inflammation, microglia and astrocytes to neuronal damage.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Hepcidinas/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Animais , Astrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Astrócitos/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Córtex Cerebral/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Encefalite/metabolismo , Encefalite/patologia , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/patologia , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/metabolismo , Microglia/patologia , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/patologia , Ratos , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Environ Int ; 102: 213-222, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28284820

RESUMO

Although various pesticides were used globally, the pesticides profiles in human blood serum remain largely unknown. We determined pesticide exposure profiles using solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography tandem with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in 200 human blood serum samples from the adult population in Jiangsu Province, China. A systematic and comprehensive literature review was carried out to identify the articles investigating pesticide exposure and compare exposure data. Of the 88 pesticides, 76 were found in the blood serum of the population in Jiangsu Province. To the best of our knowledge, 58 pesticides were reported in human blood serum for the first time, and among these pesticides, parathion-methyl, pyrimethanil, fluacrypyrim, simazine, cloquintocet-mexyl and barban were debatable in more than half of the samples. By statistical comparison of the blood serum levels of pesticides between this study and other countries, we found the levels of several organochlorine pesticides were significantly higher in the female population of Jiangsu Province. Health risks related to the pesticide profiling were then revealed, which identified higher carcinogenic toxicity and teratogenic toxicity risk in the female adults of Jiangsu Province caused by organochlorine pesticide exposure. This study not only provides a high-throughput pesticide screening method for future studies of the exposome, but also presents the first human data on exposure to a number of pesticides. It may provide a knowledge database for the risk assessment and management of the pesticides.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Praguicidas/sangue , Adulto , China , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Extração em Fase Sólida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Adulto Jovem
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