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1.
J Exp Bot ; 2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32064504

RESUMO

Ammonium (NH4+) is one of the principal nitrogen (N) sources in soils but is typically toxic already at intermediate concentrations. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a pivotal role in responses to environmental stresses. However, the role of ABA under high-NH4+ stress in rice (Oryza sativa L.) is only marginally understood. Here, we report that elevated NH4+ can significantly accelerate tissue ABA accumulation. Mutants with high (Osaba8ox) and low levels of ABA (Osphs3-1) exhibit elevated tolerance or sensitivity to high-NH4+ stress, respectively. Furthermore, ABA can decrease NH4+-induced oxidative damage and tissue NH4+ accumulation by enhancing antioxidant and GS/GOGAT enzyme activities. Using RNA-seq and qRT-PCR approaches, we ascertain that two genes, OsSAPK9 and OsbZIP20, are induced by both high NH4+ and by ABA. Our data indicate that OsSAPK9 interacts with OsbZIP20, and can phosphorylate OsbZIP20 and activate its function. When OsSAPK9 or OsbZIP20 are knocked out in rice, ABA-mediated antioxidant and GS/GOGAT activity enhancement under high-NH4+ stress disappear, and the two mutants are more sensitive to high-NH4+ stress compared with their wild types. Taken together, our results suggest that ABA plays a positive role in regulating the OsSAPK9-OsbZIP20 pathway in rice to increase tolerance to high-NH4+ stress.

2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(5): e19055, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000453

RESUMO

To investigate the outcomes and reliability of hybrid surgery (HS) versus anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) for the treatment of multilevel cervical spondylosis and disc diseases.Hybrid surgery, combining cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA) with fusion, is a novel treatment to multilevel cervical degenerated disc disease in recent years. However, the effect and reliability of HS are still unclear compared with ACDF.To investigate the studies of HS versus ACDF in patients with multilevel cervical disease, electronic databases (Medline, Embase, Pubmed, Cochrane library, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) were searched. Studies were included when they compared HS with ACDF and reported at least one of the following outcomes: functionality, neck pain, arm pain, cervical range of motion (ROM), quality of life, and incidence of complications. No language restrictions were used. Two authors independently assessed the methodological quality of included studies and extracted the relevant data.Seven clinical controlled trials were included in this study. Two trials were prospective and the other 5 were retrospective. The results of the meta-analysis indicated that HS achieved better recovery of NDI score (P = 0.038) and similar recovery of VAS score (P = 0.058) compared with ACDF at 2 years follow-up. Moreover, the total cervical ROM (C2-C7) after HS was preserved significantly more than the cervical ROM after ACDF (P = 0.000) at 2 years follow-up. Notably, the compensatory increase of the ROM of superior and inferior adjacent segments was significant in ACDF groups at 2-year follow-up (P < 0.01), compared with HS.The results demonstrate that HS provides equivalent outcomes and functional recovery for cervical disc diseases, and significantly better preservation of cervical ROM compared with ACDF in 2-year follow-up. This suggests the HS is an effective alternative invention for the treatment of multilevel cervical spondylosis to preserve cervical ROM and reduce the risk of adjacent disc degeneration. Nonetheless, more well-designed studies with large groups of patients are required to provide further evidence for the benefit and reliability of HS for the treatment of cervical disk diseases.


Assuntos
Vértebras Cervicais/cirurgia , Discotomia/métodos , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia , Fusão Vertebral/métodos , Humanos , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/cirurgia , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/cirurgia , Espondilose/cirurgia
3.
Lab Invest ; 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051532

RESUMO

Novel molecular mechanisms of the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF) are continuously being discovered, including epigenetic regulation. Among epigenetic marks, the role of DNA hypomethylation in shaping heart morphology and function in vivo and the pathogenesis of cardiomyopathy and/or HF, especially in adults, has not been clearly established. Here we show that the strong expression of DNA methyltransferase 1 (Dnmt1) is obviously downregulated in the WT adult rat heart with age. By contrast, the expression of Dnmt1 is upregulated suddenly in heart tissues from pressure overload-induced HF mice and adriamycin-induced cardiac injury and HF mice, consistent with the increased expression of Dnmt1 observed in familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHCM) patients. To further assess the role of Dnmt1, we generated myocardium-specific Dnmt1 knockout (Dnmt1 KO) rats using CRISPR-Cas9 technology. Echocardiographic and histopathological examinations demonstrated that Dnmt1 deficiency is associated with resistance to cardiac pathological changes and protection at the global and organization levels in response to pathological stress. Furthermore, Dnmt1 deficiency in the myocardium restricts the expressional reprogramming of genes and activates pathways involved in myocardial protection and anti-apoptosis in response to pathological stress. Transcriptome and genome-wide DNA methylation analyses revealed that these changes in regulation are linked to alterations in the methylation status of genes due to Dnmt1 knockout. The present study is the first to investigate in vivo the impact of genome-wide cardiac DNA methyltransferase deficiency on physiological development and the pathological processes of heart tissues in response to stress. The exploration of the role of epigenetics in the development, modification, and prevention of cardiomyopathy and HF is in a very preliminary stage but has an infinite future.

4.
Anal Chem ; 92(3): 2770-2777, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31903742

RESUMO

Proteomics emerges from the protein identification to protein functional elucidation, which depends to a large extent on the characterization of protein sequences. However, a large part of proteome sequences remains unannotated due to the limitation in proteolytic digestion by golden standard protease trypsin. Herein, we demonstrated that a cyanobacterial protease VAILase could specifically cleave at the short-chain aliphatic amino acids valine, alanine, leucine, isoleucine and threonine with cleavage specificity about 92% in total for proteomic analysis. The unique features of VAILase cleavage facilitate the characterization of most proteins and exhibit high complementarity to trypsin, and 22% of the covered sequences by VAILase are unique. VAILase can greatly improve the coverages of sequences with abundant aliphatic residues that are usually dark regions in conventional proteomic analysis, such as the transmembrane regions within anion exchanger 1 and photosystem II.

6.
Nephrology (Carlton) ; 25(3): 219-229, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900967

RESUMO

AIM: Phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) is a target antigen for idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN). However, the association between renal PLA2R antigen and disease prognosis had not been fully investigated. In addition, there was a paucity of studies investigating the difference of therapeutic effects between cyclophosphamide and cyclosporine A in PLA2R-associated IMN. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study recruited 300 eligible patients diagnosed with biopsy-proven IMN between September 2015 and July 2018 in Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital. The remission of proteinuria was compared between PLA2R-associated and non-PLA2R-associated IMN. The difference of therapeutic effects between cyclophosphamide and cyclosporine A were also investigated in PLA2R-associated IMN. RESULTS: The positive rate of renal PLA2R antigen in recruited IMN patients was 82.3%. Non-PLA2R-associated IMN patients had a higher probability to achieve remission than PLA2R-associated IMN patients (Log-rank test, P = .013). Multivariate COX analysis showed that renal PLA2R antigen was an independent risk factor for not achieving remission in IMN patients (Hazard Ratio: 1.619; 95% confidence interval: 1.133 to 2.313; P = .008). In PLA2R-associated IMN, patients receiving cyclophosphamide had a higher probability to achieve remission compared with those receiving cyclosporine A (Log-rank test, P = .018) while there was no difference in renal survival. Multivariate COX regression analysis showed that compared with cyclosporine A, patients receiving cyclophosphamide had a higher probability to achieve remission. CONCLUSION: Phospholipase A2 receptor -associated IMN patients had a lower probability to achieve remission compared with non-PLA2R-associated IMN. Compared with cyclosporine A, cyclophosphamide exerted better therapeutic effects in remission of proteinuria and may be the preferred immunosuppressant for PLA2R-associated IMN. SUMMARY AT A GLANCE This article highlighted the prognostic value of intra-renal phospholipase A2 receptor deposition in idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN). Renal phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R)-associated IMN patients had a lower probability to achieve remission compared with non-PLA2R-associated IMN.

7.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 22, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The underlying mechanism between hope and quality of life is as yet unknown. We aim to examine the potential mediating effect of depression and resilience and the moderated effect of sex in this well-established association. METHODS: Two hundred seven patients diagnosed with schizophrenia were administered a questionnaire battery that measured hope, depression, resilience and QOL. A multiple mediation model was used to examine the mediating effect of resilience and depression on the association between hope and QOL. A subgroup analysis was performed and a moderated mediation model was examined to find and test the moderated effect of sex on the mediation model. We used Mplus to perform moderation and mediation analyses so that the mediators and moderator could function together in the same model. RESULT: Sex was the moderator on the direct path between hope and QOL. The relationship between hope and QOL was mediated by resilience and depression in both sexes. When compared with female patients, the effect of hope on QOL was completely mediated by resilience and depression in males. In female patients, the model was partially mediated, and the direct effect of hope on QOL was significantly negatively correlated with the level of hope. CONCLUSION: We present a conceptual model containing the mediated effects of resilience and depression and the moderated effect of sex between hope and QOL, which we believe facilitates the understanding of these associations. This model should be useful in the formulation of strategies to improve QOL.

8.
Hepatology ; 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31903610

RESUMO

Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-ß) suppresses early stages of tumorigenesis, but contributes to migration and metastasis of cancer cells. However, the role of TGF-ß signaling in invasive prometastatic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the roles of canonical TGF-ß/SMAD3 signaling and identified downstream effectors on HCC migration and metastasis. By using in vitro trans-well migration and invasion assays and in vivo metastasis models, we demonstrated that SMAD3 and Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Receptor Epsilon (PTPRε) promotes migration, invasion and metastasis of HCC cells in vitro and in vivo. Further mechanistic studies revealed that, upon TGF-ß stimulation, SMAD3 binds directly to PTPRε promoters to activate its expression. PTPRε interacts with TGFBR1/SMAD3 and facilitates recruitment of SMAD3 to TGFBR1, resulting a sustained SMAD3 activation status. The tyrosine phosphatase activity of PTPRε is important for binding with TGFBR1, recruitment and activation of SMAD3, and its prometastatic role in vitro. A positive correlation between pSMAD3/SMAD3 and PTPRε expression were determined in HCC samples, and high expression of SMAD3 or PTPRε was associated with poor prognosis of HCC patients. Conclusion PTPRε positively feedback regulates TGF-ß/SMAD3 signaling to promote HCC metastasis.

9.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994361

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of digoxin use on the outcomes of patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and its possible interaction with atrial fibrillation or use of currently guideline-recommended treatments in the real world in China. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients hospitalized with HFrEF from 45 hospitals participating in the China National Heart Failure Registration Study (CN-HF) were enrolled to assess the all-cause mortality, HF mortality, all-cause re-hospitalization, and HF re-hospitalization associated with digoxin use. Eight hundred eighty-two eligible HFrEF patients in the CN-HF registry were included: 372 patients with digoxin and 510 patients without digoxin. Among them, 794 (90.0%) patients were followed up for the endpoint events, with a median follow-up of 28.6 months. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that the all-cause mortality (P < 0.001) and all-cause re-hospitalization (P = 0.020) were significantly higher in digoxin group than non-digoxin group, while HF mortality (P = 0.232) and HF re-hospitalization (P = 0.098) were similar between the two groups. The adjusted Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis demonstrated that digoxin use remained as an independent risk factor for increased all-cause mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 1.76; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.27-2.44; P = 0.001] and all-cause re-hospitalization (HR 1.27; 95% CI 1.03-1.57; P = 0.029) in HFrEF patients and the predictive value of digoxin for all-cause mortality irrespective of rhythm or in combination with other guideline-recommended therapies. CONCLUSIONS: Digoxin use is independently associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality and all-cause re-hospitalization in HFrEF patients.

10.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 40(1): 68-74, 2020 Jan 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31930902

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of early intervention electroacupuncture (EA) at "Baihui" (GV 20), "Dazhui" (GV 14) and "Shenshu" (BL 23) on the learning-memory ability and the expression of phosphorylated Tau protein in the hippocampus of SAMP8 mice, so as to provide reference for the intervening period of EA for Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: A total of 36 3-month old SAMP8 mice were randomly divided into a model group, a 3-month-old EA group and a 9-month-old EA group, 12 mice in each group. Twelve normal SAMR1 mice with the same age were taken as the control group. The mice in the 3-month-old EA group and 9-month-old EA group were treated with EA at "Baihui" (GV 20), "Dazhui" (GV 14) and "Shenshu" (BL 23) separately 3 months old and 9 months old (continuous wave, 2 Hz, 1.5-2 mA), 20 min each time, once a day, 8 days as a course of treatment, with an interval of 2 days between courses, totally 3 courses of treatment were given. The mice sample in each group was collected at the age of 10 months after the learning-memory ability tested by Morris water maze. The expression of phosphorylated Tau protein in the hippocampus was detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blot, and the expression of Tau mRNA was detected by real-time PCR. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, in the model group, the escape latency was significantly increased (P<0.01), the time of stay in the original platform quadrant and the number of crossing the platform quadrant were reduced (P<0.01), and the expressions of phosphorylated Tau protein and Tau mRNA in hippocampus were increased (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, in the 3-month-old EA group and 9-month-old EA group, the escape latency was significantly reduced (P<0.05), the time of stay in the original platform quadrant and the number of crossing the platform quadrant were increased (P<0.05), and the expressions of phosphorylated Tau protein and Tau mRNA in hippocampus were reduced (P<0.05). Compared with the 9-month-old EA group, in the 3-month-old EA group, the escape latency was significantly reduced (P<0.05), the time of stay in the original platform quadrant and the number of crossing the platform quadrant were increased (P<0.05), and the expressions of phosphorylated Tau protein and Tau mRNA were reduced (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: The early EA intervention could more effectively improve the learning-memory ability and inhibit phosphorylation of Tau protein in the hippocampus of SAMP8 mice.


Assuntos
Eletroacupuntura , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hipocampo , Aprendizagem , Memória , Camundongos , Proteínas tau
11.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 146: 315-328, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785518

RESUMO

Chrysanthemum [Dendranthema morifolium Tzvel.] is an ornamental plant grown under long-term artificial cultivation conditions. In production, early Chrysanthemum blossoms are often promoted by artificial short-day treatment. However, we found that the flower colour of Chrysanthemum blossoms induced by artificial short-day treatment was lighter than those induced by the natural photoperiod. To explore the intrinsic mechanism of colour fading in flowers, we performed full-length transcriptome sequencing of Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. 'Jinbeidahong' using single-molecule real-time sequencing and RNA-sequencing under natural daylight (ND) and short daylight (SD) conditions. The clustered transcriptome sequences were assigned to various databases, such as NCBI, Swiss-Prot, Gene Ontology and so on. The comparative results of digital gene expression analysis revealed that there were differentially expressed transcripts (DETs) in the four stages under ND and SD conditions. In addition, the expression patterns of anthocyanin biosynthesis structural genes were verified by quantitative real-time PCR. The major regulators of the light signalling ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5 genes were markedly upregulated under ND conditions. The patterns of anthocyanin accumulation were consistent with the expression patterns of CHI1 and 3GT1. The results showed that the anthocyanin synthesis is tightly regulated by the photoperiod, which will be useful for molecular breeding of Chrysanthemum.

12.
Eur J Med Chem ; 186: 111897, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761382

RESUMO

Diosgenin, a naturally occurring steroidal saponin, has been confirmed to possess potent anticancer properties. In the current work, two series of novel diosgenin derivatives bearing 1,3,4-oxadiazole (6a-6e and 7a-7e) or 1,3,4-thiadiazole (8a-8e and 9a-9e) moieties were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their cytotoxicities in four human cancer cell lines (HepG2, A549, MCF-7 and HCT-116) and normal human gastric epithelial cells (GES-1) using the MTT assay in vitro. The results showed that compounds 8d and 9d exhibited significant cytotoxic activities against the HepG2 and A549 cells, being more potent than their parent compound diosgenin. Furthermore, the 1,3,4-thiadiazole series of compounds generally exhibited stronger cytotoxicity compared with the 1,3,4-oxadiazole series against HepG2 and A549 cells, and the substitution of 3-pyridyl group at the C5 position of the 1,3,4-thiadiazole ring was the preferred option for these compounds to display significant cytotoxic activities. Compound 8d showed potent cytotoxic activity against A549 cell line (IC50 = 3.93 µM) and was 6.7-fold more potent than diosgenin (IC50 = 26.41 µM). Moreover, compound 8d displayed low toxicity against GES-1 cells (IC50 = 420.4 µM), showing specificity between normal and tumor cells. Further cellular mechanism studies in A549 cells indicated that compound 8d triggered the mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis by decreasing mitochondrial membrane potential, which was associated with up-regulation of Bax, down-regulation of Bcl-2 and activation levels of the caspase cascade. The above results indicated that compound 8d may be used as a promising skeleton for antitumor agents with improved efficacy.

13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(1): 490-499, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797266

RESUMO

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are important precursors of ozone and atmospheric particulates that have attracted extensive attention worldwide. Cooking emissions, the chemical characteristics of which vary dramatically due to different cooking styles, are a main source of ambient VOCs, especially in large cities. This research focused on the emission characteristics of VOCs from six types of restaurants in Shanghai: hot pot (HP), Sichuan cuisine (SC), Cantonese cuisine (CS), seafood (SF), Western fast food (WFF), and authentic Shanghai cuisine (ASC). It was found that HP, which discharged cooking fumes indoors, produced the highest mass concentration of VOCs (1900.2 ± 364.8 µg m-3), followed by SC (1403.7 ± 403.8 µg m-3), WFF (656.0 ± 156.9 µg m-3), SF (638.6 ± 145.1 µg m-3), CC (632.7 ± 127.7 µg m-3), and ASC (612.3 ± 51.3 µg m-3), the cooking fumes from which were collected by emission extraction stacks. Additionally, the VOC species from each cuisine were mainly low carbon substances. Alkanes were the major VOC pollutants from all six cuisines, accounting for 34.4-71.7%. The coefficient divergence values were 0.287-0.593, suggesting that there were differences between the cuisines in the present study. Ozone formation potential and secondary organic aerosol formation potential indicated that O-VOCs and aromatics were the largest contributors. Health risk assessment of VOCs via non-carcinogenic risk values (HQ) and carcinogenic risk values (RISK) indicated that frying, grilling, and stir-frying had relatively large impacts on human health. VOCs collected in emission extraction stacks were significantly higher risk compared with those in the indoor environment, but the RISK score of the HP restaurant was larger, second only to SC. The HQ and RISK values of 1,3-butadiene, acetaldehyde, and trichloroethylene in the HP restaurant all exceeded US EPA standards, indicating that long-term exposure in an HP restaurant would have a significant impact on human health and might carry a potential cancer risk.

14.
Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 68(1): 24-29, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731315

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We explore midterm results after surgical treatment of partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection (PAPVC) to superior vena cava (SVC) in our institution. METHODS: From 2008 to 2017, 78 patients underwent surgical repair for PAPVC to SVC. Patients were divided into three groups based on surgical techniques: Single-patch repair (n = 20, group A), double-patch repair (n = 31, group B), and Warden repair (n = 27, group C). Their median age was 1.9 years (range: 3 months-13.8 years); median weight was 11.4 kg (range: 4.4-39.7 kg). Clinical, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic were available for all patients. RESULTS: There were no early or late mortality. The mean follow-up duration was 1.8 ± 2.1 years (range: 0.6 months to 8 years). No pulmonary venous obstruction occurred and no residual left-to-right shunts sustained during the follow-up. Reoperation for SVC obstruction was required: 1 (5.3%) in group A, 1 (3.2%) in group B, and 2 (7.4%) in group C (p = 0.78). Four patients (3 in group B, 1 in group C, p = 0.7) presented transient rhythm disturbance at discharge and one patient in group B remains nonsinus rhythm during follow-up. Pacemaker was not required in all patients. CONCLUSION: PAPVC to SVC can be safely managed by multiple techniques. Careful manipulation nearby sinus node must be emphasized during double-patch repair to prevent injury of sinus node. Obstruction of postoperative SVC stenosis should be paid attention to after Warden procedure. For young patients, operation should not be performed that early, but until preschool age.

15.
Conserv Biol ; 34(1): 158-167, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069848

RESUMO

Flagship species have been used widely as umbrella species (i.e., species with large home range whose protection often provides protection for sympatric species) in the management of China's nature reserves. This conflation of flagship and umbrella species is best represented by the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and other large, endangered mammals designated as conservation targets in site selection and planning of reserves. Few empirical studies have tested the effectiveness of flagship species as surrogates for a broader range of sympatric species. Using extensive camera-trap data, we examined the effectiveness of management zones designated to protect flagship (target) species in conserving sympatric species in 4 wildlife reserves (Gutianshan, Changqing, Laohegou, and Wolong). We tested whether the progression from peripheral to core zones was associated with an increasing habitat association for both target and sympatric species. The distribution patterns of the study species across the zones in each reserve indicated a disparity between management zones and the species' habitat requirements. Management zone was included in the final model for all target species, and most of them had higher occurrence in core zones relative to less-protected zones, but zone was not a predictor for most of the sympatric species. When management zone was associated with the occurrence of sympatric species, threatened species generally had higher detections in core zones, whereas common species had higher detections outside of the core zone. Our results suggested that reserve planning based on flagship species does not adequately protect sympatric species due to their specialized habitat requirements. We recommend re-examining the effectiveness of management zoning and urge a multispecies and reserve-wide monitoring plan to improve protection of China's wildlife.

16.
Curr Microbiol ; 77(2): 320-326, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811376

RESUMO

A Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, non-motile, facultatively anaerobic bacterium, designated FJ4-8T, was isolated from a rotten hemp rope in Chongqing City, PR China. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the isolate was closely related to members of the family Sphingobacteriaceae, with the highest similarity to Pedobacter tournemirensis TF5-37.2-LB10T (95.3%) and low similarities to all other species of the genus Pedobacter (90.4-93.9%). Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that strain FJ4-8T formed a stable subclade with Pedobacter tournemirensis TF5-37.2-LB10T. The clade with these two strains branched adjacent to a clade containing three species of the genus Arcticibacter. MK-7 was detected as the only respiratory quinone. The major fatty acids composed iso-C15:0, iso-C17:0 3-OH and summed feature three. Phosphatidylethanolamine, three aminophospholipids and one unidentified lipid were found as the major polar lipids. The major polyamine was identified as sym-homospermidine. The DNA-DNA hybridization value between strain FJ4-8T and Pedobacter tournemirensis TF5-37.2-LB10T was 42.0 ± 2.5%. Based on its phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic characteristics, the novel strain and TF5-37.2-LB10T were found to be different from members of genera Pedobacter and Arcticibacter. FJ4-8T and TF5-37.2-LB10T represented different species. Therefore, FJ4-8T should be classified as a novel species of a novel genus in the family Sphingobacteriaceae, for which the name Pararcticibacter amylolyticus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is FJ4-8T (= KCTC 62640T = CCTCC AB 2018052T). The draft genome sequence is 6290, 449 bp in length, the genomic DNA G+C content was 44.4 mol%. Pedobacter tournemirensis TF5-37.2-LB10T should be transferred to the novel genus as Pararcticibacter tournemirensis comb. nov. (The type strain is TF5-37.2-LB10T (= DSM 23085T = CIP 110085T = MOLA 820T).

17.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 106: 103598, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881236

RESUMO

Interleukin 18 (IL-18), a member of IL-1 cytokine superfamily, is an important proinflammatory cytokine with multiple functions in both innate immunity and acquired immunity. However, the characteristics and functional roles of IL-18 remain largely unknown in amphibians, which were classed as major group of vertebrates. In the present study, two IL-18 genes (AdIL-18A and AdIL-18B) and four transcripts (AdIL-18A1, AdIL-18A2, AdIL-18B1 and AdIL-18B2) were firstly identified and characterized from Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the presence of more than one gene copy or two transcripts of IL-18 in one species. The complete open reading frames of AdIL-18A1, AdIL-18A2, AdIL-18B1 and AdIL-18B2 were 588 bp, 603 bp, 591 bp and 606 bp, respectively. The putative AdIL-18 proteins possessed the typical IL-1 domains and phylogenetic analysis indicated that AdIL-18s grouped together with other vertebrate IL-18 proteins. The expression profiles of AdIL-18s were investigated under the challenges of Aeromonas hydrophila, Staphylococcus ureae and Poly (I:C) respectively, and the results suggested that AdIL-18s were involved in the immune responses against both bacterial and viral infections. Moreover, the expression levels of two NF-κBs (P100 and P105) and four proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α and IFN-γ) were inhibited in AdIL-18A1/A2-silenced cells when treated with bacteria and viral RNA analog. Additionally, the transcription levels of these immune-related cytokine genes were markedly induced when the lymphocytes were treated with recombinant AdIL-18A1 or AdIL-18A2 proteins, implying the involvement of AdIL-18s in triggering NF-κB signaling and proinflammatory responses. These results might provide new insights into the origin or evolution of IL-18 in amphibians and even in vertebrates.

18.
Environ Res ; 182: 109010, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884195

RESUMO

Hydrogel adsorbents have attracted considerable attention due to their sludge minimization, good water permeability and renewable performance. Here, a promising strategy for the one-step preparation of pullulan/polydopamine hybird hydrogels (PPGels) was presented. Dumbbell-shaped cross-linker neopentyl glycol diglycidyl ether (NGDE, 2 arms) and Y-shaped cross-linker trimethylolpropane triglycidyl ether (TTE, 3 arms) were selected to study the relationship between cross-linker structure and hydrogel performances. The NGDE possessing less molecular repulsive force and higher reactivity demonstrated more effective cross-linking with the pullulan, which leaded to a decrease in pore size of the hydrogel. Meanwhile, the introduction of polydopamine significantly enhanced the adsorption ability and gave the resulting hybrid gel the specific selectivity toward cationic dyes (96 mg/g for crystal violet, 25.8 mg/g for methylene blue and barely not adsorption for azophloxine). Our data suggested that the electrostatic interaction played a vital role in the dye adsorption process, and the adsorption data could be explained by pseudo-second-order model and Langmuir isotherm model. Furthermore, the obtained PPGel could be easily separated after adsorption. This study describes the relationship between cross-linker structure and properties of pullulan/polydopamine hybrid gels, which provides a new strategy to create polysaccharide-based adsorbents for wastewater remediation.

19.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(1): 232-241, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854924

RESUMO

This study assesses the spatial distribution characteristics and ecological risk of phthalate esters (PAEs) in the surface sediments of the mainstream and tributaries of the Songhua River, China, using concentrations and composition of six PAEs, which were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometery (GC-MS). We assess the ∑6PAEs ecological risk using the hazard quotient (HQ) method and environmental risk levels (ERL). The results were as follows. ① It was found that the total concentrations of ∑6PAEs ranged from 6832.5 to 36298.9 ng·g-1 dry weight (average 18388.6 ng·g-1), with the main contributions coming from di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP). The difference between the main stream ∑6PAEs (6832.5-36298.9 ng·g-1, average 18616.9 ng·g-1) and the tributary ∑6PAEs (10367.6-26593.3 ng·g-1, average 18264.1 ng·g-1) was not significant (P >0.05). The mean concentrations of individual PAEs in the tributary stream differed little from that of the main stream. The ∑6PAEs concentration of the Songhua River decreased initially but then increased from the upstream to the downstream. The average ∑6PAEs concentration in natural agricultural areas (18677.5 ng·g-1) was similar to that found in urban industrial areas (18063.7 ng·g-1), and DBP and DEHP contributed 98% of ∑6PAEs. ② The main sources of ∑6PAEs were domestic, agricultural production, and industrial production using plasticizers. ③ The ecological risk assessment indicated that DMP and BBP in the surface sediments of the Songhua River did not pose an ecological risk for aquatic organisms, and that DEP was associated with a low ecological risk, whereas DEHP and DBP posed a high ecological risk for aquatic organisms.


Assuntos
Ésteres/análise , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , China , Dibutilftalato , Medição de Risco
20.
Nature ; 577(7788): 79-84, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31853069

RESUMO

Water lilies belong to the angiosperm order Nymphaeales. Amborellales, Nymphaeales and Austrobaileyales together form the so-called ANA-grade of angiosperms, which are extant representatives of lineages that diverged the earliest from the lineage leading to the extant mesangiosperms1-3. Here we report the 409-megabase genome sequence of the blue-petal water lily (Nymphaea colorata). Our phylogenomic analyses support Amborellales and Nymphaeales as successive sister lineages to all other extant angiosperms. The N. colorata genome and 19 other water lily transcriptomes reveal a Nymphaealean whole-genome duplication event, which is shared by Nymphaeaceae and possibly Cabombaceae. Among the genes retained from this whole-genome duplication are homologues of genes that regulate flowering transition and flower development. The broad expression of homologues of floral ABCE genes in N. colorata might support a similarly broadly active ancestral ABCE model of floral organ determination in early angiosperms. Water lilies have evolved attractive floral scents and colours, which are features shared with mesangiosperms, and we identified their putative biosynthetic genes in N. colorata. The chemical compounds and biosynthetic genes behind floral scents suggest that they have evolved in parallel to those in mesangiosperms. Because of its unique phylogenetic position, the N. colorata genome sheds light on the early evolution of angiosperms.

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