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2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 214: 112058, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714136

RESUMO

Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a nuclear transcription factor of great concern which is widely involved in physiological and pathological processes of the organism, but the role and regulatory mechanism of Nrf2 in kidney exposed to cadmium (Cd) remain largely unknown. Here we demonstrated that Cd exposure induced injury in primary rat proximal tubular (rPT) cells and NRK-52E cell line, which was accompanied by autophagic flux blockade and subsequent accumulation of p62. Cd-activated nucleus translocation of Nrf2 depended on p62, which promoted antioxidant genes transcription, but it failed to against Cd-induced cell injury and ultimately succumbed to Cd toxicity. CDDO Methyl Ester (CDDO-ME) or ML385 treatment aggravated or alleviated rPT cells injury induced by Cd respectively, indicating that Nrf2 nucleus translocation played a negative role during Cd-induced rPT cells injury. Phosphorylation of 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) decreased together with enhanced Nrf2 nucleus translocation in rPT cells exposed to Cd. Dephosphorylation of AMPK induced by Cd were facilitated or restored by CDDO-ME or ML385 treatment, which confirmed AMPK is a downstream factor of Nrf2. Simultaneously, CDDO-ME further enhanced Phosphorylation of mTOR and AKT which increased during Cd exposure. While, Cd-induced phosphorylation of mTOR and AKT were reversed by ML385 treatment. These results illustrated that Cd mediated Nrf2 nucleus translocation depends on p62 accumulation which results from autophagic flux inhibition. The enhanced nucleus translocation of Nrf2 suppresses phosphorylation of AMPK to inactivate AKT/mTOR signaling, and results in rPT cells injury finally.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Túbulos Renais Proximais/citologia , Túbulos Renais Proximais/metabolismo , Túbulos Renais Proximais/patologia , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosforilação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
3.
Arch Anim Nutr ; 75(2): 121-136, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557604

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine whether dietary tea tree oil (TTO) supplementation could effectively replace the antibiotics through modulating the antioxidant capacity and intestinal microbiota profile, and then decreasing the diarrhoea incidence and improving the growth performance of weaned pigs. A total of 216 weaned pigs with initial body weights (BW) of 9.19 ± 1.86 kg were randomly allocated to three dietary treatments in a completely randomised design. The dietary treatments included a corn-soybean meal basal diet (CON) without any antibiotics, and two experimental diets formulated by adding 75 mg/kg aureomycin (AGP) or 100 mg/kg TTO into the basal diet, respectively. Pigs fed the TTO diet showed greater gain to feed ratio (p < 0.05) than those fed CON and AGP diets during d 0-14 and d 14-28. Both dietary TTO and AGP supplementation tended to increase the average daily gain of weaned pigs during d 14-28 (p = 0.06) and the overall 28-d period (p = 0.07), and significantly reduced (p < 0.05) the diarrhoea incidence during d 0-14 compared with the CON treatment. In addition, dietary TTO supplementation improved the apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter and ether extract (p < 0.05), and increased (p < 0.05) the propionate and butyrate concentrations in faecal samples of weaned pigs. Moreover, pigs fed the TTO diet showed greater total antioxidant capacity, greater superoxide dismutase and interleukin-10 concentrations, and lower malondialdehyde concentration in serum than those fed the CON diet (p < 0.05). Furthermore, pigs fed the TTO diet demonstrated greater relative abundance of Clostridiaceae_1, while those fed the AGP diet exhibited greater relative abundance of Lactobacillaceae at family level. In conclusion, dietary TTO supplementation could improve growth performance in weaned pigs, which could be mainly attributed to the benefits on nutrient digestibility, antioxidative capacity and microbial community profile.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Sus scrofa , Óleo de Melaleuca/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Sus scrofa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sus scrofa/imunologia , Sus scrofa/metabolismo , Sus scrofa/microbiologia , Óleo de Melaleuca/administração & dosagem
4.
Environ Toxicol ; 36(5): 945-957, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33404196

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) interferes with the function of the male reproductive system; however, the molecular mechanism is poorly understood. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of puerarin (PU) on Cd-induced testicular lactic acid metabolism disorder. Weaning male Sprague-Dawley rats were pre-fed for 7 days, weighed, and randomly divided into four groups: Control group, CdAc2 group, CdAc2 + PU group, PU group. The results showed that Cd accumulated in the testis, the testicles became congested and shrank, and the testis index decreased in the rats treated in the CdAc2 group. Cadmium exposure reduced the serum concentration of testosterone, and the concentration of lactic acid and pyruvate in the testis. Cd decreased testicular superoxide dismutase activity and total antioxidant capacity, and increased testicular malondialdehyde levels. Cd reduced the level of ATP, glycolytic gene expression, and lactate production-related proteins in the testis. Cd also decreased the expression of 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) signaling pathway-related proteins in the testis. However, these negative effects were attenuated by PU administration. In summary, Cd reduces the production of lactic acid in the testis of rats, while PU administration restores the production of lactic acid and reduces the toxicity of Cd to the testis of rats.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Testículo , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/genética , Animais , Cádmio/toxicidade , Isoflavonas , Ácido Láctico , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais , Sirtuína 1/genética
6.
Cell Cycle ; 19(23): 3386-3397, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33222613

RESUMO

Heavy metal pollution is a problem that cannot be ignored. Due to the prevalence of cadmium in the environment and its harmful effects on humans, cadmium pollution has become a research hotspot recently. The mechanism of cadmium-induced toxicity has also drawn much attention and most studies have been conducted using whole cells, but the toxicological mechanism of cadmium remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to obtain NRK-52E cells at different growth stages by various methods and analyze the differences in cadmium toxicity. The results show that the cadmium sensitivity of cells in each phase was different and the late apoptotic rate was increased significantly after 5 µM Cd treatment. In addition, cadmium easily induces apoptosis of G0- and S-phase cells, as well as necrosis of S- and M-phase cells, but has no significant effect on G1-phase cells. Overall, we first explored the differences in the effects of cadmium on NRK-52E cells at various growth phases. Besides, the findings of this study might provide a theoretical basis for further exploration of the toxicological mechanism of cadmium.Abbreviations Cd: cadmium; CDK: cyclin-dependent kinases; DAPI 2-(4-amidinophenyl)-1H-indole-6-carboxamidine; TBST: Tris-buffered saline with Tween-20; PI: propidium iodide; DMEM: Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium; BCA: bicinchoninic acid.

7.
Mol Med Rep ; 22(3): 2551-2563, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32705200

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal that can accumulate and cause damage to a variety of tissues and organs. The kidney is the primary target organ for Cd accumulation and toxic damage. Autophagy, which is a critical intracellular process, serves an important role in maintaining the homeostasis of the intracellular environment. Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) is another key process that functions to promote cell survival or results in cell injury and death. Both autophagy and ERS are associated with oxidative stress; however, the mechanism by which ERS is regulated by autophagy in Cd­induced nephrotoxicity remains unclear. The present study employed a rat NRK­52E cell model, where alterations in cell morphology, density and viability, the accumulation of reactive oxygen species, an increase in malondialdehyde generation and a decrease in antioxidant enzyme activity and apoptosis were induced by Cd treatment. Cd induced the activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2­related factor 2 (NRF2), an obstruction of autophagic flux and ERS, which were attenuated by puerarin administration. Furthermore, puerarin failed to alleviate ERS following knockdown of autophagy­related protein 7 in NRK­52E cells. Overexpression of Ras­related protein Rab­7, which promotes the fusion of autophagosomes and lysosomes, efficiently reduced ERS. Taken together, these results indicate that puerarin administration restored the autophagic flux to alleviate ERS, via blocking the activation of NRF2.


Assuntos
Cádmio/efeitos adversos , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Isoflavonas/farmacologia , Túbulos Renais Proximais/citologia , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Animais , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Contagem de Células , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Túbulos Renais Proximais/efeitos dos fármacos , Túbulos Renais Proximais/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Ratos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
8.
Animals (Basel) ; 10(3)2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188021

RESUMO

This study was conducted to determine and compare digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) values and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy and nutrients in eight ingredients fed to both growing pigs and sows. Two experiments with 48 crossbred barrows or six non-pregnant sows were allotted to eight treatments in a completely randomized design or a pseudo Latin square with six replicated pigs per dietary treatment. The dietary treatments were formulated with two cereal ingredients: corn and wheat; two ingredients with a high protein level and a low fiber level (HPLF): soybean meal (SBM) and cottonseed meal (CSM); two ingredients with medium protein level and medium fiber level (MPMF): corn distiller' dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and corn germ meal (CGM); and two ingredients with a low protein level and a high fiber level (LPHF): wheat bran (WB) and palm kernel meal (PKM), respectively. Adult sows had greater DE and ME values and ATTD of energy and nutrients when fed cereal ingredients compared with growing pigs, and had lower DE and ME contents and ATTD of energy and nutrients except for acid detergent fiber (ADF) when fed HPLF ingredients compared with growing pigs. Moreover, no differences were observed between adult sows and growing pigs in DE and ME contents and ATTD of energy and nutrients when fed MPMF and LPHF ingredients, except that adult sows showed a greater ATTD of crude protein (CP) when fed MPMF ingredients compared with growing pigs. Our results indicate that sows had a lower available energy and nutrient digestibility when fed SBM or CSM compared with growing pigs. Crude protein contents in ingredients should be considered when predicting DE and ME values in sows based on the DE and ME values measured from growing pigs.

9.
Asian-Australas J Anim Sci ; 33(11): 1787-1796, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32054180

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) of yellow dent corn sourced from different meteorological origins fed to growing pigs and develop equations to predict the DE and ME of yellow dent corn from southwestern China. METHODS: Sixty crossbred barrows were allotted to 20 treatments in a triplicate 20×2 incomplete Latin square design with 3 replicated pigs per dietary treatment during 2 consecutive periods. Each period lasted for 12 days, and total feces and urine during the last 5 days of each period were collected to calculate the energy contents. RESULTS: On dry matter (DM) basis, the DE and ME in 20 corn grain samples ranged from 15.38 to 16.78 MJ/kg and from 14.93 to 16.16 MJ/kg, respectively. Selected best-fit prediction equations for DE and ME (MJ/kg DM basis) for yellow dent corn (n = 16) sourced from southwestern China were as follows: DE = 28.58-(0.12×% hemicellulose)+(0.35×% ether extract)-(0.83×MJ/kg gross energy)+(0.20×% crude protein)+(0.49×% ash); ME = 30.42- (0.11×% hemicellulose)+(0.31×% ether extract)-(0.81×MJ/kg gross energy). CONCLUSION: Our results indicated that the chemical compositions, but not the meteorological conditions or physical characteristics could explain the variation of energy contents in yellow dent corn sourced from southwestern China fed to growing pigs.

10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 187: 109851, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670181

RESUMO

Cadmium is a heavy metal pollutant that has been reported to cause oxidative stress, apoptosis, and autophagy in cells, while the flavone isoorientin is a traditional Chinese medicine extract that has proven antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Accordingly, in this study we used the rat proximal tubular cell line NRK-52E and primary rat proximal tubular (rPT) cells as models to investigate the effects of isoorientin against Cadmium-induced cell injury and the mechanism of these effects. Comet assay, Western blot, flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, and transmission electron microscopy were used to evaluate cell damage and cell-cycle-related protein expression. Furthermore, real-time cell analysis, cell-counting kit-8, and ELISA were used to investigate the role of isoorientin in Cadmium-induced cell injury. The results revealed that treatment of rat renal tubular epithelial cells with 2.5 µM Cd for 12 h resulted in DNA damage and G0/G1 cell cycle arrest, while isoorientin attenuated this Cd-induced damage.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cádmio/toxicidade , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G1 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Luteolina/farmacologia , Fase de Repouso do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos
11.
J Oleo Sci ; 68(10): 939-950, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511468

RESUMO

In order to study the oxidative stability of hazelnut oil stored at room temperature, hazelnut oil accelerated oxidized at 62°C was used to determine peroxide value (POV), p-anisidine value (p-AV), total oxidation value (TOTOX), the content of fatty acids and volatile oxidative products. The correlation between the content of fatty acids or volatile oxidative products and three peroxidation indexes was analyzed. The results showed that the relative content of linoleic acid in hazelnut oil decreased significantly at the duration of accelerated oxidation (p < 0.05), which was in line with the zero-order oxidation kinetics model. The absolute content of four fatty acids all accorded with the zero-order oxidation kinetics model. Both relative and absolute content of linoleic acid can set up a slightly negative linear correlation with POV, p-AV and TOTOX, respectively (p < 0.05). The oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in hazelnut oil produced a variety of volatile oxidation products, among which hexanal, 2-octenal, 2-decenal and 3-octene-2-one could establish a significantly positive correlation with POV, p-AV and TOTOX at a certain period of time, which could be used as a new index to evaluate the oxidative decomposition of unsaturated fatty acids in hazelnut oil during storage.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Corylus/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Cinética , Oxirredução
12.
Anim Sci J ; 90(8): 939-947, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31144412

RESUMO

The present study was conducted to determine the net energy (NE) values and energy efficiency of wheat bran (WB), sugar beet pulp (SBP), corn gluten feed (CGF), soybean hulls (SBH), and defatted rice bran (DFRB) fed to pregnant sows. Thirty-six multiparous pregnant sows were randomly assigned to six dietary treatments with six replicates per treatment. Each period lasted for 21 days including 14 days for adaptation. On day 15, sows were moved into respiration chambers for heat production (HP) measurement and provided feed at 544 kJ/kg BW0.75 /day. On day 20, sows were fasted to measure the fasting heat production (FHP). Experimental diets included corn-soybean meal basal diet and five diets containing 29.20% WB, SBP, CGF, SBH, and DFRB, respectively. Results showed that inclusion of WB, SBP, CGF, SBH, and DFRB to basal diet decreased (p < 0.05) the apparent total tract digestibility of energy and nutrients. The average adjusted total HP and FHP were 418 kJ/kg BW0.75 /day and 326 kJ/kg BW0.75 /day, respectively. The average NE:ME ratio of experiment diets was 82.5%. In conclusion, the NE values of WB, SBP, CGF, SBH, and DFRB were 9.05, 8.59, 8.37, 7.64, and 7.93 MJ/kg DM, respectively.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Bovinos/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Ingestão de Energia , Metabolismo Energético , Prenhez/metabolismo , Animais , Beta vulgaris , Fibras na Dieta , Digestão , Feminino , Gravidez , Soja , Zea mays
13.
Front Plant Sci ; 10: 443, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31024604

RESUMO

Hawthorn is of high economic value owing to its medicinal properties and health benefits. Crataegus is a member of the Rosaceae family; the genus has a complicated taxonomic history, and several theories on its origin have been proposed. In this study, 53 accessions from seven Crataegus taxa native to China and accessions of exotic Crataegus species (two from Europe and one from North America) were analyzed by specific locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq). In total, 933,450 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were identified after filtering and used to investigate the species' genomic evolution. Phylogenetic trees derived from nuclear simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and SLAF-seq data showed the same topology, in which Crataegus maximowiczii and Crataegus sanguineae formed a closely related cluster that was clearly separated from the cluster composed of Crataegus hupehensis, Crataegus pinnatifida, Crataegus pinnatifida var. major, Crataegus bretschneideri and Crataegus scabrifolia. Phylogenetic and structure analysis indicated that the seven Chinese Crataegus taxa had two separate speciation events. Plants that evolved the southwestern route shared the genepool with the European species, whereas plants along the northeastern route shared the genepool with the North American species. TreeMix genetic analysis revealed that C. bretschneideri may have a hybrid origin. This study provides valuable information on the origins of Chinese Crataegus and suggests an evolutionary model for the main Crataegus species that native to China.

14.
J Anim Sci ; 97(2): 714-726, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30462227

RESUMO

This study was conducted to determine the DE, ME, and apparent (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in different wheat cultivars fed to growing pigs. In Exp. 1, twelve crossbred growing barrows were allotted to a replicated 6 × 6 Latin square design to determine the DE and ME contents of 12 different wheat cultivars. In Exp. 2, twelve growing barrows with a simple T-cannula were used to determine the AID and SID of AA in 10 different wheat cultivars. Pigs were randomly allotted to a replicated 6 × 6 Latin square design and fed one nitrogen-free diet and 10 different cultivars of wheat diets. Among different wheat cultivars, the concentrations of GE, CP, NDF, ADF, and starch ranged from 4,385 to 4,458 kcal/kg, 12.95% to 18.14%, 9.16% to 13.89%, 1.93% to 2.92% and 60.81% to 70.77%, respectively (DM basis). There were significant differences (P < 0.05) in the DE, ME values, and the ATTD of GE in 12 different cultivars of wheat in Exp. 1. The DE and ME contents and the ATTD of GE ranged (P < 0.05) from 3,922 to 4,067 kcal/kg DM, 3,759 to 3,941 kcal/kg DM and 88.14% to 90.31%, respectively. The best prediction equations of DE and ME for different cultivars of wheat cultivars were DE = -2,738 - (40.8 × % ADF) + (1.7 × GE) - (51.5 × % Xylans) - (95.7 × % Ash) + (22.3 × % EE), R2 = 0.98, and ME = -2,990 + (1.7 × GE) - (50.2 × % Xylans) - (87.6 × % Ash), R2 = 0.88, respectively. There were also differences (P < 0.05) in the AID and SID of CP and indispensable AA, expect for His, in 10 wheat cultivars in Exp. 2. The AID and SID of CP, Lys, and Met ranged (P < 0.05) from 82.02% to 89.46%, 74.13% to 84.73%, 87.35% to 92.49% and 87.56% to 94.04%, 80.56% to 89.89%, 89.56% to 94.45%, respectively. In conclusion, the chemical composition, energy contents, and most AA digestibility in different cultivars of wheat varied widely.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Suínos/fisiologia , Triticum , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Energético , Íleo/metabolismo , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Especificidade da Espécie
15.
Anim Sci J ; 90(1): 108-116, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30467947

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of brown rice particle size on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy and nutrients in diets fed to pigs at four different stages and determine the optimal particle size (OPS) of brown rice for young pigs and adult sows. Eighteen weanling piglets (initial body weight (BW): 10.2 ± 0.4 kg), 18 growing barrows (initial BW: 35.6 ± 1.5 kg), 24 gestating sows (initial BW: 220 ± 2.8 kg), and 24 lactating sows (initial BW: 208 ± 3.8 kg) were allotted to 1 of 3 or 4 diets based on completely randomized design with six replicates per diet. Within each stage, brown rice-soybean meal diets were formulated, and the only difference among diets was the brown rice used was ground to the specified particle size. Each stage lasted 19 days, including 7 days for cage adaptation, 7 days for diet adaptation, and 5 days for total feces and urine collection. For weanling and growing pigs, the results showed that pigs fed brown rice milled to 600 µm had a greater ATTD of dry matter (DM), gross energy (GE), and crude protein (CP) than pigs fed brown rice ground to 800 µm. However, there was no improvement in the ATTD of energy and nutrients for pigs fed brown rice milled to 600 µm versus 400 µm. The concentration of nitrogen (N) in feces significantly reduced (p < 0.01) as brown rice particle size decreased from 800 to 400 µm. However, there were no differences in phosphorus (P) output and absorbed P among diets. For gestating and lactating sows, a reduction in particle size from 1,000 to 800 µm significantly improved (p < 0.01) the ATTD of DM, GE, and CP in diets. However, there was also no improvement in the ATTD of energy and nutrients for pigs fed brown rice milled from 800 to 400 µm. In conclusion, considering the energy required for milling and nutrient digestibility, milling brown rice to 600 and 800 µm are recommended in diets for young pigs and adult sows, respectively. The OPS of brown rice for pigs at different physiological stages should be considered to economically and accurately formulate diets.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Metabolismo Energético , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Oryza , Tamanho da Partícula , Suínos/metabolismo , Suínos/fisiologia , Ração Animal/economia , Animais , Dieta/economia , Feminino , Masculino , Gravidez
16.
BMC Plant Biol ; 17(1): 72, 2017 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28399812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A complete and hardened endocarp is a typical trait of drupe fruits. However, the 'Liehe' (LE) apricot cultivar has a thin, soft, cleavable endocarp that represents 60.39% and 63.76% of the thickness and lignin content, respectively, of the 'Jinxihong' (JG) apricot (with normal hardened-endocarp). To understand the molecular mechanisms behind the LE apricot phenotype, comparative transcriptomes of Prunus armeniaca L. were sequenced using Illumina HiSeq™ 2500. RESULTS: In this study, we identified 63,170 unigenes including 15,469 genes >1000 bp and 25,356 genes with Gene Function annotation. Pathway enrichment and expression patterns were used to characterize differentially expression genes. The DEGs encoding key enzymes involved in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis were significantly down-regulated in LE apricot. For example, CAD gene expression levels, encoding cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, were only 1.3%, 0.7%, 0.2% and 2.7% in LE apricot compared with JG cultivar at 15, 21, 30, 49 days after full bloom (DAFB). Furthermore, transcription factors regulating secondary wall and lignin biosynthesis were identified. Especially for SECONDARY WALL THICKENING PROMOTING FACTOR 1 (NST 1), its expression levels in LE apricot were merely 2.8% and 9.3% compared with JG cultivar at 15 and 21 DAFB, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our comparative transcriptome analysis was used to understand the molecular mechanisms underlie the endocarp-cleaving phenotype in LE apricot. This new apricot genomic resource and the candidate genes provide a useful reference for further investigating the lignification during development of apricot endocarp. Transcription factors such as NST1 may regulate genes involved in phenylpropanoid pathway and affect development and lignification of the endocarp.


Assuntos
Frutas/fisiologia , Prunus armeniaca/genética , Frutas/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Prunus armeniaca/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Prunus armeniaca/fisiologia
17.
Front Plant Sci ; 7: 1524, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27790234

RESUMO

Softening, a common phenomenon in many fruits, is a well coordinated and genetically determined process. However, the process of flesh softening during ripening has rarely been described in hawthorn. In this study, we found that 'Ruanrou Shanlihong 3 Hao' fruits became softer during ripening, whereas 'Qiu JinXing' fruits remained hard. At late developmental stages, the firmness of 'Ruanrou Shanlihong 3 Hao' fruits rapidly declined, and that of 'Qiu JinXing' fruits remained essentially unchanged. According to transmission electron microscopy, the middle lamella of 'Qiu JinXing' and 'Ruanrou Shanlihong 3 Hao' fruit flesh was largely degraded as the fruits matured. Microfilaments in 'Qiu JinXing' flesh were arranged close together and were deep in color, whereas those in 'Ruanrou Shanlihong 3 Hao' fruit flesh were arranged loosely, partially degraded and light in color. RNA-Seq analysis yielded approximately 46.72 Gb of clean data and 72,837 unigenes. Galactose metabolism and pentose and glucuronate interconversions are involved in cell wall metabolism, play an important role in hawthorn texture. We identified 85 unigenes related to the cell wall between hard- and soft-fleshed hawthorn fruits. Based on data analysis and real-time PCR, we suggest that ß-GAL and PE4 have important functions in early fruit softening. The genes Ffase, Gns,α-GAL, PE63, XTH, and CWP, which are involved in cell wall degradation, are responsible for the different textures of hawthorn fruits. Thus, we hypothesize that the different textures of 'Qiu JinXing' and 'Ruanrou Shanlihong 3 Hao' fruits at maturity mainly result from cellulose/hemicelluloses degradation rather than from lamella degradation. Overall, we propose that different types of hydrolytic enzymes in cells interact to degrade the cell wall, resulting in ultramicroscopic Structure changes in the cell wall and, consequently, fruit softening. These results provide fundamental insight regarding the mechanisms by which hawthorn fruits acquire different textures and also lay a solid foundation for further research.

18.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 31(7): 1457-63, 2010 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20825010

RESUMO

Ammonia has both direct and indirect impacts on important environmental issues including acid deposition, regional fine particles and eutrophication. Estimation of anthropogenic ammonia emissions will provide valuable information for the pollution control of acid deposition and regional fine particle. Based on the provincial activity data on N-fertilizer application, livestock farming, N-fertilizer production and populations, this paper uses emission factor method to estimate China's atmospheric ammonia emissions, analyzes its historical trends and presents its geographical distributions from year 1994 to 2006. The national total atmospheric ammonia emissions are estimated to be 11.06 million tons (Mt) in 1994, which increase quickly to 16.07 Mt in 2006. Emissions from livestock farming, N-fertilizer application, N-fertilizer production and human excreta have increased from 4.47 Mt, 5.94 Mt, 0.09 Mt, and 0.59 Mt in 1994 to 6.61 Mt, 8.68 Mt, 0.14 Mt, 0.65 Mt respectively in 2006. Livestock farming and N-fertilizer application are the most important ammonia emission sources, which contributed 40.79 and 55.53 percent of total emissions respectively in 2006. In 2006, the average ammonia emission intensity is 1.67 t x km(-2) but there are large variations among atmospheric ammonia emissions from each province. Emissions from provinces including Henan, Shandong, Hebei, Sichuan and Jiangsu accounted for 40.82 percent of national emissions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Amônia/análise , Produtos Agrícolas , Monitoramento Ambiental , Gado , Animais , China , Fertilizantes , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula
19.
Se Pu ; 27(4): 484-8, 2009 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19938509

RESUMO

In order to develop an efficient protein extraction method suitable for apple leaf proteomic analysis, four extraction methods for total protein in apple leaves were compared, including trichloroacetic acid (TCA)/acetone precipitation, dithiothreitol (DTT)/acetone method, tri(hydroxymethyl) aminomethane (Tris-HCl) method and the modified Tris-HCl method. During the two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), the first dimension electrophoresis was performed on a 7 cm strip with pH 3 - 10 linear immobilized pH gradient (IPG) and the second one was performed on 12.5% polyacrylamide gels of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The proteins were detected by silver staining. The results showed that 140, 215, 181 and 616 protein spots were detected on 2-DE gels, respectively. The modified Tris-HCl method was the most appropriate for apple leaf proteomic analysis because of the highest resolution and no apparent vertical or horizontal streaking on the 2-DE map. In order to testify the effect of the modified Tris-HCl method on the apple leaf protein extraction, 2-DE maps were established by using 18 cm strips with linear IPG in pH range of 3 - 10. After 2-DE separation and Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250 (CBB R-250) staining, about 455 spots were detected, and the relative molecular masses of most proteins were distributed in the range of 14,000 - 66,000 which were free of smearing or streaking. So it was once again proved that the modified Tris-HCl method can be used in apple leaf proteome analysis.


Assuntos
Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional/métodos , Malus/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Proteínas de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Proteoma/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Proteoma/análise
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