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1.
Epidemiol Infect ; 147: e261, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475647

RESUMO

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection was frequent in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients in Yunnan province. We studied the epidemic characteristics of HCV in HIV/HCV co-infected patients. Serum from 894 HIV-1 patients was collected, together with basic information and biochemical features. All samples were infected with HIV through injecting drug users (IDUs) and sexual transmission (ST). The NS5B gene was amplified and sequenced to affirm HCV genotype. In total, 202 HIV patients were co-infected with HCV, and most (81.19%) of co-infected patients were IDUs. Genotype 3b was predominant (37.62%) in these samples, and its frequency was similar in patients with IDU and ST. The frequencies of genotypes 1a, 1b, 3a, 6a, 6n, 2a and 6u were 3.96%, 16.34%, 23.76%, 6.93%, 10.40%, 0.50% and 0.50%, respectively. However, genotype 3a showed significantly different frequency in HCV patients with IDU and ST (P = 0.019). When HCV patients were divided into subgroups, the haemoglobin (HGB) level was significantly higher in patients with genotype 3a than in patients with 3b (P = 0.033), 6a (P = 0.006) and 6n (P = 0.007), respectively. Although no difference existed among HCV subgroups, HIV-viral load was identified to be positively correlated with the HGB level and CD4+ cells when dividing HCV/HIV co-infected persons into male and female groups. In conclusion, genotype 3b was the predominant HCV genotype in Yunnan HIV/HCV co-infected persons. The HGB level was higher in patients with genotype 3a than others. HIV-viral load was positively correlated with the HGB level and CD4+ cells in the male or female HCV-infected group.

2.
Infect Genet Evol ; 73: 109-112, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028881

RESUMO

The high frequency of multiple HIV-1 recombinant events among the B, C and CRF01_AE were constantly occurring in Yunnan China. Here, we characterized a novel HIV-1 circulating recombinant form (CRF) consisting of CRF01_AE and subtype B (CRF101_01B) from three epidemiologically unlinked individuals. Phylogenetic analysis based on near full length genome (NFLG) sequences revealed that CRF101_01B formed a distinct monophyletic cluster supported by a high bootstrap value of 100%, distantly related to all known HIV-1 CRFs. CRF101_01B had a CRF01_AE backbone with two B segments inserted, respectively, in the gag and pol region. Further, subregion tree analysis showed that CRF01_AE backbone and subtype B segment inserted originated from a Thailand lineage. In addition, our study found that CRF101_01B originated around the year 1996-1998. This findings described a novel HIV-1 CRF, and highlighted the importance of continual monitoring of genetic diversity and complexity of HIV-1 strains in Yunnan, China.

3.
Virol J ; 16(1): 5, 2019 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30621727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding the prevalence and evolution of HIV-1 drug resistance (DR) and associated mutation patterns is critical to implementing free antiretroviral therapy in Yunnan, the first antiretroviral treatment location in China. Here We provide a basis for understanding the occurrence and development of HIV-1 resistance in Yunnan and a theoretical foundational for strategy to delay HIV-1 drug resistance and achieve successful individualized treatment. METHODS: Plasma samples from different cities/prefectures were collected at Yunnan Provincial Hospital of Infectious Disease from January 2010 to September 2016, and those from drug-resistant individuals were genotyped using in-house assays, 88 patients were selected for the study who had been on treatment for ≥6 months (and for whom drug resistance was then measured), and each patient had at least 3 genotype resistance tests and who were enrolled to analyze mutation and evolution of HIV resistance. RESULTS: 264 Pol sequences of 88 patients were obtained. Drug resistance levels to eight drugs increased to varying degrees with prolonged treatment. Resistance to efavirenz (EFV) and etravirine (ETR) showed the highest change, comparisons of resistant changes to second and first and to third and second agents showed altered level of drug resistance were 25 and 20 cases, 28 and 18 cases, respectively. The smallest change was Lopinavir/Ritonavir (LPV/r) present 2 and 3 cases; Resistance to lamivudine (3TC) and lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) was high among patients detected thrice, whereas other drugs were distributed in all resistance levels. M184 V/I (26.14%), T69S (11.36%), and T215Y/I (10.23%) mutations were the most common in nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), and K103 N/R/S (21.59%), V179D/E (20.45%) in Non-NRTIs (NNRTIs). Furthermore, L10 V/F/I (6.82%), A71V (4.55%), and I54V (4.55%) mutations were common in protease inhibitors (PIs). CONCLUSIONS: We found dynamic genotypic changes in HIV-1 drug-resistance in Yunnan, with prolonged treatment, and drug resistance was inevitable. However, resistance to different drugs occurred at varying times, and mutation site emergence was the main cause. These findings enhance our understanding of evolution and regulation, and are valuable for developing HIV-1 DR prevention strategies in Yunnan.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Evolução Molecular , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Falha de Tratamento , Adolescente , Adulto , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , HIV-1/genética , Humanos , Lamivudina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Viral/sangue , Adulto Jovem
4.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 9(1): 353, 2018 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30572947

RESUMO

A 27-year-old male with HIV-associated naïve and high-risk Burkitt's lymphoma sequentially received short-term, high-dose non-myeloablative chemotherapy and autologous CD34-positive stem cell transfusion in the setting of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). Prompt hematopoietic recovery was observed after 2 weeks and clinical remission from Burkitt's lymphoma within approximately 30 months after transplantation. The HIV RNA load was inhibited persistently, and drug resistance was not observed. The CD4+ T cell count approached 323 cells/µL in a recent follow-up study. This case suggests that the use of intensive non-myeloablative chemotherapy with transplantation, combined with antiretroviral therapy, in HIV-related naive and high-risk Burkitt's lymphoma was tolerated and safe.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Linfoma de Burkitt/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma de Burkitt/terapia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Transplante Autólogo/métodos , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/farmacologia , Linfoma de Burkitt/patologia , Terapia Combinada , Infecções por HIV/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante
6.
J Struct Biol ; 2018 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29604451

RESUMO

High-order assemblies of amelogenin, the major protein in enamel protein matrix, are believed to act as the template for enamel mineral formation. The Leucine-rich amelogenin (LRAP) is a natural splice-variant of amelogenin, a functional protein in vivo, containing conserved domains of amelogenin. In this work, we showed LRAP aggregates hierarchically into assemblies with various sizes including scattered beads, beads-on-a-string and gel-like precipitations in the presence of both calcium and phosphate ions. Solid-state NMR combined with X-ray diffraction and microscopic techniques, was applied to give a picture of LRAP self-assemblies at the atomic level. Our results, for the first time, confirmed LRAP assemblies with different sizes all contained a consistent rigid segment with ß-sheet secondary structure (residues 12-27) and the ß-sheet segment would further assemble into amyloid-like structures.

8.
Protein Pept Lett ; 24(4): 322-330, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28183246

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) has become the most common neurodegenerative disease. The deposition of amyloid fibrils in the brain is one of the characteristics of AD. The fibrils are composed of amyloid-ß peptide (Aß). Aß is produced through a series event of protease cleavage of a transmembrane protein called ß-amyloid precursor protein (APP) which is commonly expressed in the brain. The production of Aß and its propensity to aggregation to form oligomers and fibrils are believed to initiate a sequence of events that lead to AD dementia. The production of Aß is influenced by the transmembrane domain (TM) structure of APP. The structure variety of different Aß assemblies including oligomers and fibrils may result in different neurotoxicity to the brain. Therefore, enormous work has been carried out to study the structure of APP TM and various Aß assemblies. Solid-state NMR has advantages in studying immobile protein structures with large molecular weight. In this review, solid-state NMR structure of APP TM and different Aß assemblies will be discussed, especially various Aß amyloid fibril structures. This structural information greatly enhanced our understanding in AD, providing fundamental knowledge that will help in finding a treatment for AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/química , Amiloide/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/química , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares
9.
Viruses ; 9(2)2017 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28212298

RESUMO

Human Pegivirus-1 (HPgV-1) may have a beneficial impact on disease progression in human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection. However, analysis of the genotypic diversity of HPgV-1 and its relevance to the progression of HIV-1 disease remains limited. A total of 1062 HIV-1-infected individuals were recruited in all sixteen prefectures of Yunnan province, China. The reverse transcription nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nPCR), phylogenetic analyses, and clinical data analyses were used to detect HPgV-1 infection, determine genotype, and analyze HPgV-1 genotype impact on HIV-1 disease progression. The overall positive rate of HPgV-1 RNA was 23.4% (248/1062), and the frequency of HPgV-1 infection in injecting drug users (IDUs) (28.5%, 131/460) was significantly higher than in heterosexuals (19.4%, 117/602). Multiple genotypes were identified in 212 subjects with successful sequencing for the E2 gene, including genotype 7 (55.7%), genotype 3 (34.9%), genotype 4 (4.7%), genotype 2 (3.3%), and an unclassified group (1.4%). Moreover, genotype 7 predominated in IDUs, whereas genotype 3 was the most common in heterosexuals. Our results revealed that HPgV-1 genotype 7 groups exhibited significantly lower HIV-1 viral load and higher CD4⁺ cell counts. This finding suggests that HPgV-1 genotype 7 may be associated with a better progression of HIV-1 disease.


Assuntos
Infecções por Flaviviridae/epidemiologia , Flaviviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Progressão da Doença , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Flaviviridae/classificação , Flaviviridae/genética , Infecções por Flaviviridae/patologia , Infecções por Flaviviridae/virologia , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/patologia , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS One ; 10(9): e0138104, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26407096

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with mother-to-child-transmission and late access to prevention of maternal to child transmission (PMTCT) services among HIV-infected women; and risk factors for infant mortality among HIV-exposed infants in order to assess the feasibility of virtual elimination of vertical transmission and pediatric HIV in this setting. DESIGN: Observational study evaluating the impact of a provincial PMTCT program. METHODS: The intervention was implemented in 26 counties of Yunnan Province, China at municipal and tertiary health care settings. Log linear regression models with generalized estimating equations were used to identify unadjusted and adjusted correlates for late ARV intervention and MTCT. Cox proportional hazard models with robust sandwich estimation were applied to examine correlates of infant mortality. RESULTS: Mother-to-child- transmission rate of HIV was controlled to 2%, with late initiation of maternal ARV showing a strong association with vertical transmission and infant mortality. Risk factors for late initiation of maternal ARV were age, ethnicity, education, and having a husband not tested for HIV. Mortality rate among HIV-exposed infants was 2.9/100 person-years. In addition to late initiation of maternal ARV, ethnicity, low birth weight and preterm birth were associated with infant mortality. CONCLUSIONS: This PMTCT program in Yunnan achieved low rates of MTCT. However the infant mortality rate in this cohort of HIV-exposed children was almost three times the provincial rate. Virtual elimination of MTCT of HIV is an achievable goal in China, but more attention needs to be paid to HIV-free survival.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Intervenção Médica Precoce/métodos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , China/epidemiologia , Contraindicações , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , HIV-1 , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Troca Materno-Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mães , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 61(9): 1462-8, 2015 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26129754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Molecular epidemiology can be useful in identifying clusters of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission that can be targeted for prevention. METHODS: Regular screening of 2000 men who have sex with men (MSM) in Beijing, China, for HIV infection every 2 months identified 179 primary infections (2007-2010). HIV-1 pol sequences were obtained and used to infer the transmission network and identify transmitted drug resistance (TDR) among these individuals. We evaluated the use of clinical and network information to target prevention efforts. Prevention efficiency was calculated as the number of infections saved per number of interventions. RESULTS: This cohort was infected with HIV-1 subtype B (28%), circulating recombinant form (CRF)_01 AE (53%), and CRF_07 BC (16%). The overall rate of TDR was low (5%), but the rate of clustering was high (64%), suggesting deep sampling of the subnetwork. Provision of a theoretically high-efficacy intervention like antiretroviral therapy to all participants had a prevention efficiency of 23%. The efficiency of targeting prevention based on lower CD4 counts (<200 cells/mL, <350 cells/mL, or <500 cells/mL) and higher viral loads (>100 000 copies/mL and >50 000 copies/mL) was between 10% and 18%. The efficiency of targeting prevention based on number of network connections was much higher (30%-42%). For example, treating the 33 participants with ≥5 connections in 2009 would have theoretically prevented 14 infections in 2010 (42% prevention efficiency). CONCLUSIONS: Regular HIV testing of MSM in Beijing can deeply sample the local transmission subnetwork, and targeting prevention efforts based on network connectivity may be an efficient way to deliver prevention interventions.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , HIV-1/classificação , HIV-1/genética , Homossexualidade Masculina , Adulto , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos de Coortes , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Epidemiologia Molecular , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Adulto Jovem , Produtos do Gene pol do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/genética
12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26767252

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of a novel molluscicide, the salt quinoid-2', 5-dichloro-4'-nitrosalicylanilide from niclosamide (LDS), with 10% wettable powder, in main schistosomiasis epidemic areas of China, including Hunan, Jiangxi, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangsu, Sichuan, Yunnan and Zhejiang Province. METHODS: In the immersion test, 6 effective concentrations of 10% LDS were tested respectively: 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0 g/m3 in the field; at the same time, 50% wettable powder of niclosamide ethanolamine salt (WPN) with effective concentrations of 1.0 g/m was used as the molluscicide control, and the fresh water as the blank control, then the mortality rates of 0. hupensis snails were recorded at 24 h, 48 h and 72 h after the immersion. In the spraying test and powder-spraying test, 5 effective dosages of 10% LDS were tested respectively: 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0 g/m2, while 50% WPN 1.0 g/m2 was used as the molluscicide control, and the fresh water as the blank control in the field for 1 d, 3 d and 7 d, then the mortality rates of O. hupensis snails were recorded at 1 d, 3 d and 7 d after the spraying and powder-spraying. RESULTS: The snail mortality rates of LDS using the immersion test for 72 h were more than 95% in the field of eight provinces (0.1 g/m in Sichuan, Jiangxi, Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces, 0.2 g/m3 in Yunnan, Hunan and Hubei provinces, and 0.4 g/min Anhui Province); the snail mortality rates of LDS using the spraying test for 7 d were more than 85% (0.2 g/m2 in Hunan, Hubei, Jiangxi and Zhejiang provinces, 0.4 g/m2 in Sichuan and Anhui provinces, 0.6 g/m2 in Yunnan and Jiangsu provinces). The snail mortality rates of LDS the powder-spraying test for 7 d were more than 85% (0.6 g/m2 in Yunnan, Sichuan, Hubei, Jiangxi, Anhui, Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces). According to the standards of "Efficacy test methods and evaluation of molluscicide for pesticide registration (NY/T 1617-2008)", LDS is a qualified molluscicide. CONCLUSIONS: LDS has good molluscicidal effects through the immersion, spraying and powder-spraying test in the fields. It is suitable for a variety of environments to control O. hupensis snails of schistosomiasis endemic areas in China. The recommended dosages of LDS are 0.1-0.2 g/m3 by the immersion method, 0.2-0.4 g/m2 by the spraying method, and 0.4-0.6 g/m2 by the powder-spraying method in the fields.


Assuntos
Moluscocidas/farmacologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Caramujos , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/transmissão
13.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26767254

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand the condition of the construction and management of sanitary latrines, and assess the effect of disposal of the excrement in rural schistosomiasis endemic areas in Yunnan Province. METHODS: Three villages with schistosomiasis endemic were selected from Eryuan County and 30 households per village were sampled randomly for the field survey. The stool samples were sampled and tested according to the national standard. RESULTS: Totally 90 latrines were surveyed. The popularity rates of sanitary latrines in Yongle, Qiandian and Xinzhuang villages were 83.19%, 83.12% and 81.63% respectively. In the 90 household latrines, only 32.22% located inside the courtyard, and 91.67% of sanitary latrines and 70.00% of non-sanitary latrines had integrated buildings. Maggots or pupae or adult flies were found in 33.33% of sanitary latrines and all of non-sanitary latrines with the average amounts of 1.05 and 3.40 per latrine respectively. The removal rate of fecal coliform, the sedimentation rate of parasitic eggs and the mortality rate of Ascaris eggs were 90.00%, 80.61% and 95.20% on average respectively. The qualified rate of the fecal coliform of the outlet of the sanitary latrines was 41.67%, and the qualified rate of the mortality rate of Ascaris eggs was 78.13%. No living schistosome eggs were found at the outlets of latrines. For the effect of non-hazardous treatment, there was a statistically significant difference between the sanitary latrines and non-sanitary latrines. CONCLUSIONS: The latrine improvement has a good effect on non-hazardous treatment of the excrement in Yunnan Province, but the construction, application and management of sanitary latrines still need to be strengthened.


Assuntos
Saneamento , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Toaletes , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia
14.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 26(2): 137-40, 147, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25051824

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop a spatio-temporal model of mountainous Oncomelania hupensis snails based on the Bayesian model, and to analyze and identify the spatio-temporal pattern at a village scale. METHODS: The data including the intensity and spatial distribution of live and infected snails from 2000 to 2006 and the village boundary were collected. The independent and interactive spatio-temporal models were established, and then the best fitness model was selected to analyze the spatio-temporal pattern of live and infected snails. RESULTS: The interactive model of live snails and the independent model of infected snails were relative fitness models, and the models showed 95% CI (confidence interval) of the spatial and temporal coefficient included zero, and indicated that the spatial and temporal correlation of live and infected snails was not significant at a village scale. CONCLUSION: There is no significant spatial and temporal correlation of live and infected mountainous snails at a village scale, and the furthermore study should be carried out at a small scale.


Assuntos
Caramujos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , China , Vetores de Doenças
15.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 35(5): 528-32, 2014 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25059361

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the distribution patterns of mosquito and mosquito-borne viruses in Dehong prefecture, Yunnan province, China. METHODS: Mosquito samples were collected using the mosquito traps from five counties of Dehong prefecture on July, 2007 and 2010. Mosquito were cell cultured for viral isolation, and positive isolates were identified using RT-PCR and sequence analysis. RESULTS: A total of 43 634 mosquito comprised of 29 species representing six genera were collected. Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Anopheles sinensis comprised 78.69% and 14.77% of the total. Six strains of viruses were isolated from the mosquito pools. RT-PCR and phylogenetic analysis revealed three strains from Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, identified as genotype I Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). One strain was identified from Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, as Getah virus (GETV). Two strains isolated from Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Anopheles vagus were identified as Culex pipiens pallens Densovirus (CppDNV). CONCLUSION: Cx. tritaeniorhynchus had been the major species of mosquito and mainly transmitting vector of mosquito-borne viruses in Dehong prefecture. Genotype I JEV, GETV and CppDNV were the vectors causing transmission of mosquito-borne diseases in this area. Data from phylogenetic analysis showed that these newly discovered isolates seemed to have had close relationship with those viruses previously circulating in Yunnan and other provinces of China.


Assuntos
Arbovirus/isolamento & purificação , Culicidae/virologia , Alphavirus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Arbovirus/classificação , China , Vetores de Doenças/classificação , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie)/isolamento & purificação
16.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24358749

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of a water-saving irrigation project on schistosomiasis control. METHODS: The Oncomelania snail situation before and after the water-saving irrigation project was investigated, and the data of snails and schistosomiasis of people in the area of the water-saving irrigation engineering were collected and analyzed statistically. RESULTS: The incidence of frames with snails declined from 10.70% to 2.27% after actualized water-saving irrigation project, and the snail density declined from 0.42 snails/0.1 m(2) to 0.10 snails/0.1 m(2). The snails were eliminated in 57% of the ditches. The snail area and schistosome infection rate of residents declined obviously. CONCLUSION: The water-saving irrigation project is effective in schistosomiasis control and has good social and economic benefits.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Humanos , Rios/parasitologia , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/parasitologia , Caramujos/parasitologia
17.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 34(2): 157-9, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23751472

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the predictors on the abundance of Rattus (R.) tanezumi in households of commensal rodent plague foci. METHODS: Thirty natural villages that experienced previous plague cases in Lianghe county, Yunnan province, were selected followed by random selection of 20 households in each village through computer technique. Live traps were set in households to capture small mammals which were then identified to species in the field according to their morphological features. Data on potential factors for abundance of R. tanezumi were collected through questionnaires and field observation and were coded and computerized using EpiData software and further analyzed by hurdle regression model under R software. RESULTS: A total of 166 rodents (133 R. tanezumi and 33 Suncus murinus) were captured. RESULTS: from final multilevel hurdle regression model showed that the likelihood of R. tanezumi captures increased by 1.67- to 2.76-fold in households belonged to Dai ethnic families that stored foodstuff in metal pail, often raising dogs, and having adjacent houses. The number of R. tanezumi captures increased by 2.18-fold in the villages where over 80% of the households would raise chickens. In the villages with communal latrine, the likelihood and the number of R. tanezumi capture increased 1.93-fold and 2.38-fold, respectively. While the likelihood of R. tanezumi captures would reduce by 45% - 61% in those households where there were cats and cattle being raised and maize grown in the village. The number of R. tanezumi captures would reduce by 63% in the households where there were outside toilet. CONCLUSION: The abundance of R. tanezumi seemed to be closely related to the ecological environment factors. Programs on plague control and prevention should relate to ecological factors that influencing the abundance of R. tanezumi.


Assuntos
Geografia , Peste/epidemiologia , Ratos , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Ecologia , Controle de Roedores
18.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 34(1): 91-7, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23648259

RESUMO

Since plague is an important natural focus zoonosis, the typing of natural plague foci becomes one of the elements in understanding the nature and developing related prevention program of the disease. Natural foci of plague are composed by four fundamental parts which include Eco-geographical landscape (natural plague foci), hosts, vectors and pathogens (Yersinia pestis) that comprehensively interact through the large temporal scale of evolution. Human activities have had great impact on the foci of natural plague. Based on the published serial research papers, we tried to integrate the knowledge of each factor in natural plague foci and focusing on theoretical aspects, so as to strengthen the prevention and surveillance programs of plague to be extrapolated to other zoonosis.


Assuntos
Geografia , Peste/epidemiologia , Peste/prevenção & controle , Animais , Evolução Biológica , China/epidemiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças , Insetos Vetores , Yersinia pestis/genética
19.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 88(5): 923-8, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23509116

RESUMO

We investigated a cluster of five cases of severe pneumonia from one village in Yunnan Province, China. We searched for severe pneumonia in the village and hospitals. We interviewed patients and family members about exposures. We tested acute and convalescent sera for antigen and antibody of severe acute respiratory syndrome, avian influenza, and plague. The only common exposure of the five patients was riding together in the enclosed cab of a truck for 1.5 hours while taking the first patient to the hospital. Seroconversion to plague F1 antigen confirmed plague in three survivors. Unfamiliarity of clinicians with plague and lack of sputum examination, blood culture, or postmortem examination delayed the diagnosis. No plague cases occurred among family and village contacts and health care workers. High infectivity in this cluster was limited to a crowded, poorly ventilated truck.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Veículos Automotores , Peste/epidemiologia , Yersinia pestis/imunologia , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peste/diagnóstico , Peste/mortalidade , Peste/transmissão , Adulto Jovem
20.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 25(6): 614-7, 629, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24490396

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand the types of schisotsome infection sources and their roles in schistosomiasis transmission in mountainous endemic regions in Yunnan Province, so as to provide the evidence for implementing the comprehensive control measures based on infection source control. METHODS: Two villages of typical mountainous regions in Nanjian County were chosen for field investigation. The Oncomelania hupensis snail status was surveyed by the methods of systematic and environmental sampling. The infections of schistosomiasis were surveyed in residents with the indirect haemagglutination and the hatching method, in livestock with the hatching method and in wild animals with the anatomical method and the hatching method. The distribution and pollution status of wild faeces were investigated in the snail environments nearby villages or with livestock frequent activities. The positives of schistosomiasis in wild faeces were tested with the hatching method. The pollution index of wild feces was calculated. RESULTS: A total of 533.56 hm2 were investigated in two villages, and the area with snails was 16.52 hm2. The rate of frame with snails was 1.03%, the average density of snails was 0.07 snails/0.1 m2, and no positive snails were found. The positive rate of blood examinations of population was 1.61%, but no persons were positive with the hatching method. The infection rates were 0.90%, and 0.62% in cattle and equus, respectively, and there were no positives in other livestock. Totally 472 piles of wild feces of 6 species (human, cattle, equus, goat, pig and dog) distributed in the investigation areas, and among them, the densities of wild feces of cattle, equus, and dog were 7.2, 4.3 piles/hm2, and 2.1 piles/hm2 respectively, being relatively higher than others. The hatching positive rates of wild faeces of cattle, equus, and dog were 2.27% (3/132), 2.63% (2/76), and 3.70% (1/27), respectively. The relative pollution indexes of wild faeces of cattle, equus, and dog were 80.68%, 15.89%, and 3.43%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: After schistosomiasis transmission is controlled, the potential epidemic factors still remain in the mountainous endemic regions of schistosomiasis in Yunnan Province. The cattle are still the most infection source of schistosomiasis, but equus and dog as infection sources should be not neglected. We should extend the investigation and monitor scope of the infection sources, and carry out scientific and feasible control technique and management measures.


Assuntos
Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Animais , Bovinos/parasitologia , China/epidemiologia , Cães/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Caramujos/parasitologia
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