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1.
Mol Cancer ; 20(1): 36, 2021 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33608029

RESUMO

Early detection is crucial to improve breast cancer (BC) patients' outcomes and survival. Mammogram and ultrasound adopting the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) categorization are widely used for BC early detection, while suffering high false-positive rate leading to unnecessary biopsy, especially in BI-RADS category-4 patients. Plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) carrying on DNA methylation information has emerged as a non-invasive approach for cancer detection. Here we present a prospective multi-center study with whole-genome bisulfite sequencing data to address the clinical utility of cfDNA methylation markers from 203 female patients with breast lesions suspected for malignancy. The cfDNA is enriched with hypo-methylated genomic regions. A practical computational framework was devised to excavate optimal cfDNA-rich DNA methylation markers, which significantly improved the early diagnosis of BI-RADS category-4 patients (AUC from 0.78-0.79 to 0.93-0.94). As a proof-of-concept study, we performed the first blood-based whole-genome DNA methylation study for detecting early-stage breast cancer from benign tumors at single-base resolution, which suggests that combining the liquid biopsy with the traditional diagnostic imaging can improve the current clinical practice, by reducing the false-positive rate and avoiding unnecessary harms.

2.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 15(1): 288, 2020 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Isolated macrodactyly is a severe congenital hand anomaly with functional and physiological impact. Known causative genes include PIK3CA, AKT1 and PTEN. The aim of this study is to gain insights into the genetics basis of isolated macrodactyly. RESULTS: We enrolled 24 patients with isolated macrodactyly. Four of them were diagnosed with Proteus syndrome based on skin presentations characteristic to this disease. Targeted next-generation sequencing was performed using patients' blood and affected tissues. Overall, 20 patients carry mosaic PIK3CA pathogenic variants, i.e. p.His1047Arg (N = 7), p.Glu542Lys (N = 6), p.Glu545Lys (N = 2), p.His1047Leu (N = 2), p.Glu453Lys (N = 1), p.Gln546Lys (N = 1) and p.His1047Tyr (N = 1). Four patients who met the diagnostic criteria of Proteus syndrome carry mosaic AKT1 p.Glu17Lys variant. Variant allele frequencies of these mosaic variants obtained through next-generation sequencing range from 10 to 33%. In genotype-phenotype correlation analysis of patients with PIK3CA variant, we found that patients with the macrodactyly of the lower limbs tend to carry PIK3CA variants located in the helical domain (P = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Mosaic PIK3CA and AKT1 variants can be found in all of our samples with isolated macrodactyly. Insights into phenotypic and genetic spectrum of isolated macrodactyly may be helpful in perusing a more precise and effective management of isolated macrodactyly.

3.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e921611, 2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32218412

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the most common spinal deformity, but its etiology is unclear. Multiple genetic mutations have been reported to be associated with AIS. MATERIAL AND METHODS We enrolled a cohort of 113 surgically treated AIS patients with available parental subjects from the Peking Union Medical College Hospital. We performed whole-exome sequencing in 10 trio families and whole-genome sequencing in 103 singleton patients. Luciferase assay was used to detect the functional alterations of candidate ESR1 and ESR2 variants. RESULTS Using a de novo strategy, a missense variant in ESR1 (c.868A>G) was selected as a candidate gene for AIS. The main Cobb angle of this patient was 41° (T6-T10). Another potential pathogenic variant in ESR2 (c.236T>C) was identified. The main curve of the patient was 45° at T10-L3. The transactivation capacities of the mutated ESR1 and ESR2 protein were both significantly decreased (p=0.026 and 0.014, respectively). CONCLUSIONS Potential pathogenic variants in ESR1 and ESR2 were identified in 113 AIS patients, suggesting that genetic mutations in ESR1/2 were associated with the risk of AIS.

4.
Cancer Lett ; 466: 1-12, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521694

RESUMO

Recurrent glioblastomas are frequently found near subventricular zone (SVZ) areas of the brain where neural stem cells (NSCs) reside, and glioblastoma-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are reported to play important roles in tumour micro-environment, but the details are not clear. Here, we investigated the possibility that NSCs are involved in glioblastoma relapse mediated by glioblastoma-derived EVs. We studied changes to NSCs by adding glioblastoma-derived EVs into a culture system of NSCs, and found that NSCs differentiated into a type of tumour-promoting cell. These transformed cells had distinguished proliferation activity, a high migration rate, and clone-forming ability revealed by CCK-8, wound healing and soft agar clone formation assays, respectively. In vivo assays indicated that these cells could accelerate tumour formation by Ln229 cells in nude mice. Moreover, to explore the mechanisms underlying NSC transformation, single cell transcriptome sequencing was performed; our results suggest that several key genes such as S100B, CXCL14, EFEMP1, SCRG1, GLIPR1, HMGA1 and CD44 and dysregulated signalling may be important for the transformation of NSCs. It is also indicated that NSCs may be involved in glioblastoma recurrence through EV release by glioblastoma in this work. This could help to illuminate the mechanism of glioblastoma relapse, which occurs in a brief period after surgical excision, and contribute to finding new ways to treat this disease.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/patologia , Vesículas Extracelulares/genética , Glioblastoma/patologia , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Animais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Proliferação de Células , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Glioblastoma/genética , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Transplante de Neoplasias , Células-Tronco Neurais/patologia , Análise de Célula Única , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Microambiente Tumoral
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