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1.
Br J Nurs ; 28(20): S10-S18, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714826

RESUMO

Primary surgical abdominal wounds are usually covered with a dressing. However, little is known about the practical issues and costs around these dressings. This study aimed to provide an in-depth description of patients' and health professionals' perspectives on the clinical and practical issues associated with standard and novel dressing (glue-as-a-dressing) use on primary surgical wounds, and to establish whether and how their experience compares with these perspectives. During semi-structured interviews, patients and health professionals discussed their positive experience of glue-as-a-dressing and no dressing around six themes: wound contamination and infection, wound healing, wound care, physical protection afforded by simple dressings, the potential psychological impact of an exposed wound, and ability to carry out everyday tasks. Current views on the practice of dressings for primary abdominal wounds are influenced by ingrained clinical practice. These views can be challenged when exposed to novel dressing strategies or as new evidence of the clinical effect of dressing strategies emerges.

3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(8): e198427, 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390032

RESUMO

Importance: The current diagnostic pathway for patients with suspected prostate cancer (PCa) includes prostate biopsy. A large proportion of individuals who undergo biopsy have either no PCa or low-risk disease that does not require treatment. Unnecessary biopsies may potentially be avoided with prebiopsy imaging. Objective: To compare the performance of systematic transrectal ultrasonography-guided prostate biopsy vs prebiopsy biparametric or multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) followed by targeted biopsy with or without systematic biopsy. Data Sources: MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane, Web of Science, clinical trial registries, and reference lists of recent reviews were searched through December 2018 for randomized clinical trials using the terms "prostate cancer" and "MRI." Study Selection: Randomized clinical trials comparing diagnostic pathways including prebiopsy MRI vs systematic transrectal ultrasonography-guided biopsy in biopsy-naive men with a clinical suspicion of PCa. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Data were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Risk of bias was assessed using the revised Cochrane tool. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. All review stages were conducted by 2 reviewers. Main Outcomes and Measures: Detection rate of clinically significant and insignificant PCa, number of biopsy procedures, number of biopsy cores taken, and complications. Results: Seven high-quality trials (2582 patients) were included. Compared with systematic transrectal ultrasonography-guided biopsy alone, MRI with or without targeted biopsy was associated with a 57% (95% CI, 2%-141%) improvement in the detection of clinically significant PCa, a 33% (95% CI, 23%-45%) potential reduction in the number of biopsy procedures, and a 77% (95% CI, 60%-93%) reduction in the number of cores taken per procedure. One trial showed reduced pain and bleeding adverse effects. Systematic sampling of the prostate in addition to the acquisition of targeted cores did not significantly improve the detection of clinically significant PCa compared with systematic biopsy alone. Conclusions and Relevance: In this meta-analysis, prebiopsy MRI combined with targeted biopsy vs systematic transrectal ultrasonography-guided biopsy alone was associated with improved detection of clinically significant PCa, despite substantial heterogeneity among trials. Prebiopsy MRI was associated with a reduced number of individual biopsy cores taken per procedure and with reduced adverse effects, and it potentially prevented unnecessary biopsies in some individuals. This evidence supports implementation of prebiopsy MRI into diagnostic pathways for suspected PCa.

4.
Health Technol Assess ; 23(39): 1-166, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392958

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Surgical site infection (SSI) affects up to 20% of people with a primary closed wound after surgery. Wound dressings may reduce SSI. OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of a multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of dressing types or no dressing to reduce SSI in primary surgical wounds. DESIGN: Phase A - semistructured interviews, outcome measure development, practice survey, literature reviews and value-of-information analysis. Phase B - pilot RCT with qualitative research and questionnaire validation. Patients and the public were involved. SETTING: Usual NHS care. PARTICIPANTS: Patients undergoing elective/non-elective abdominal surgery, including caesarean section. INTERVENTIONS: Phase A - none. Phase B - simple dressing, glue-as-a-dressing (tissue adhesive) or 'no dressing'. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Phase A - pilot RCT design; SSI, patient experience and wound management questionnaires; dressing practices; and value-of-information of a RCT. Phase B - participants screened, proportions consented/randomised; acceptability of interventions; adherence; retention; validity and reliability of SSI measure; and cost drivers. DATA SOURCES: Phase A - interviews with patients and health-care professionals (HCPs), narrative data from published RCTs and data about dressing practices. Phase B - participants and HCPs in five hospitals. RESULTS: Phase A - we interviewed 102 participants. HCPs interpreted 'dressing' variably and reported using available products. HCPs suggested practical/clinical reasons for dressing use, acknowledged the weak evidence base and felt that a RCT including a 'no dressing' group was acceptable. A survey showed that 68% of 1769 wounds (727 participants) had simple dressings and 27% had glue-as-a-dressing. Dressings were used similarly in elective and non-elective surgery. The SSI questionnaire was developed from a content analysis of existing SSI tools and interviews, yielding 19 domains and 16 items. A main RCT would be valuable to the NHS at a willingness to pay of £20,000 per quality-adjusted life-year. Phase B - from 4 March 2016 to 30 November 2016, we approached 862 patients for the pilot RCT; 81.1% were eligible, 59.4% consented and 394 were randomised (simple, n = 133; glue, n = 129; no dressing, n = 132); non-adherence was 3 out of 133, 8 out of 129 and 20 out of 132, respectively. SSI occurred in 51 out of 281 participants. We interviewed 55 participants. All dressing strategies were acceptable to stakeholders, with no indication that adherence was problematic. Adherence aids and patients' understanding of their allocated dressing appeared to be key. The SSI questionnaire response rate overall was 67.2%. Items in the SSI questionnaire fitted a single scale, which had good reliability (test-retest and Cronbach's alpha of > 0.7) and diagnostic accuracy (c-statistic = 0.906). The key cost drivers were hospital appointments, dressings and redressings, use of new medicines and primary care appointments. LIMITATIONS: Multiple activities, often in parallel, were challenging to co-ordinate. An amendment took 4 months, restricting recruitment to the pilot RCT. Only 67% of participants completed the SSI questionnaire. We could not implement photography in theatres. CONCLUSIONS: A main RCT of dressing strategies is feasible and would be valuable to the NHS. The SSI questionnaire is sufficiently accurate to be used as the primary outcome. A main trial with three groups (as in the pilot) would be valuable to the NHS, using a primary outcome of SSI at discharge and patient-reported SSI symptoms at 4-8 weeks. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Phase A - Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN06792113; Phase B - Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN49328913. FUNDING: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 23, No. 39. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information. Funding was also provided by the Medical Research Council ConDuCT-II Hub (reference number MR/K025643/1).

5.
Health Policy ; 123(8): 706-712, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279588

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand the values attached to cancer treatment at the end of life (EoL) to inform policy decisions around the Cancer Drugs Fund (CDF) and the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) EoL criterion. DESIGN: Semi-structured interviews with patients and health professionals. Purposive recruitment was performed iteratively alongside analysis of interview transcripts using constant comparison. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with incurable prostate and colorectal cancer (n = 22) who received drugs funded through the CDF and oncologists and palliative care professionals (n = 16) treating patients on CDF drugs. RESULTS: While the majority of patient and oncologist participants expressed gratitude for access to the CDF, some patient participants reported experiencing a sense of guilt, and many oncologists admitted to concern about the justice of a ring-fenced fund solely for anti-cancer drugs. For patient and professional participants, cancer drugs were not necessarily seen as a funding priority over other calls on the NHS purse. Overall, patients and health professionals emphasised prioritising quality over quantity at the end of life, with only a minority describing improved quality of life at the end of life which added value. CONCLUSION: While patients and oncologists appreciated the drugs available through the CDF, most expressed concern about its fairness. Competing participant views about the added value of the end of life is challenging for resource allocation.

6.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 113: 200-213, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170515

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Recruitment to pragmatic trials is often difficult, and little is known about factors associated with key participation and treatment decisions. These were explored in the Prostate cancer testing and Treatment (ProtecT) study. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Baseline sociodemographic, patient-reported outcome, clinical history, and prostate cancer biopsy data were collected for all patients eligible to take part in the ProtecT trial, in a comprehensive cohort design. Men who rejected randomization specified a preferred option and were followed up identically to the randomized cohort. Factors associated with participation decisions, patient preferences, and reasons for changing treatment were explored. RESULTS: Of 2,664 men with clinically localized prostate cancer, 997 (37%) rejected randomization. Their treatment preferences and subsequent treatment choices/changes in both randomized and treatment choice cohorts were strongly associated with prostate cancer risk features: toward active monitoring for low-risk disease and toward radical options with higher risk prostate cancer. Among many factors measured, only a small number of weak associations were found for occupation groups and some patient symptoms. Similar percentages changed from the random allocation and initially stated preference. CONCLUSION: The comprehensive cohort design provided new insights into trial recruitment and participation decisions. Opportunities to improve recruitment by supporting recruiters with equipoise and patient preferences were identified.

7.
Trials ; 20(1): 224, 2019 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30992024

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recruitment to randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is challenging. Pre-trial qualitative research provides insights into the feasibility and acceptability of proposed trial designs and delivery; however, this is rarely conducted. This paper reports on work undertaken in advance of the Prepare for Kidney Care trial (formerly PrepareME), which compares preparing for dialysis with preparing for conservative care for patients with chronic kidney disease. The paper describes how the findings refined plans for the forthcoming trial. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with health-care professionals involved in delivering or recruiting to the trial. Interview findings were considered in relation to observations of a patient advisory group workshop and introductory site visits, which were set up to present the trial to professionals involved in the internal pilot phase of the RCT. The use of findings and input from multiple sources was intended to support suggested refinements to the forthcoming trial. The findings were fed back to the trial management group and other expert stakeholders. RESULTS: Sixteen health-care professionals were interviewed, and one patient advisory group workshop and six introductory visits to sites involved in the internal pilot were observed. The professionals interviewed included renal consultants, nurses and renal social workers. Key themes identified from the interviews, supported by the observations, were concerns around the eligibility criteria, the feasibility of the trial intervention, imbalances in the presentation of the trial arms, and anticipated recruitment issues arising from patients' and clinicians' preferences for one arm or the other. Changes to the design were made in response, including to the content of the intervention, the presentation of the trial arms and the name of the RCT. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the value of carrying out pre-trial work with health-care professionals to identify issues with delivering the proposed trial. This work can be particularly valuable in trials of new interventions, for which the barriers to their integration into routine care are unknown. This work has important implications for facilitating the identification of further obstacles in the main RCT. We suggest that pre-trial qualitative work is undertaken to address design issues early on, in addition to ongoing qualitative research to monitor the emergence of obstacles affecting recruitment.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Diálise Renal , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos
8.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 28(6): 569-575, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30921005

RESUMO

Whether prostate cancer (PCa) may be preventable by dietary interventions can be assessed in randomized trials using intermediate biomarkers of cancer risk or progression. We investigated whether lycopene or green tea modify circulating insulin-like growth factor (IGF) peptides in men at increased risk of PCa. Participants (aged 50-69 years) in one centre in the UK wide PCa testing and treatment trial (ProtecT) with prostate specific antigen between 2.0 and 2.95 ng/ml or negative biopsies, were randomized to daily lycopene (n = 44 assigned 15 mg capsules/day; 44 assigned a lycopene-rich diet; 45 assigned placebo) and green tea (n = 45 assigned 600 mg/day epigallocatechin gallate; 45 assigned green tea drink; 43 assigned placebo) for 6 months. The interventions significantly elevated the primary outcomes, serum epigallocatechin gallate and lycopene at 6 months of follow-up. We report here an exploratory analysis in which serum IGF-I, IGF-II, IGF binding protein (BP)-2 and IGFBP-3 were measured at baseline and 6 months of postintervention. A total of 133 men were randomized (34% of eligible men approached) and 130 had follow-up IGF peptides (98%). In intention-to-treat analyses, there was only weak evidence that lycopene or green tea influenced some aspects of serum IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-2 or IGFBP-3. In men randomized to lycopene supplements, IGFBP-2 was nonsignificantly (50.9 ng/ml; 95% confidence interval: -51.2-152.9, P = 0.3) higher in comparison to placebo, whereas in men randomized to green tea supplements, IGFBP-3 was nonsignificantly (205.2 ng/ml; 95% confidence interval: -583.3-172.9, P = 0.3) lower than with placebo. In this small, pilot randomized controlled trial, there was little evidence that lycopene or green tea interventions influenced serum levels of IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBBP-3 and IGFBP-2. However, the effects were imprecisely estimates and some observed trends may justify larger trials.

9.
Int J Cancer ; 145(12): 3244-3256, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30873591

RESUMO

Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) have been implicated in the aetiology of several cancers. To better understand whether anthropometric, behavioural and sociodemographic factors may play a role in cancer risk via IGF signalling, we examined the cross-sectional associations of these exposures with circulating concentrations of IGFs (IGF-I and IGF-II) and IGFBPs (IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3). The Endogenous Hormones, Nutritional Biomarkers and Prostate Cancer Collaborative Group dataset includes individual participant data from 16,024 male controls (i.e. without prostate cancer) aged 22-89 years from 22 prospective studies. Geometric means of protein concentrations were estimated using analysis of variance, adjusted for relevant covariates. Older age was associated with higher concentrations of IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 and lower concentrations of IGF-I, IGF-II and IGFBP-3. Higher body mass index was associated with lower concentrations of IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2. Taller height was associated with higher concentrations of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 and lower concentrations of IGFBP-1. Smokers had higher concentrations of IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 and lower concentrations of IGFBP-3 than nonsmokers. Higher alcohol consumption was associated with higher concentrations of IGF-II and lower concentrations of IGF-I and IGFBP-2. African Americans had lower concentrations of IGF-II, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3 and Hispanics had lower IGF-I, IGF-II and IGFBP-3 than non-Hispanic whites. These findings indicate that a range of anthropometric, behavioural and sociodemographic factors are associated with circulating concentrations of IGFs and IGFBPs in men, which will lead to a greater understanding of the mechanisms through which these factors influence cancer risk.

10.
Eur Urol ; 76(3): 329-337, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30777372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rare germline mutations in DNA repair genes are associated with prostate cancer (PCa) predisposition and prognosis. OBJECTIVE: To quantify the frequency of germline DNA repair gene mutations in UK PCa cases and controls, in order to more comprehensively evaluate the contribution of individual genes to overall PCa risk and likelihood of aggressive disease. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We sequenced 167 DNA repair and eight PCa candidate genes in a UK-based cohort of 1281 young-onset PCa cases (diagnosed at ≤60yr) and 1160 selected controls. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Gene-level SKAT-O and gene-set adaptive combination of p values (ADA) analyses were performed separately for cases versus controls, and aggressive (Gleason score ≥8, n=201) versus nonaggressive (Gleason score ≤7, n=1048) cases. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: We identified 233 unique protein truncating variants (PTVs) with minor allele frequency <0.5% in controls in 97 genes. The total proportion of PTV carriers was higher in cases than in controls (15% vs 12%, odds ratio [OR]=1.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.64, p=0.036). Gene-level analyses selected NBN (pSKAT-O=2.4×10-4) for overall risk and XPC (pSKAT-O=1.6×10-4) for aggressive disease, both at candidate-level significance (p<3.1×10-4 and p<3.4×10-4, respectively). Gene-set analysis identified a subset of 20 genes associated with increased PCa risk (OR=3.2, 95% CI 2.1-4.8, pADA=4.1×10-3) and four genes that increased risk of aggressive disease (OR=11.2, 95% CI 4.6-27.7, pADA=5.6×10-3), three of which overlap the predisposition gene set. CONCLUSIONS: The union of the gene-level and gene-set-level analyses identified 23 unique DNA repair genes associated with PCa predisposition or risk of aggressive disease. These findings will help facilitate the development of a PCa-specific sequencing panel with both predictive and prognostic potential. PATIENT SUMMARY: This large sequencing study assessed the rate of inherited DNA repair gene mutations between prostate cancer patients and disease-free men. A panel of 23 genes was identified, which may improve risk prediction or treatment pathways in future clinical practice.

11.
Qual Health Res ; 29(5): 672-679, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30791819

RESUMO

Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) can provide high quality evidence about the comparative effectiveness of health care interventions, but many RCTs struggle with or fail to complete recruitment. RCTs are built on the principles of the experimental method, but their planning, conduct, and interpretation can depend on complex social, behavioral, and cultural factors that may be best understood through qualitative research. Most qualitative studies undertaken alongside RCTs involve interviews that produce data that are used in a supportive or supplicatory role, but there is potential for qualitative research to be more influential. In this article, we describe the research methods underpinning the "QuinteT" (Qualitative Research Integrated Within Trials) approach to understand and address RCT recruitment difficulties. The QuinteT Recruitment Intervention (QRI) brings together multiple qualitative strategies and quantitative data and uses triangulation to understand recruitment issues rapidly. These nuanced understandings are used to inform the implementation of collaborative actions to improve recruitment.

13.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4616, 2018 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30397198

RESUMO

Chromosome 8q24 is a susceptibility locus for multiple cancers, including prostate cancer. Here we combine genetic data across the 8q24 susceptibility region from 71,535 prostate cancer cases and 52,935 controls of European ancestry to define the overall contribution of germline variation at 8q24 to prostate cancer risk. We identify 12 independent risk signals for prostate cancer (p < 4.28 × 10-15), including three risk variants that have yet to be reported. From a polygenic risk score (PRS) model, derived to assess the cumulative effect of risk variants at 8q24, men in the top 1% of the PRS have a 4-fold (95%CI = 3.62-4.40) greater risk compared to the population average. These 12 variants account for ~25% of what can be currently explained of the familial risk of prostate cancer by known genetic risk factors. These findings highlight the overwhelming contribution of germline variation at 8q24 on prostate cancer risk which has implications for population risk stratification.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30352818

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether associations between circulating metabolites and prostate cancer are causal is unknown. We report on the largest study of metabolites and prostate cancer (2,291 cases and 2,661 controls) and appraise causality for a subset of the prostate cancer-metabolite associations using two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The case-control portion of the study was conducted in nine UK centres with men aged 50-69 years who underwent prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening for prostate cancer within the Prostate testing for cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) trial. Two data sources were used to appraise causality: a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of metabolites in 24,925 participants and a GWAS of prostate cancer in 44,825 cases and 27,904 controls within the Association Group to Investigate Cancer Associated Alterations in the Genome (PRACTICAL) consortium. RESULTS: Thirty-five metabolites were strongly associated with prostate cancer (p <0.0014, multiple-testing threshold). These fell into four classes: i) lipids and lipoprotein subclass characteristics (total cholesterol and ratios, cholesterol esters and ratios, free cholesterol and ratios, phospholipids and ratios, and triglyceride ratios); ii) fatty acids and ratios; iii) amino acids; iv) and fluid balance. Fourteen top metabolites were proxied by genetic variables, but MR indicated these were not causal. CONCLUSIONS: We identified 35 circulating metabolites associated with prostate cancer presence, but found no evidence of causality for those 14 testable with MR. Thus, the 14 MR-tested metabolites are unlikely to be mechanistically important in prostate cancer risk. IMPACT: The metabolome provides a promising set of biomarkers that may aid prostate cancer classification.

15.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 11(11): 687-696, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30309839

RESUMO

Epidemiologic studies suggest that diet can alter prostate cancer risk. This study aimed to establish the feasibility and acceptability of dietary modification in men at increased risk of prostate cancer. Men were invited with a PSA level of 2.0-2.95 ng/mL or 3.0-19.95 ng/mL with negative prostate biopsies. Randomization (3 × 3 factorial design) to daily green tea and lycopene: green tea drink (3 cups, unblinded) or capsules [blinded, 600 mg flavan-3-ol ()-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) or placebo] and lycopene-rich foods (unblinded) or capsules (blinded, 15 mg lycopene or placebo) for 6 months. Primary endpoints were randomization rates and intervention adherence (blinded assessment of metabolites) at 6 months with secondary endpoints of acceptability (from interviews), safety, weight, blood pressure, and PSA. A total of 133 of 469 (28.4%) men approached agreed to be randomized and 132 were followed-up (99.2%). Mean lycopene was 1.28 [95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.09-1.50, P = 0.003] times higher in the lycopene capsule group and 1.42 (95% CI, 1.21-1.66; P < 0.001) times higher in the lycopene-enriched diet group compared with placebo capsules. Median EGCG was 10.7 nmol/L (95% CI, 7.0-32.0) higher in in the active capsule group and 20.0 nmol/L (95% CI, 0.0-19.0) higher in the green tea drink group compared with placebo capsules (both P < 0.001). All interventions were acceptable and well tolerated although men preferred the capsules. Dietary prevention is acceptable to men at risk of prostate cancer. This intervention trial demonstrates that a chemoprevention clinical trial is feasible. Cancer Prev Res; 11(11); 687-96. ©2018 AACR.

16.
Qual Health Res ; : 1049732318803894, 2018 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30293516

RESUMO

Qualitative researchers are increasingly reanalyzing and synthesizing data sets from different studies, and this method has now been used across trials to inform trial methodology and delivery. Despite this work, however, limited guidance exists about how this method should be employed. This article details an example in which interview data collected during three primary care depression trials were brought together to explore trial participants' study and treatment journeys. It details the process involved and the decisions made. It also presents findings from this synthesis to illustrate how this method can be used to inform the development of future trials and complex interventions, through raising questions about how researchers currently define and design treatment arms and indicating what factors may improve or hinder participants' engagement with their allocated treatment.

17.
F1000Res ; 7: 752, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30364075

RESUMO

International government guidance recommends patient and public involvement (PPI) to improve the relevance and quality of research.  PPI is defined as research being carried out 'with' or 'by' patients and members of the public rather than 'to', 'about' or 'for' them ( http://www.invo.org.uk/). Patient involvement is different from collecting data from patients as participants.  Ethical considerations also differ.  PPI is about patients actively contributing through discussion to decisions about research design, acceptability, relevance, conduct and governance from study conception to dissemination.  Occasionally patients lead or do research.  The research methods of PPI range from informal discussions to partnership research approaches such as action research, co-production and co-learning. This article discusses how researchers can involve patients when they are applying for research funding and considers some opportunities and pitfalls.  It reviews research funder requirements, draws on the literature and our collective experiences as clinicians, patients, academics and members of UK funding panels.

18.
Int J Cancer ; 2018 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30325021

RESUMO

Lycopene and green tea consumption have been observationally associated with reduced prostate cancer risk, but the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. We investigated the effect of factorial randomisation to a 6-month lycopene and green tea dietary advice or supplementation intervention on 159 serum metabolite measures in 128 men with raised PSA levels (but prostate cancer-free), analysed by intention-to-treat. The causal effects of metabolites modified by the intervention on prostate cancer risk were then assessed by Mendelian randomization, using summary statistics from 44,825 prostate cancer cases and 27,904 controls. The systemic effects of lycopene and green tea supplementation on serum metabolic profile were comparable to the effects of the respective dietary advice interventions (R2 = 0.65 and 0.76 for lycopene and green tea respectively). Metabolites which were altered in response to lycopene supplementation were acetate (ß (standard deviation difference versus placebo): 0.69; 95% CI= 0.24, 1.15; p=0.003), valine (ß: -0.62; -1.03, -0.02; p=0.004), pyruvate (ß: -0.56; -0.95, -0.16; p=0.006), and docosahexaenoic acid (ß: -0.50; -085, -0.14; p=0.006). Valine and diacylglycerol were lower in the lycopene dietary advice group (ß: -0.65; -1.04, -0.26; p=0.001 and ß: -0.59; -1.01, -0.18; p=0.006). A genetically instrumented SD increase in pyruvate increased the odds of prostate cancer by 1.29 (1.03, 1.62; p=0.027). An intervention to increase lycopene intake altered the serum metabolome of men at risk of prostate cancer. Lycopene lowered levels of pyruvate, which our Mendelian randomization analysis suggests may be causally related to reduced prostate cancer risk. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

19.
Health Technol Assess ; 22(52): 1-96, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30264692

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common cancer in men in the UK. Patients with intermediate-risk, clinically localised disease are offered radical treatments such as surgery or radiotherapy, which can result in severe side effects. A number of alternative partial ablation (PA) technologies that may reduce treatment burden are available; however the comparative effectiveness of these techniques has never been evaluated in a randomised controlled trial (RCT). OBJECTIVES: To assess the feasibility of a RCT of PA using high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) versus radical prostatectomy (RP) for intermediate-risk PCa and to test and optimise methods of data capture. DESIGN: We carried out a prospective, multicentre, open-label feasibility study to inform the design and conduct of a future RCT, involving a QuinteT Recruitment Intervention (QRI) to understand barriers to participation. SETTING: Five NHS hospitals in England. PARTICIPANTS: Men with unilateral, intermediate-risk, clinically localised PCa. INTERVENTIONS: Radical prostatectomy compared with HIFU. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: The randomisation of 80 men. SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Findings of the QRI and assessment of data capture methods. RESULTS: Eighty-seven patients consented to participate by 31 March 2017 and 82 men were randomised by 4 May 2017 (41 men to the RP arm and 41 to the HIFU arm). The QRI was conducted in two iterative phases: phase I identified a number of barriers to recruitment, including organisational challenges, lack of recruiter equipoise and difficulties communicating with patients about the study, and phase II comprised the development and delivery of tailored strategies to optimise recruitment, including group training, individual feedback and 'tips' documents. At the time of data extraction, on 10 October 2017, treatment data were available for 71 patients. Patient characteristics were similar at baseline and the rate of return of all clinical case report forms (CRFs) was 95%; the return rate of the patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) questionnaire pack was 90.5%. Centres with specific long-standing expertise in offering HIFU as a routine NHS treatment option had lower recruitment rates (Basingstoke and Southampton) - with University College Hospital failing to enrol any participants - than centres offering HIFU in the trial context only. CONCLUSIONS: Randomisation of men to a RCT comparing PA with radical treatments of the prostate is feasible. The QRI provided insights into the complexities of recruiting to this surgical trial and has highlighted a number of key lessons that are likely to be important if the study progresses to a main trial. A full RCT comparing clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and quality-of-life outcomes between radical treatments and PA is now warranted. FUTURE WORK: Men recruited to the feasibility study will be followed up for 36 months in accordance with the protocol. We will design a full RCT, taking into account the lessons learnt from this study. CRFs will be streamlined, and the length and frequency of PROMs and resource use diaries will be reviewed to reduce the burden on patients and research nurses and to optimise data completeness. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN99760303. FUNDING: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 22, No. 52. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.

20.
Lancet ; 391(10136): 2225-2235, 2018 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29893223

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Femoroacetabular impingement syndrome is an important cause of hip pain in young adults. It can be treated by arthroscopic hip surgery, including reshaping the hip, or with physiotherapist-led conservative care. We aimed to compare the clinical effectiveness of hip arthroscopy with best conservative care. METHODS: UK FASHIoN is a pragmatic, multicentre, assessor-blinded randomised controlled trial, done at 23 National Health Service hospitals in the UK. We enrolled patients with femoroacetabular impingement syndrome who presented at these hospitals. Eligible patients were at least 16 years old, had hip pain with radiographic features of cam or pincer morphology but no osteoarthritis, and were believed to be likely to benefit from hip arthroscopy. Patients with bilateral femoroacetabular impingement syndrome were eligible; only the most symptomatic hip was randomly assigned to treatment and followed-up. Participants were randomly allocated (1:1) to receive hip arthroscopy or personalised hip therapy (an individualised, supervised, and progressive physiotherapist-led programme of conservative care). Randomisation was stratified by impingement type and recruiting centre and was done by research staff at each hospital, using a central telephone randomisation service. Patients and treating clinicians were not masked to treatment allocation, but researchers who collected the outcome assessments and analysed the results were masked. The primary outcome was hip-related quality of life, as measured by the patient-reported International Hip Outcome Tool (iHOT-33) 12 months after randomisation, and analysed in all eligible participants who were allocated to treatment (the intention-to-treat population). This trial is registered as an International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial, number ISRCTN64081839, and is closed to recruitment. FINDINGS: Between July 20, 2012, and July 15, 2016, we identified 648 eligible patients and recruited 348 participants: 171 participants were allocated to receive hip arthroscopy and 177 to receive personalised hip therapy. Three further patients were excluded from the trial after randomisation because they did not meet the eligibility criteria. Follow-up at the primary outcome assessment was 92% (319 of 348 participants). At 12 months after randomisation, mean iHOT-33 scores had improved from 39·2 (SD 20·9) to 58·8 (27·2) for participants in the hip arthroscopy group, and from 35·6 (18·2) to 49·7 (25·5) in the personalised hip therapy group. In the primary analysis, the mean difference in iHOT-33 scores, adjusted for impingement type, sex, baseline iHOT-33 score, and centre, was 6·8 (95% CI 1·7-12·0) in favour of hip arthroscopy (p=0·0093). This estimate of treatment effect exceeded the minimum clinically important difference (6·1 points). There were 147 patient-reported adverse events (in 100 [72%] of 138 patients) in the hip arthroscopy group) versus 102 events (in 88 [60%] of 146 patients) in the personalised hip therapy group, with muscle soreness being the most common of these (58 [42%] vs 69 [47%]). There were seven serious adverse events reported by participating hospitals. Five (83%) of six serious adverse events in the hip arthroscopy group were related to treatment, and the one in the personalised hip therapy group was not. There were no treatment-related deaths, but one patient in the hip arthroscopy group developed a hip joint infection after surgery. INTERPRETATION: Hip arthroscopy and personalised hip therapy both improved hip-related quality of life for patients with femoroacetabular impingement syndrome. Hip arthroscopy led to a greater improvement than did personalised hip therapy, and this difference was clinically significant. Further follow-up will reveal whether the clinical benefits of hip arthroscopy are maintained and whether it is cost effective in the long term. FUNDING: The Health Technology Assessment Programme of the National Institute of Health Research.


Assuntos
Artroscopia , Tratamento Conservador , Impacto Femoroacetabular/reabilitação , Impacto Femoroacetabular/cirurgia , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Adulto , Feminino , Impacto Femoroacetabular/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Qualidade de Vida , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido
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