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1.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1380, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31316500

RESUMO

Pigs are important livestock and comprehensive understanding of their immune responses in infections is critical to improve vaccines and therapies. Moreover, similarities between human and swine physiology suggest that pigs are a superior animal model for immunological studies. However, paucity of experimental tools for a systematic analysis of the immune responses in pigs represent a major disadvantage. To evaluate the pig as a biomedical model and additionally expand the knowledge of rare immune cell populations in swine, we established a multicolor flow cytometry analysis platform of surface marker expression and cellular responses for porcine invariant Natural Killer T cells (iNKT). In humans, iNKT cells are among the first line defenders in various tissues, respond to CD1d-restricted antigens and become rapidly activated. Naïve porcine iNKT cells were CD3+/CD4-/CD8+ or CD3+/CD4-/CD8- and displayed an effector- or memory-like phenotype (CD25+/ICOS+/CD5hi/CD45RA-/CCR7 ± /CD27+). Based on their expression of the transcription factors T bet and the iNKT cell-specific promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger protein (PLZF), porcine iNKT cells were differentiated into functional subsets. Analogous to human iNKT cells, in vitro stimulation of porcine leukocytes with the CD1d ligand α-galactosylceramide resulted in rapid iNKT cell proliferation, evidenced by an increase in frequency and Ki-67 expression. Moreover, this approach revealed CD25, CD5, ICOS, and the major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) as activation markers on porcine iNKT cells. Activated iNKT cells also expressed interferon-γ, upregulated perforin expression, and displayed degranulation. In steady state, iNKT cell frequency was highest in newborn piglets and decreased with age. Upon infection with two viruses of high relevance to swine and humans, iNKT cells expanded. Animals infected with African swine fever virus displayed an increase of iNKT cell frequency in peripheral blood, regional lymph nodes, and lungs. During Influenza A virus infection, iNKT cell percentage increased in blood, lung lymph nodes, and broncho-alveolar lavage. Our in-depth characterization of porcine iNKT cells contributes to a better understanding of porcine immune responses, thereby facilitating the design of innovative interventions against infectious diseases. Moreover, we provide new evidence that endorses the suitability of the pig as a biomedical model for iNKT cell research.

2.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1528, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31333660

RESUMO

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2019.00917.].

3.
Front Immunol ; 10: 917, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31114578

RESUMO

Myeloid cells are crucial for the host control of a Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) infection, however the adverse role of specific myeloid subsets has increasingly been appreciated. The relevance of such cells in therapeutic strategies and predictive/prognostic algorithms is to promote interest in regulatory myeloid cells in tuberculosis (TB). Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are a heterogeneous collection of phagocytes comprised of monocytic- and polymorphonuclear cells that exhibit a potent suppression of innate- and adaptive immune responses. Accumulation of MDSC under pathological conditions associated with chronic inflammation, most notably cancer, has been well-described. Evidence supporting the involvement of MDSC in TB is increasing, yet their significance in this infection continues to be viewed with skepticism, primarily due to their complex nature and the lack of genetic evidence unequivocally discriminating these cells from other terminally differentiated myeloid populations. Here we highlight recent advances in MDSC characterization and summarize findings on the TB-induced hematopoietic shift associated with MDSC expansion. Lastly, the mechanisms of MDSC-mediated disease progression and future research avenues in the context of TB therapy and prophylaxis are discussed.

4.
EMBO Rep ; 20(4)2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30872316

RESUMO

Cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs) are important second messenger molecules in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Within host cells, cytosolic CDNs are detected by STING and alert the host by activating innate immunity characterized by type I interferon (IFN) responses. Extracellular bacteria and dying cells can release CDNs, but sensing of extracellular CDNs (eCDNs) by mammalian cells remains elusive. Here, we report that endocytosis facilitates internalization of eCDNs. The DNA sensor cGAS facilitates sensing of endocytosed CDNs, their perinuclear accumulation, and subsequent STING-dependent release of type I IFN Internalized CDNs bind cGAS directly, leading to its dimerization, and the formation of a cGAS/STING complex, which may activate downstream signaling. Thus, eCDNs comprise microbe- and danger-associated molecular patterns that contribute to host-microbe crosstalk during health and disease.

5.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 68(4): 687-697, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30684003

RESUMO

In cancer, infection and inflammation, the immune system's function can be dysregulated. Instead of fighting disease, immune cells may increase pathology and suppress host-protective immune responses. Myeloid cells show high plasticity and adapt to changing conditions and pathological challenges. Despite their relevance in disease pathophysiology, the identity, heterogeneity and biology of myeloid cells is still poorly understood. We will focus on phenotypical and functional markers of one of the key myeloid regulatory subtypes, the myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC), in humans, mice and non-human primates. Technical issues regarding the isolation of the cells from tissues and blood, timing and sample handling of MDSC will be detailed. Localization of MDSC in a tissue context is of crucial importance and immunohistochemistry approaches for this purpose are discussed. A minimal antibody panel for MDSC research is provided as part of the Mye-EUNITER COST action. Strategies for the identification of additional markers applying state of the art technologies such as mass cytometry will be highlighted. Such marker sets can be used to study MDSC phenotypes across tissues, diseases as well as species and will be crucial to accelerate MDSC research in health and disease.


Assuntos
Células Supressoras Mieloides/imunologia , Células Supressoras Mieloides/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores , Separação Celular/métodos , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem/métodos , Camundongos , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Primatas
6.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 68(4): 673-685, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30569204

RESUMO

Many pathogens, ranging from viruses to multicellular parasites, promote expansion of MDSCs, which are myeloid cells that exhibit immunosuppressive features. The roles of MDSCs in infection depend on the class and virulence mechanisms of the pathogen, the stage of the disease, and the pathology associated with the infection. This work compiles evidence supported by functional assays on the roles of different subsets of MDSCs in acute and chronic infections, including pathogen-associated malignancies, and discusses strategies to modulate MDSC dynamics to benefit the host.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/etiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/metabolismo , Células Supressoras Mieloides/imunologia , Células Supressoras Mieloides/metabolismo , Doença Aguda , Animais , Biomarcadores , Doença Crônica , Doenças Transmissíveis/tratamento farmacológico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Imunomodulação , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Células Supressoras Mieloides/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Front Immunol ; 9: 2417, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30405617

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) has tremendous public health relevance. It most frequently affects the lung and is characterized by the development of unique tissue lesions, termed granulomas. These lesions encompass various immune populations, with macrophages being most extensively investigated. Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) have been recently identified in TB patients, both in the circulation and at the site of infection, however their interactions with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and their impact on granulomas remain undefined. We generated human monocytic MDSCs and observed that their suppressive capacities are retained upon Mtb infection. We employed an in vitro granuloma model, which mimics human TB lesions to some extent, with the aim of analyzing the roles of MDSCs within granulomas. MDSCs altered the structure of and affected bacterial containment within granuloma-like structures. These effects were partly controlled through highly abundant secreted IL-10. Compared to macrophages, MDSCs activated primarily the NF-κB and MAPK pathways and the latter largely contributed to the release of IL-10 and replication of bacteria within in vitro generated granulomas. Moreover, MDSCs upregulated PD-L1 and suppressed proliferation of lymphocytes, albeit with negligible effects on Mtb replication. Further comprehensive characterization of MDSCs in TB will contribute to a better understanding of disease pathogenesis and facilitate the design of novel immune-based interventions for this deadly infection.

8.
Nature ; 563(7729): 131-136, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30356214

RESUMO

Accurate repair of DNA double-stranded breaks by homologous recombination preserves genome integrity and inhibits tumorigenesis. Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) is a cytosolic DNA sensor that activates innate immunity by initiating the STING-IRF3-type I IFN signalling cascade1,2. Recognition of ruptured micronuclei by cGAS links genome instability to the innate immune response3,4, but the potential involvement of cGAS in DNA repair remains unknown. Here we demonstrate that cGAS inhibits homologous recombination in mouse and human models. DNA damage induces nuclear translocation of cGAS in a manner that is dependent on importin-α, and the phosphorylation of cGAS at tyrosine 215-mediated by B-lymphoid tyrosine kinase-facilitates the cytosolic retention of cGAS. In the nucleus, cGAS is recruited to double-stranded breaks and interacts with PARP1 via poly(ADP-ribose). The cGAS-PARP1 interaction impedes the formation of the PARP1-Timeless complex, and thereby suppresses homologous recombination. We show that knockdown of cGAS suppresses DNA damage and inhibits tumour growth both in vitro and in vivo. We conclude that nuclear cGAS suppresses homologous-recombination-mediated repair and promotes tumour growth, and that cGAS therefore represents a potential target for cancer prevention and therapy.

9.
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29785656

RESUMO

Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are a heterogeneous group of mononuclear and polymorphonuclear myeloid cells, which are present at very low numbers in healthy subjects, but can expand substantially under disease conditions. Depending on disease type and stage, MDSC comprise varying amounts of immature and mature differentiation stages of myeloid cells. Validated unique phenotypic markers for MDSC are still lacking. Therefore, the functional analysis of these cells is of central importance for their identification and characterization. Various disease-promoting and immunosuppressive functions of MDSC are reported in the literature. Among those, the capacity to modulate the activity of T cells is by far the most often used and best-established read-out system. In this review, we critically evaluate the assays available for the functional analysis of human and murine MDSC under in vitro and in vivo conditions. We also discuss critical issues and controls associated with those assays. We aim at providing suggestions and recommendations useful for the contemporary biological characterization of MDSC.

11.
Nat Rev Drug Discov ; 17(1): 35-56, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28935918

RESUMO

Despite the recent increase in the development of antivirals and antibiotics, antimicrobial resistance and the lack of broad-spectrum virus-targeting drugs are still important issues and additional alternative approaches to treat infectious diseases are urgently needed. Host-directed therapy (HDT) is an emerging approach in the field of anti-infectives. The strategy behind HDT is to interfere with host cell factors that are required by a pathogen for replication or persistence, to enhance protective immune responses against a pathogen, to reduce exacerbated inflammation and to balance immune reactivity at sites of pathology. Although HDTs encompassing interferons are well established for the treatment of chronic viral hepatitis, novel strategies aimed at the functional cure of persistent viral infections and the development of broad-spectrum antivirals against emerging viruses seem to be crucial. In chronic bacterial infections, such as tuberculosis, HDT strategies aim to enhance the antimicrobial activities of phagocytes and to curtail inflammation through interference with soluble factors (such as eicosanoids and cytokines) or cellular factors (such as co-stimulatory molecules). This Review describes current progress in the development of HDTs for viral and bacterial infections, including sepsis, and the challenges in bringing these new approaches to the clinic.

12.
Chest ; 153(5): 1187-1200, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29224833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exacerbated immunopathology is a frequent consequence of TB that is complicated by diabetes mellitus (DM); however, the underlying mechanisms are still poorly defined. METHODS: In the two groups of age- and sex-matched patients with TB and DM (DM-TB) and with TB and without DM, we microscopically evaluated the areas of caseous necrosis and graded the extent of perinecrotic fibrosis in lung biopsies from the sputum smear-negative (SN) patients. We scored acid-fast bacilli in sputum smear-positive (SP) patients and compiled CT scan data from both the SN and SP patients. We compared inflammatory biomarkers and routine hematologic and biochemical parameters. Binary logistic regression analyses were applied to define the indices associated with the extent of lung injury. RESULTS: Enlarged caseous necrotic areas with exacerbated fibrotic encapsulations were found in SN patients with DM-TB, consistent with the higher ratio of thick-walled cavities and more bacilli in the sputum from SP patients with DM-TB. Larger necrotic foci were detected in men compared with women within the SN TB groups. Significantly higher fibrinogen and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were observed in SN patients with DM-TB. Regression analyses revealed that diabetes, activation of the coagulation pathway (shown by increased platelet distribution width, decreased mean platelet volume, and shortened prothrombin time), and dyslipidemia (shown by decreased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-C, and apolipoprotein A) are risk factors for severe lung lesions in both SN and SP patients with TB. CONCLUSIONS: Hemostasis and dyslipidemia are associated with granuloma necrosis and fibroplasia leading to exacerbated lung damage in TB, especially in patients with DM-TB.

13.
Autophagy ; 13(12): 2041-2055, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29251248

RESUMO

The E3 ubiquitin ligase NEDD4 has been intensively studied in processes involved in viral infections, such as virus budding. However, little is known about its functions in bacterial infections. Our investigations into the role of NEDD4 in intracellular bacterial infections demonstrate that Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Listeria monocytogenes, but not Mycobacterium bovis BCG, replicate more efficiently in NEDD4 knockdown macrophages. In parallel, NEDD4 knockdown or knockout impaired basal macroautophagy/autophagy, as well as infection-induced autophagy. Conversely, NEDD4 expression promoted autophagy in an E3 catalytic activity-dependent manner, thereby restricting intracellular Listeria replication. Mechanistic studies uncovered that endogenous NEDD4 interacted with BECN1/Beclin 1 and this interaction increased during Listeria infection. Deficiency of NEDD4 resulted in elevated K48-linkage ubiquitination of endogenous BECN1. Further, NEDD4 mediated K6- and K27- linkage ubiquitination of BECN1, leading to elevated stability of BECN1 and increased autophagy. Thus, NEDD4 participates in killing of intracellular bacterial pathogens via autophagy by sustaining the stability of BECN1.

14.
PLoS Pathog ; 13(10): e1006676, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29040326

RESUMO

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) primarily resides in the lung but can also persist in extrapulmonary sites. Macrophages are considered the prime cellular habitat in all tissues. Here we demonstrate that Mtb resides inside adipocytes of fat tissue where it expresses stress-related genes. Moreover, perigonadal fat of Mtb-infected mice disseminated the infection when transferred to uninfected animals. Adipose tissue harbors leukocytes in addition to adipocytes and other cell types and we observed that Mtb infection induces changes in adipose tissue biology depending on stage of infection. Mice infected via aerosol showed infiltration of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) or arginase 1 (Arg1)-negative F4/80+ cells, despite recruitment of CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Gene expression analysis of adipose tissue of aerosol Mtb-infected mice provided evidence for upregulated expression of genes associated with T cells and NK cells at 28 days post-infection. Strikingly, IFN-γ-producing NK cells and Mtb-specific CD8+ T cells were identified in perigonadal fat, specifically CD8+CD44-CD69+ and CD8+CD44-CD103+ subpopulations. Gene expression analysis of these cells revealed that they expressed IFN-γ and the lectin-like receptor Klrg1 and down-regulated CD27 and CD62L, consistent with an effector phenotype of Mtb-specific CD8+ T cells. Sorted NK cells expressed higher abundance of Klrg1 upon infection, as well. Our results reveal the ability of Mtb to persist in adipose tissue in a stressed state, and that NK cells and Mtb-specific CD8+ T cells infiltrate infected adipose tissue where they produce IFN-γ and assume an effector phenotype. We conclude that adipose tissue is a potential niche for Mtb and that due to infection CD8+ T cells and NK cells are attracted to this tissue.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/imunologia , Tecido Adiposo/microbiologia , Tuberculose/imunologia , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Latência Viral/imunologia , Adipócitos/microbiologia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Camundongos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia
15.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 12094, 2017 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28935874

RESUMO

Immunity in infection, inflammation and malignancy differs markedly in man and mouse. Still, we learn about human immunity in large extent from experimental mouse models. We propose a novel data integration approach which identifies concordant and discordant gene expression patterns of the immune responses in heterologous data sets. We have conducted experiments to compare human and murine transcriptional responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection in whole blood (WB) as well as macrophages and compared them with simulated as well as publicly available data. Our results indicate profound differences between patterns of gene expression in innate and adaptive immunity in man and mouse upon Mtb infection. We characterized differential expression of T-cell related genes corresponding to the differences in phenotype between tuberculosis (TB) highly and low susceptible mouse strains. Our approach is general and facilitates the choice of optimal animal model for studies of the human immune response to a particular disease.

16.
Front Immunol ; 8: 1895, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29354120

RESUMO

Heterogeneous populations of myeloid regulatory cells (MRC), including monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils, are found in cancer and infectious diseases. The inflammatory environment in solid tumors as well as infectious foci with persistent pathogens promotes the development and recruitment of MRC. These cells help to resolve inflammation and establish host immune homeostasis by restricting T lymphocyte function, inducing regulatory T cells and releasing immune suppressive cytokines and enzyme products. Monocytic MRC, also termed monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (M-MDSC), are bona fide phagocytes, capable of pathogen internalization and persistence, while exerting localized suppressive activity. Here, we summarize molecular pathways controlling M-MDSC genesis and functions in microbial-induced non-resolved inflammation and immunopathology. We focus on the roles of M-MDSC in infections, including opportunistic extracellular bacteria and fungi as well as persistent intracellular pathogens, such as mycobacteria and certain viruses. Better understanding of M-MDSC biology in chronic infections and their role in antimicrobial immunity, will advance development of novel, more effective and broad-range anti-infective therapies.

18.
PLoS One ; 11(9): e0163662, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27684065

RESUMO

Genetic variants in the CARD9 gene predispose to inflammatory disorders and chronic infectious diseases. Tuberculosis (TB), a chronic infectious disease affecting the lung, is lethal in Card9-deficient mice. We hypothesized that polymorphisms in the CARD9 gene influence TB progression and disease-associated lung damage in humans. We tested genotype distributions of the CARD9 polymorphisms rs4077515, rs10781499 and rs10870077 in TB patients and healthy subjects in a Caucasian cohort. SNPs were in linkage disequilibrium and none of the haplotypes was significantly enriched in the TB group. We determined total and differential leukocyte count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and plasma abundance of cytokines and chemokines as markers for systemic inflammation and scored chest X-rays to assess lung involvement in TB subjects. Most disease parameters segregated independently of the CARD9 haplotypes. In contrast to multifactorial chronic inflammation, selected genetic variants in the CARD9 gene leave host responses apparently unaffected in TB, at least in the population analyzed here.

19.
Infect Immun ; 84(10): 2914-21, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27481246

RESUMO

The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) extends the systemic half-life of IgG antibodies by chaperoning bound Fc away from lysosomal degradation inside stromal and hematopoietic cells. FcRn also transports IgG across mucosal barriers into the lumen, and yet little is known about how FcRn modulates immunity in the lung during homeostasis or infection. We infected wild-type (WT) and FcRn-deficient (fcgrt(-/-)) mice with Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Mycobacterium tuberculosis to investigate whether recycling and transport of IgG via FcRn influences innate and adaptive immunity in the lung in response to bacterial infection. We found that FcRn expression maintains homeostatic IgG levels in lung and leads to preferential secretion of low-affinity IgG ligands into the lumen. Fcgrt(-/-) animals exhibited no evidence of developmental impairment of innate immunity in the lung and were able to efficiently recruit neutrophils in a model of acute bacterial pneumonia. Although local humoral immunity in lung increased independently of the presence of FcRn during tuberculosis, there was nonetheless a strong impact of FcRn deficiency on local adaptive immunity. We show that the quantity and quality of IgG in airways, as well as the abundance of dendritic cells in the lung, are maintained by FcRn. FcRn ablation transiently enhanced local T cell immunity and neutrophil recruitment during tuberculosis, leading to a lower bacterial burden in lung. This novel understanding of tissue-specific modulation of mucosal IgG isotypes in the lung by FcRn sheds light on the role of mucosal IgG in immune responses in the lung during homeostasis and bacterial disease.


Assuntos
Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/fisiologia , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Pulmão , Receptores Fc/fisiologia , Tuberculose/imunologia , Imunidade Adaptativa , Animais , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Carga Bacteriana , Células Dendríticas/citologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/metabolismo , Imunidade Inata , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Cadeias alfa de Integrinas/metabolismo , Pulmão/citologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Membrana Mucosa/metabolismo , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Infecções por Pseudomonas/imunologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Receptores Fc/metabolismo , Tuberculose/microbiologia
20.
Curr Top Microbiol Immunol ; 397: 183-97, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27460810

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and represents one of the most relevant bacterial diseases worldwide. Recent advances have yielded new insights into the molecular basis of the immune response required for restriction of the pathogen and also highlighted determinants of immunopathology in TB. Several innate immune mediators including soluble proteins as well as lipid molecules participate in both processes, and their mechanisms of action during TB have been extensively studies over the past years. Among those mediators, inflammasomes are essential signaling platforms that execute crucial functions in several areas of immunology and beyond. This chapter aims to summarize what is known about the roles of the inflammasome during infection with Mtb from both in vitro studies as well as from in vivo work. A better understanding of the complex interactions between Mtb and the host immune system could reveal novel therapeutic approaches and improve current vaccination protocols in TB.


Assuntos
Inflamassomos/imunologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Tuberculose/imunologia , Animais , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Inflamassomos/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/fisiologia , Tuberculose/microbiologia
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