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1.
Hum Mutat ; 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513310

RESUMO

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEE) refer to a heterogeneous group of devastating neurodevelopmental disorders. Variants in KCNB1 have been recently reported in patients with early-onset DEE. KCNB1 encodes the α subunit of the delayed rectifier voltage-dependent potassium channel Kv 2.1. We review the 37 previously reported patients carrying 29 distinct KCNB1 variants and significantly expand the mutational spectrum describing 18 novel variants from 27 unreported patients. Most variants occur de novo and mainly consist of missense variants located on the voltage sensor and the pore domain of Kv 2.1. We also report the first inherited variant (p.Arg583*). KCNB1-related encephalopathies encompass a wide spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders with predominant language difficulties and behavioral impairment. Eighty-five percent of patients developed epilepsies with variable syndromes and prognosis. Truncating variants in the C-terminal domain are associated with a less-severe epileptic phenotype. Overall, this report provides an up-to-date review of the mutational and clinical spectrum of KCNB1, strengthening its place as a causal gene in DEEs and emphasizing the need for further functional studies to unravel the underlying mechanisms.

2.
Acta Neuropathol ; 138(6): 885-900, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444548

RESUMO

Genetic malformations of cortical development (MCDs), such as mild MCDs (mMCD), focal cortical dysplasia (FCD), and hemimegalencephaly (HME), are major causes of severe pediatric refractory epilepsies subjected to neurosurgery. FCD2 are characterized by neuropathological hallmarks that include enlarged dysmorphic neurons (DNs) and balloon cells (BCs). Here, we provide a comprehensive assessment of the contribution of germline and somatic variants in a large cohort of surgical MCD cases. We enrolled in a monocentric study 80 children with drug-resistant epilepsy and a postsurgical neuropathological diagnosis of mMCD, FCD1, FCD2, or HME. We performed targeted gene sequencing ( ≥ 2000X read depth) on matched blood-brain samples to search for low-allele frequency variants in mTOR pathway and FCD genes. We were able to elucidate 29% of mMCD/FCD1 patients and 63% of FCD2/HME patients. Somatic loss-of-function variants in the N-glycosylation pathway-associated SLC35A2 gene were found in mMCD/FCD1 cases. Somatic gain-of-function variants in MTOR and its activators (AKT3, PIK3CA, RHEB), as well as germline, somatic and two-hit loss-of-function variants in its repressors (DEPDC5, TSC1, TSC2) were found exclusively in FCD2/HME cases. We show that panel-negative FCD2 cases display strong pS6-immunostaining, stressing that all FCD2 are mTORopathies. Analysis of microdissected cells demonstrated that DNs and BCs carry the pathogenic variants. We further observed a correlation between the density of pathological cells and the variant-detection likelihood. Single-cell microdissection followed by sequencing of enriched pools of DNs unveiled a somatic second-hit loss-of-heterozygosity in a DEPDC5 germline case. In conclusion, this study indicates that mMCD/FCD1 and FCD2/HME are two distinct genetic entities: while all FCD2/HME are mosaic mTORopathies, mMCD/FCD1 are not caused by mTOR-pathway-hyperactivating variants, and ~ 30% of the cases are related to glycosylation defects. We provide a framework for efficient genetic testing in FCD/HME, linking neuropathology to genetic findings and emphasizing the usefulness of molecular evaluation in the pediatric epileptic neurosurgical population.

3.
Seizure ; 71: 190-200, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386962

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Polymicrogyria (PMG), although the most common brain malformation, represents a low percentage among patients operated on for epilepsy. In cases of hemispheric PMG, electrical status epilepticus during slow sleep (ESESS) may occur leading to an aggravation of the neurological condition and a risk of drug resistance. In such cases, surgical treatment can be offered. METHODS: From a population of 230 children who underwent hemispherotomy for epilepsy, we retrospectively reviewed the patients with unilateral PMG and drug-resistant ESESS focusing on clinical charts, electrophysiological data and post-surgical outcome. RESULTS: Eighteen patients were operated on at a mean age of 7.2 years. The average age was 2 years at seizure onset and 4.4 years at diagnosis of ESESS. All the patients preoperatively had some degree of developmental delay associated with a hemiparesis. During ESESS all of them evidenced a cognitive decline and eight experienced a worsening of the hemiparesis; ESESS was resistant to at least three antiepileptic drugs. The outcome of epilepsy, with a mean follow-up of 12.8 years showed that ESESS disappeared in all patients while 16 of 18 became seizure-free. An improvement of behavior and cognitive condition was observed in all. CONCLUSION: Hemispherotomy can be helpful in patients with drug-resistant ESESS and hemispheric PMG while keeping in mind that more often an accurate medical treatment can be sufficient. The main benefit of surgery is to definitively stop the seizures and to withdraw the medical treatment while keeping in mind the risk of motor aggravation.

4.
Genet Med ; 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31281181

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine whether folinic acid (FA) and thyroxine, in combination or alone, benefit psychomotor development in young patients with Down syndrome (DS). METHODS: The Assessment of Systematic Treatment With Folinic Acid and Thyroid Hormone on Psychomotor Development of Down Syndrome Young Children (ACTHYF) was a single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial in DS infants aged 6-18 months. Patients were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: placebo, folinic acid (FA), L-thyroxine, or FA+L-thyroxine, administered for 12 months. Randomization was done by age and sex. The primary endpoint was adjusted change from baseline in Griffiths Mental Development Scale global development quotient (GDQ) after 12 months. RESULTS: Of 175 patients randomized, 143 completed the study. The modified intention-to-treat (mITT) population included all randomized patients who did not prematurely discontinue due to elevated baseline thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Baseline characteristics in the mITT were well balanced between groups, with reliable developmental assessment outcomes. Adjusted mean change in GDQ in the mITT showed similar decreases in all groups (placebo: -5.10 [95% confidence interval (CI) -7.84 to -2.37]; FA: -4.69 [95% CI -7.73 to -1.64]; L-thyroxine: -3.89 [95% CI -6.94 to -0.83]; FA+L-thyroxine: -3.86 [95% CI -6.67 to -1.06]), with no significant difference for any active treatment group versus placebo. CONCLUSION: This trial does not support the hypotheses that thyroxine and/or folinic acid improve development of young children with DS or are synergistic. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01576705.

5.
Seizure ; 70: 63-70, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288205

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Focal epilepsy in children may be refractory to pharmacological treatment and surgical resection may be an appropriate option. When invasive electroencephalogram is required in the presurgical evaluation, depth electrodes can be used to create focal lesions in the epileptogenic zone using radiofrequency thermocoagulation (RFTC), to disrupt the epileptogenic zone. METHODS: This study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of RFTC in a paediatric population of 46 patients. RESULTS: The mean age of onset was 3.3 years and the mean age at SEEG was 8.2 years. MRI lesions were identified in 71.7% of the series, among them 60% of malformation of cortical development. 43.5% of the patients were seizure free at 1 month, 26.1% were responders. The mean duration of improvement was 6.8 months. 8 children were seizure free for >8 months and among them, 6 are currently seizure free for 8-24 months. 5 patients had functional deficits post-procedures, transient in 4 patients and prolonged in one of whom. 3/5 were anticipated following the results of cortical stimulation. Multivariate analysis found 3 independent criteria linked to RFTC efficiency one month after RFTC: frequency of the seizures before RFTC, age and number of contacts used. CONCLUSION: RFTC is a safe method for the paediatric population providing important predictive information for surgical resection. An improvement in seizure frequency, often transient, is seen in 2/3 of our patients. RTFC could be useful as a palliative technique for children with an epileptogenic zone overlapping with eloquent areas, with minimal risk of sequelae.

6.
Seizure ; 2018 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30503504

RESUMO

Designed from the 60s to the 80s for adults, and despite the development of many new techniques, invasive explorations still have indications in children with focal drug-resistant epilepsy. The main types are stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) and subdural explorations (SDE). They provide precise information on the localization of the epileptogenic zone (EZ), its relationships with eloquent cortex, and the feasibility of performing a tailored surgical resection. Thermocoagulations, which are a diagnostic and therapeutic tool, can be performed using SEEG electrodes. Both techniques are feasible in children, with an age limitation for SEEG (which requires a bone thickness above 2 mm). The complication rate is higher with SDE. Opposed for a long time and never compared in a systematic study, they should presently be considered complementary. The indications cannot be directly inferred from those for adults, as there are pediatric particularities in the seizures' semiology, functional areas, imaging and urgent situations. We successively discuss the choice in individual cases of SEEG or SDE respectively, the specific problematic in infancy and early childhood, the schema in SEEG for cryptogenic epilepsies (in particular insular), the particularities of polymicrogyria and deeply located lesions, and finally, SEEG designed for thermocoagulations. Future improvements should include more accurate implantation schemas thanks to advanced non-invasive explorations and possibilities to perform SEEG in infants.

7.
Epileptic Disord ; 20(5): 346-363, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30378548

RESUMO

Occipital epilepsy is the least common among surgical series because: (1) the location makes it hard to asses by EEG; (2) the seizure semiology often reflects propagation; and (3) surgery entails a high risk of neurological deficits. In children, subjective symptoms are harder to assess, adding to the difficulty of a proper diagnosis. We aimed to determine electroclinical characteristics of occipital lobe epilepsy in a paediatric population by reviewing 20 children between one and 16 years, who had undergone intracranial recordings with depth electrodes. Eight patients had pure occipital epilepsies and 12 had "occipital plus" epilepsies. We identified four different seizure spreading patterns: (1) pure occipital (40%) with oculomotor symptoms; (2) temporal (30%) with hypomotor behaviour and automatisms; (3) frontal (20%) with movements of the limbs; and (4) spasms (10%). Two thirds of the children above 11 years reported visual aura, but this was probably underestimated in younger children as some seizures began with non-specific motion arrest. Automatisms were only observed when the lateral temporal lobe was involved. Patients with a pure occipital form had a seizure onset zone strictly in the occipital lobe. Lingual and cuneus gyri were the most epileptogenic structures. Scalp EEG showed diffuse EEG abnormalities in two thirds of the patients and 25% of these led to false lateralization of the SOZ. Although MRI lesions were always visible, imaging and scalp EEG could be misleading and often not sufficient to guide surgery. After surgery, 68% of the patients were classified as Engel Class I, and surgical outcome was even better for patients in whom the supracalcarine area was affected, with 87.5% reaching seizure freedom. Seizure spread patterns in occipital epilepsy are similar in paediatric and adult populations, even though it is often impossible to obtain subjective symptoms in children. Postsurgical outcome is better than in adults, especially in patients in whom the supracalcarine area is affected.

8.
Hum Genet ; 137(9): 753-768, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30167850

RESUMO

NALCN is a conserved cation channel, which conducts a permanent sodium leak current and regulates resting membrane potential and neuronal excitability. It is part of a large ion channel complex, the "NALCN channelosome", consisting of multiple proteins including UNC80 and UNC79. The predominant neuronal expression pattern and its function suggest an important role in neuronal function and disease. So far, biallelic NALCN and UNC80 variants have been described in a small number of individuals leading to infantile hypotonia, psychomotor retardation, and characteristic facies 1 (IHPRF1, OMIM 615419) and 2 (IHPRF2, OMIM 616801), respectively. Heterozygous de novo NALCN missense variants in the S5/S6 pore-forming segments lead to congenital contractures of the limbs and face, hypotonia, and developmental delay (CLIFAHDD, OMIM 616266) with some clinical overlap. In this study, we present detailed clinical information of 16 novel individuals with biallelic NALCN variants, 1 individual with a heterozygous de novo NALCN missense variant and an interesting clinical phenotype without contractures, and 12 individuals with biallelic UNC80 variants. We report for the first time a missense NALCN variant located in the predicted S6 pore-forming unit inherited in an autosomal-recessive manner leading to mild IHPRF1. We show evidence of clinical variability, especially among IHPRF1-affected individuals, and discuss differences between the IHPRF1- and IHPRF2 phenotypes. In summary, we provide a comprehensive overview of IHPRF1 and IHPRF2 phenotypes based on the largest cohort of individuals reported so far and provide additional insights into the clinical phenotypes of these neurodevelopmental diseases to help improve counseling of affected families.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Canalopatias/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Variação Genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Canais de Sódio/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Canalopatias/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Neurol Sci ; 391: 31-39, 2018 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30103967

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exacerbation of hyperkinesia is a life-threatening complication of dyskinetic movement disorders, which can lead to multi-organ failure and even to death. GNAO1 has been recently identified to be involved in the pathogenesis of early infantile epileptic encephalopathy and movement disorders. Patients with GNAO1 mutations can present with a severe, progressive hyperkinetic movement disorder with prolonged life-threatening exacerbations, which are refractory to most anti-dystonic medication. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to investigate the evolution of symptoms and the response to deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus internus (GPi-DBS) in patients with different GNAO1 mutations. METHODS: We report six patients presenting with global motor retardation, reduced muscle tone and recurrent episodes of severe, life-threatening hyperkinesia with dystonia, choreoathetosis, and ballism since early childhood. Five of them underwent GPi-DBS. RESULTS: The genetic workup revealed mutations in GNAO1 for all six patients. These encompass a new splice site mutation (c.723+1G>T) in patient 1, a new missense mutation (c.610G>C; p.Gly204Arg) in patient 2, a heterozygous mutation (c.625>T; p.Arg209Cys) in patients 3 and 4, and a heterozygous mutation (c.709G>A; p.Glu237Lys) in patients 5 and 6. By intervention with GPi-DBS the severe paroxysmal hyperkinetic exacerbations could be stopped in five patients. One patient is still under evaluation for neuromodulation. CONCLUSION: In complex movement disorders of unsolved etiology clinical WES can rapidly streamline pathogenic genes. We identified two novel GNAO1 mutations. GPi-DBS can be an effective and life-saving treatment option for patients with GNAO1 mutations and has to be considered early.

10.
Seizure ; 60: 71-79, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29929109

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Epilepsy surgery has been shown to be effective in treating focal epilepsy related to tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). We analyzed the advantage of early surgical management in terms of seizure frequency and development. METHOD: We retrospectively studied the 15 patients younger than 6 years who underwent resective surgery between 2006 and 2016. Fourteen of them had invasive monitoring while the 15th was operated on under corticography. RESULTS: Epilepsy began before 5 months of age in all patients. Overall 13 patients (86%) had a dramatic improvement of epilepsy after surgery (Engel 1 and 2) including 9 patients (60%) seizure free (Engel 1 A). In the group of 9 patients younger than 20 months at the time of surgery who presented with catastrophic epilepsies, 77% are Engel 1 A and the other 23% Engel 2. In this subpopulation, no one developed autism and four (44%) regained normal development. CONCLUSIONS: In early onset epilepsies associated with TSC, surgical treatment is highly effective, in particular when performed early. Invasive monitoring contributes to the successful outcome. Those data have to be confirmed by multicentric studies including quantitative analyses of the recordings.


Assuntos
Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/etiologia , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/cirurgia , Esclerose Tuberosa/complicações , Esclerose Tuberosa/cirurgia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/cirurgia , Pré-Escolar , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/fisiopatologia , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/psicologia , Eletrocorticografia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Esclerose Tuberosa/fisiopatologia , Esclerose Tuberosa/psicologia
11.
Brain Dev ; 40(9): 768-774, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29861155

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Heterozygous mutations in the ATP1A3 gene are responsible for various neurological disorders, ranging from early-onset alternating hemiplegia of childhood to adult-onset dystonia-parkinsonism. Next generation sequencing allowed the description of other phenotypes, including early-onset epileptic encephalopathy in two patients. We report on three more patients carrying ATP1A3 mutations with a close phenotype and discuss the relationship of this phenotype to alternating hemiplegia of childhood. METHODS: The patients' DNA underwent next generation sequencing. A retrospective analysis of clinical case records is reported. RESULTS: Each of the three patients had an unreported heterozygous de novo sequence variant in ATP1A3. These patients shared a similar phenotype characterized by early-onset attacks of movement disorders, some of which proved to be epileptic, and severe developmental delay. (Hemi)plegic attacks had not been considered before genetic testing. SIGNIFICANCE: Together with the two previously reported cases, our patients confirm that ATP1A3 mutations are associated with a phenotype combining features of early-onset encephalopathy, epilepsy and dystonic fits, as in the most severe forms of alternating hemiplegia of childhood, but in which (hemi)plegic attacks are absent or only suspected retrospectively.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/genética , Transtornos dos Movimentos/genética , Mutação , Convulsões/genética , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/genética , Adolescente , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Epilepsia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Hemiplegia/genética , Hemiplegia/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos dos Movimentos/diagnóstico , Transtornos dos Movimentos/fisiopatologia , Convulsões/diagnóstico , Convulsões/fisiopatologia
12.
Eur J Paediatr Neurol ; 22(3): 369-379, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29506905

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by pathogenic variants in GAMT. Brain creatine depletion and guanidinoacetate accumulation cause developmental delay, seizures and movement disorder. Treatment consists of creatine, ornithine and arginine-restricted diet. We initiated an international treatment registry using Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap) software to evaluate treatment outcome. METHODS: Physicians completed an online REDCap questionnaire. Clinical severity score applied pre-treatment and on treatment. RESULTS: There were 22 patients. All had developmental delay, 18 had seizures and 8 had movement disorder. Based on the clinical severity score, 5 patients had a severe, 14 patients had a moderate and 3 patients had a mild phenotype. All patients had pathogenic variants in GAMT. The phenotype ranged from mild to moderate in patients with the most common c.327G > A variant. The phenotype ranged from mild to severe in patients with truncating variants. All patients were on creatine, 18 patients were on ornithine and 15 patients were on arginine- or protein-restricted diet. Clinical severity score improved in 13 patients on treatment. Developmental delay improved in five patients. One patient achieved normal development. Eleven patients became seizure free. Movement disorder resolved in four patients. CONCLUSION: In our small patient cohort, there seems to be no phenotype-genotype correlation. Creatine and ornithine and/or arginine- or protein-restricted diet were the most useful treatment to improve phenotype.


Assuntos
Guanidinoacetato N-Metiltransferase/deficiência , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/dietoterapia , Transtornos dos Movimentos/congênito , Estudos de Coortes , Creatina/administração & dosagem , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/complicações , Masculino , Transtornos dos Movimentos/complicações , Transtornos dos Movimentos/dietoterapia , Ornitina/administração & dosagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Convulsões/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Child Neuropsychol ; 24(4): 558-574, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28393676

RESUMO

Learning disabilities are one of the most frequent complications of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) in children. Studies of the effects of the neurocognitive deficit on academic performance are relatively rare, owing to the small size of the populations concerned. However, research is needed to develop effective rehabilitation programs. In the present study, we explored the impact of a possible phonological deficit on the reading abilities of children with NF1. A multicenter, cross-sectional study was conducted in France on two groups of 75 children with or without NF1 aged 8-12 years, matched for age, sex, handedness, and reading level. All participants underwent a neuropsychological evaluation to assess their general cognitive level, reading skills, phonological processes, visuoperceptual abilities, and attentional capacity. Phonological skills were assessed by means of two phonological awareness tasks and one short-term memory task. In the group of children with NF1, 41% had reading difficulties. Phonological processes were impaired in this group, compared with the children without NF1. Similar differences were found for a phoneme deletion task after adjustment for reading difficulties, IQ level, and visuoperceptual abilities. Phonological awareness, but not phonological short-term memory, was impaired in children with NF1, and not just those whose reading was impaired. Results suggest that children with NF1 have a phonological awareness deficit, whatever their reading level. Identification of reduced phonological skills may warrant the implementation of a specific rehabilitation program before early reading difficulties emerge.

14.
Seizure ; 51: 163-170, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28873364

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Infantile spasms (IS) can occur as the only seizure type in children with surgically amenable epilepsies. Although early surgery has shown positive effects, little is known regarding outcomes. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all children with IS referred to our tertiary center between 2002 and 2014 and try to define factors of outcome. RESULTS: Sixty-eight children with focal onset seizures were referred: twenty children with a hemispheric implication and 48 with one or more lobes involved. The age of onset was significantly earlier in the hemispheric population (8.0 versus 16.7 months in the focal population). There was no difference in the age of onset between anterior and posterior onset zones, as we could expect regarding the maturation gradient. The epilepsy began earlier in life in tuberous sclerosis than in DNET. Only three children of the 48 non-hemispheric patients had a normal MRI at the time of the surgery. Temporal lobe was involved only in a third of the population. More than 86% of the patients were operated on. Patients with hemispheric lesions were operated on younger (2.6 years+/- 2.1 years) compared to 4.6+/- 3.5 years in the whole population. The most frequent etiologies were in descending order: dysplasia, ganglioglioma or dysembryoplastic tumours and tuberous sclerosis. The global seizure outcome was favorable (Engel 1a) in 74.6% of the patients, and 87.9% if the delay between the first seizure and the surgery was less than 36 months. It fell to 64.7% if the delay exceeded 50 months. CONCLUSION: Spasms of focal onset have a similar postsurgical outcome as other seizure types so surgery may be an excellent option for treating selected patients with focal infantile spasms. Volume and type but not topography of the lesion influence the age of onset. MRI is very helpful to locate the pathology in the pediatric population, since only a small portion had a normal MRI.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Espasmos Infantis/patologia , Espasmos Infantis/cirurgia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
J Med Genet ; 54(12): 843-851, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28954837

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phosphomannomutase 2-congenital disorder of glycosylation (PMM2-CDG) is a multisystem inborn error of metabolism. OBJECTIVES: To better characterise the natural history of PMM2-CDG. METHODS: Medical charts of 96 patients with PMM2-CDG (86 families, 41 males, 55 females) were retrospectively reviewed. Data on clinical, laboratory and molecular parameters at diagnosis were analysed. Follow-up data at last examination were reported for 25 patients. RESULTS: The patients were born between 1963 and 2011. Diagnosis of PMM2-CDG was made at a mean (SD) age of 6.8 (8.5) years. The presenting signs were mostly neurological (hypotonia, intellectual disability, cerebellar syndrome) and observed in almost all the patients. A total of 38 patients (14 males, 24 females) exhibited, in addition to neurological signs, visceral features including at least one of these: feeding difficulty requiring a nutritional support (n=23), cardiac features (n=20; pericarditis: 14, cardiac malformation: 9, cardiomyopathy: 2), hepato-gastrointestinal features (n=12; chronic diarrhoea: 7, protein-losing enteropathy: 1, ascites: 3, liver failure: 1, portal hypertension: 1), kidney features (n=4; nephrotic syndrome: 2, tubulopathy: 2) and hydrops fetalis (n=1). Twelve patients died at a mean age of 3.8 years (especially from pericarditis and other cardiac issues). Laboratory abnormalities mostly included elevated transaminases and abnormal coagulation parameters. High thyreostimulin levels, hypocholesterolemia, hypoalbuminemia and elevated transaminases were associated with the visceral phenotype. Besides the common Arg141His PMM2 variant harboured by half of the patients, 45 different variants were observed. CONCLUSIONS: PMM2-CDG clinical phenotype is heterogeneous in terms of clinical course, with no clear division between neurological and visceral presentations.


Assuntos
Defeitos Congênitos da Glicosilação/diagnóstico , Defeitos Congênitos da Glicosilação/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Fosfotransferases (Fosfomutases)/genética , Adolescente , Alelos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Defeitos Congênitos da Glicosilação/mortalidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mutação , Fenótipo , Fosfotransferases (Fosfomutases)/metabolismo
16.
Am J Med Genet A ; 170(12): 3069-3082, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27648933

RESUMO

Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS) is a developmental disorder characterized by a typical face and distal limbs abnormalities, intellectual disability, and a vast number of other features. Two genes are known to cause RSTS, CREBBP in 60% and EP300 in 8-10% of clinically diagnosed cases. Both paralogs act in chromatin remodeling and encode for transcriptional co-activators interacting with >400 proteins. Up to now 26 individuals with an EP300 mutation have been published. Here, we describe the phenotype and genotype of 42 unpublished RSTS patients carrying EP300 mutations and intragenic deletions and offer an update on another 10 patients. We compare the data to 308 individuals with CREBBP mutations. We demonstrate that EP300 mutations cause a phenotype that typically resembles the classical RSTS phenotype due to CREBBP mutations to a great extent, although most facial signs are less marked with the exception of a low-hanging columella. The limb anomalies are more similar to those in CREBBP mutated individuals except for angulation of thumbs and halluces which is very uncommon in EP300 mutated individuals. The intellectual disability is variable but typically less marked whereas the microcephaly is more common. All types of mutations occur but truncating mutations and small rearrangements are most common (86%). Missense mutations in the HAT domain are associated with a classical RSTS phenotype but otherwise no genotype-phenotype correlation is detected. Pre-eclampsia occurs in 12/52 mothers of EP300 mutated individuals versus in 2/59 mothers of CREBBP mutated individuals, making pregnancy with an EP300 mutated fetus the strongest known predictor for pre-eclampsia. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Proteína de Ligação a CREB/genética , Proteína p300 Associada a E1A/genética , Pré-Eclâmpsia/genética , Síndrome de Rubinstein-Taybi/genética , Adulto , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina/genética , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Pré-Eclâmpsia/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Síndrome de Rubinstein-Taybi/patologia , Deleção de Sequência
17.
Neurophysiol Clin ; 46(1): 3-15, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26899933

RESUMO

PURPOSE: SEEG in children has a low morbidity and leads to a good surgical outcome, in particular in younger patients. We analysed, in detail, the SEEG data of patients that were subsequently cured by surgery. METHODS: We selected the 48 children explored between 2009 and 2013 in our centre and surgically cured after SEEG-based resections with at least one-year follow-up. We retrospectively studied demographic and surgical data and paid particular attention to the data acquired during the invasive recording. Moreover, we compared the children younger than 5 years of age (group 1: 17 children) to those older than 5 years of age at the time of exploration (group 2: 31 patients). RESULTS: SEEG was well tolerated. Only one patient had slight intracerebral bleeding seen on the post-operative CT-scan without any clinical consequence and which did not prevent the recording. SEEG explored at least four lobes in 59% of patients, either because of a suspected very widespread epileptogenic zone or because of the lack of a precise hypothesis. Auras were recorded only in group 2 (32% of patients, P=0.0009). Despite these difficulties, SEEG led to tailored resections including multilobar resections in 14% and infralobar resections in 69% of patients. The electrical pattern of seizures had no particularities as compared with adults. Interictal spikes and slow waves outside the resection zone were significantly less frequent in group 1 (P=0.02). In symptomatic epilepsies, the lesion matched the irritative zone in only 11% of patients and the ictal onset zone in 32% respectively. CONCLUSION: Our study confirms the low morbidity of SEEG in children. SEEG can disclose a limited epileptogenic zone. Our data suggest that the epileptic network is less complex in younger patients, which has to be confirmed by a quantitative analysis of SEEG signals.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Epilepsia/cirurgia , Neuronavegação/métodos , Adolescente , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Epilepsia/patologia , Humanos , Lactente , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Hum Mutat ; 35(4): 462-9, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24415674

RESUMO

Guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency (GAMT-D) is an autosomal recessively inherited disorder of creatine biosynthesis. Creatine deficiency on cranial proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and elevated guanidinoacetate levels in body fluids are the biomarkers of GAMT-D. In 74 patients, 50 different mutations in the GAMT gene have been identified with missense variants being the most common. Clinical and biochemical features of the patients with missense variants were obtained from their physicians using a questionnaire. In 20 patients, 17 missense variants, 25% had a severe, 55% a moderate, and 20% a mild phenotype. The effect of these variants on GAMT enzyme activity was overexpressed using primary GAMT-D fibroblasts: 17 variants retained no significant activity and are therefore considered pathogenic. Two additional variants, c.22C>A (p.Pro8Thr) and c.79T>C (p.Tyr27His) (the latter detected in control cohorts) are in fact not pathogenic as these alleles restored GAMT enzyme activity, although both were predicted to be possibly damaging by in silico analysis. We report 13 new patients with GAMT-D, six novel mutations and functional analysis of 19 missense variants, all being included in our public LOVD database. Our functional assay is important for the confirmation of the pathogenicity of identified missense variants in the GAMT gene.


Assuntos
Guanidinoacetato N-Metiltransferase/deficiência , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/genética , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/patologia , Transtornos dos Movimentos/congênito , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Fibroblastos/enzimologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Guanidinoacetato N-Metiltransferase/genética , Guanidinoacetato N-Metiltransferase/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos dos Movimentos/genética , Transtornos dos Movimentos/patologia , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
19.
Hum Mutat ; 35(3): 356-67, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24375629

RESUMO

Mutations in the KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 genes encoding for Kv 7.2 (KCNQ2; Q2) and Kv 7.3 (KCNQ3; Q3) voltage-dependent K(+) channel subunits, respectively, cause neonatal epilepsies with wide phenotypic heterogeneity. In addition to benign familial neonatal epilepsy (BFNE), KCNQ2 mutations have been recently found in families with one or more family members with a severe outcome, including drug-resistant seizures with psychomotor retardation, electroencephalogram (EEG) suppression-burst pattern (Ohtahara syndrome), and distinct neuroradiological features, a condition that was named "KCNQ2 encephalopathy." In the present article, we describe clinical, genetic, and functional data from 17 patients/families whose electroclinical presentation was consistent with the diagnosis of BFNE. Sixteen different heterozygous mutations were found in KCNQ2, including 10 substitutions, three insertions/deletions and three large deletions. One substitution was found in KCNQ3. Most of these mutations were novel, except for four KCNQ2 substitutions that were shown to be recurrent. Electrophysiological studies in mammalian cells revealed that homomeric or heteromeric KCNQ2 and/or KCNQ3 channels carrying mutant subunits with newly found substitutions displayed reduced current densities. In addition, we describe, for the first time, that some mutations impair channel regulation by syntaxin-1A, highlighting a novel pathogenetic mechanism for KCNQ2-related epilepsies.


Assuntos
Epilepsia Neonatal Benigna/genética , Canal de Potássio KCNQ2/genética , Canal de Potássio KCNQ3/genética , Sintaxina 1/genética , Animais , Biotinilação , Células CHO , Estudos de Coortes , Cricetulus , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Masculino , Mutagênese Insercional , Linhagem , Alinhamento de Sequência
20.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 22(1): 71-8, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23632794

RESUMO

Copy number variants (CNVs) have repeatedly been found to cause or predispose to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). For diagnostic purposes, we screened 194 individuals with ASDs for CNVs using Illumina SNP arrays. In several probands, we also analyzed candidate genes located in inherited deletions to unmask autosomal recessive variants. Three CNVs, a de novo triplication of chromosome 15q11-q12 of paternal origin, a deletion on chromosome 9p24 and a de novo 3q29 deletion, were identified as the cause of the disorder in one individual each. An autosomal recessive cause was considered possible in two patients: a homozygous 1p31.1 deletion encompassing PTGER3 and a deletion of the entire DOCK10 gene associated with a rare hemizygous missense variant. We also identified multiple private or recurrent CNVs, the majority of which were inherited from asymptomatic parents. Although highly penetrant CNVs or variants inherited in an autosomal recessive manner were detected in rare cases, our results mainly support the hypothesis that most CNVs contribute to ASDs in association with other CNVs or point variants located elsewhere in the genome. Identification of these genetic interactions in individuals with ASDs constitutes a formidable challenge.


Assuntos
Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 15/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/etiologia , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/patologia , Pré-Escolar , Cromossomos Humanos Par 5/genética , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Síndrome do Miado do Gato/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos/métodos , Trissomia/genética
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