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1.
Int J Cancer ; 148(2): 340-351, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663320

RESUMO

Most breast cancer patients in sub-Saharan Africa are diagnosed at advanced stages after prolonged symptomatic periods. In the multicountry African Breast Cancer-Disparities in Outcomes cohort, we dissected the diagnostic journey to inform downstaging interventions. At hospital presentation for breast cancer, women recalled their diagnostic journey, including dates of first noticing symptoms and health-care provider (HCP) visits. Negative binomial regression models were used to identify correlates of the length of the diagnostic journey. Among 1429 women, the median (inter-quartile range) length (months) of the diagnostic journey ranged from 11.3 (5.7-21.2) in Ugandan, 8.2 (3.4-16.4) in Zambian, 6.5 (2.4-15.7) in Namibian-black to 5.6 (2.3-13.1) in Nigerian and 2.4 (0.6-5.5) in Namibian-non-black women. Time from first HCP contact to diagnosis represented, on average, 58% to 79% of the diagnostic journey in each setting except Nigeria where most women presented directly to the diagnostic hospital with advanced disease. The median number of HCPs visited was 1 to 4 per woman, but time intervals between visits were long. Women who attributed their initial symptoms to cancer had a 4.1 months (absolute) reduced diagnostic journey than those who did not, while less-educated (none/primary) women had a 3.6 months longer journey than more educated women. In most settings the long journey to breast cancer diagnosis was not primarily due to late first presentation but to prolonged delays after first presentation to diagnosis. Promotion of breast cancer awareness and implementation of accelerated referral pathways for women with suspicious symptoms are vital to downstaging the disease in the region.

2.
JAMA Oncol ; 7(2): 285-289, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355599

RESUMO

Importance: Low breast cancer survival in sub-Saharan Africa's young population increases the likelihood that breast cancer deaths result in maternal orphans, ie, children (<18 years) losing their mother. Objective: To estimate the number of maternal orphans and their ages for every 100 breast cancer deaths in sub-Saharan African settings during 2014-2019 and to describe family concerns about the orphaned children. Design, Setting, and Participants: Deaths occurring between September 1, 2014, and July 1, 2019, in the African Breast Cancer-Disparities in Outcomes (ABC-DO) were examined in a cohort of women diagnosed with breast cancer during 2014-2017 at major cancer treatment hospitals in Namibia, Nigeria, Uganda, and Zambia. The cohort was actively followed up for vital status via a trimonthly mobile phone call to each woman or her next of kin (typically a partner, husband, or child). Main Outcomes and Measures: The number (Poisson counts) and ages of new orphans at the time of maternal death. Results: This cohort study found that a total of 795 deaths resulted in 964 new maternal orphans, with deaths occurring in women younger than 50 years accounting for 85% of the orphans. For every 100 deaths in women younger than 50 years, there were 210 new orphans (95% CI, 196-225) overall, with country-specific estimates of 189 in Nigerian, 180 in Namibian, 222 in Ugandan, and 247 in Zambian Black women. For every 100 deaths of the women at any age, there were 121 maternal orphans, 17% of whom were younger than 5 years, 32% aged 5 to 9 years, and 51% aged 10 to 17 years at the time of maternal death. In follow-up interviews, families' concerns for children's education and childcare were reported to be exacerbated by the financial expenses associated with cancer treatment. Conclusions and Relevance: This study provides evidence that the number of maternal orphans due to breast cancer exceeds the number of breast cancer deaths among women in sub-Saharan Africa. The intergenerational consequences associated with cancer deaths in sub-Saharan Africa appear to be large and support the need for continued action to improve survival.

3.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33197280

RESUMO

We examined the geospatial dimension of delays to diagnosis of breast cancer in a prospective study of 1541 women newly diagnosed in the African Breast Cancer - Disparities in Outcomes (ABC-DO) Study. Women were recruited at cancer treatment facilities in Namibia, Nigeria, Uganda, and Zambia. The baseline interview included information used to generate the geospatial features: urban/rural residence, travel mode to treatment facility, and straight-line distances from home to first care provider and to diagnostic/treatment facility, categorized into country/ethnicity (population)-specific quartiles. These factors were investigated in relation to delay in diagnosis (≥3 months since first symptom) and late stage at diagnosis (TNM: III, IV) using logistic regression, adjusted for population group and sociodemographic characteristics. The median (interquartile range) distances to first provider and diagnostic and treatment facilities were 5 (1-37), 17 (3-105), and 62 (5-289) kms, respectively. The majority had a delay in diagnosis (74%) and diagnosis at late stage (64%). Distance to first provider was not associated with delay in diagnosis or late stage at diagnosis. Rural residence was associated with delay, but the association did not persist after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics. Distance to the diagnostic/treatment facility was associated with delay (highest vs lowest quartile: Odds Ratio (OR)=1.56, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.08-2.27) and late stage (overall: OR=1.47, CI=1.05-2.06; without Nigerian hospitals where mostly local residents were treated: OR=1.73, CI=1.18-2.54). These findings underscore the need of measures addressing the geospatial barriers to early diagnosis in sub-Saharan African settings, including providing transport or travel allowance and decentralizing diagnostic services.

4.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180326

RESUMO

The presence of preexisting morbidities poses a challenge to cancer patient care. There is little information on the profile and prevalence of multi-morbidities in breast cancer patients across middle income countries (MIC) to lower income countries (LIC) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The African Breast Cancer-Disparities in Outcomes (ABC-DO) breast cancer cohort spans upper MICs South Africa and Namibia, lower MICs Zambia and Nigeria and LIC Uganda. At cancer diagnosis, seven morbidities were assessed: obesity, hypertension, diabetes, asthma/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart disease, tuberculosis and HIV. Logistic regression models were used to assess determinants of morbidities and the influence of morbidities on advanced stage (stage III/IV) breast cancer diagnosis. Among 2189 women, morbidity prevalence was the highest for obesity (35%, country-specific range 15-57%), hypertension (32%, 15-51%) and HIV (16%, 2-26%) then for diabetes (7%, 4%-10%), asthma (4%, 2%-10%), tuberculosis (4%, 0%-8%) and heart disease (3%, 1%-7%). Obesity and hypertension were more common in upper MICs and in higher socioeconomic groups. Overall, 27% of women had at least two preexisting morbidities. Older women were more likely to have obesity (odds ratio: 1.09 per 10 years, 95% CI 1.01-1.18), hypertension (1.98, 1.81-2.17), diabetes (1.51, 1.32-1.74) and heart disease (1.69, 1.37-2.09) and were less likely to be HIV positive (0.64, 0.58-0.71). Multi-morbidity was not associated with stage at diagnosis, with the exception of earlier stage in obese and hypertensive women. Breast cancer patients in higher income countries and higher social groups in SSA face the additional burden of preexisting non-communicable diseases, particularly obesity and hypertension, exacerbated by HIV in Southern/Eastern Africa.

5.
Value Health ; 23(10): 1316-1323, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032775

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to use patient-level data to provide up-to-date estimates of early invasive breast cancer care costs by stage in England and to explore to what extent these costs varied based on patients' ages and geographic regions. METHODS: This study identified women aged 50 years and older who had been diagnosed with early invasive breast cancer between January 1, 2014, and December 31, 2015, using linked cancer registrations and routine hospital data sets generated from the usual care for all National Health Service trusts in England. Cost estimates were derived from hospital records in Hospital Episodes Statistics with additional chemotherapy and radiotherapy information from the national data sets. We fitted general linear regression models to analyze the cost data. The model that best fit the data was selected using the model selection criteria of Akaike information criterion. RESULTS: 55 662 women with early invasive breast cancer in England were included. The generalized linear model with log-gamma distribution fit the data best. The costs of breast cancer care for 1 year after diagnosis were strongly dependent on stage at diagnosis, controlling for other covariates. The estimated average per-patient hospital-related costs were £5167 at stage I, £7613 at stage II, and £13 330 at stage IIIA. Costs decreased with increasing age (P < .001) and varied across region (P < .001), deprivation level (P < .001), referral source (P < .01), presence of comorbidities (P< .001), and tumor receptor (ER/PR/HER2) status (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: In England, the costs of breast cancer care increased with advancing stage of the disease at diagnosis. Breast cancer costs varied by age and geographic region.

6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(5): 837-848, 2020 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022221

RESUMO

Previous research has shown that polygenic risk scores (PRSs) can be used to stratify women according to their risk of developing primary invasive breast cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the association between a recently validated PRS of 313 germline variants (PRS313) and contralateral breast cancer (CBC) risk. We included 56,068 women of European ancestry diagnosed with first invasive breast cancer from 1990 onward with follow-up from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Metachronous CBC risk (N = 1,027) according to the distribution of PRS313 was quantified using Cox regression analyses. We assessed PRS313 interaction with age at first diagnosis, family history, morphology, ER status, PR status, and HER2 status, and (neo)adjuvant therapy. In studies of Asian women, with limited follow-up, CBC risk associated with PRS313 was assessed using logistic regression for 340 women with CBC compared with 12,133 women with unilateral breast cancer. Higher PRS313 was associated with increased CBC risk: hazard ratio per standard deviation (SD) = 1.25 (95%CI = 1.18-1.33) for Europeans, and an OR per SD = 1.15 (95%CI = 1.02-1.29) for Asians. The absolute lifetime risks of CBC, accounting for death as competing risk, were 12.4% for European women at the 10th percentile and 20.5% at the 90th percentile of PRS313. We found no evidence of confounding by or interaction with individual characteristics, characteristics of the primary tumor, or treatment. The C-index for the PRS313 alone was 0.563 (95%CI = 0.547-0.586). In conclusion, PRS313 is an independent factor associated with CBC risk and can be incorporated into CBC risk prediction models to help improve stratification and optimize surveillance and treatment strategies.

7.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(9): e1203-e1212, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827482

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the second leading cause of death from cancer in women in sub-Saharan Africa, yet there are few well characterised large-scale survival studies with complete follow-up data. We aimed to provide robust survival estimates in women in this setting and apportion the survival gaps. METHODS: The African Breast Cancer-Disparities in Outcomes (ABC-DO) prospective cohort study was done at eight hospitals across five sub-Saharan African countries (Namibia, Nigeria, South Africa, Uganda, and Zambia). We prospectively recruited women (aged ≥18 years) who attended these hospitals with suspected breast cancer. Women were actively followed up by use of a telephone call once every 3 months, and a mobile health application was used to keep a dynamic record of follow-up calls due. We collected detailed sociodemographic, clinical, and treatment data. The primary outcome was 3-year overall survival, analysed by use of flexible proportional mortality models, and we predicted survival under scenarios of modified distributions of risk factors. FINDINGS: Between Sept 8, 2014, and Dec 31, 2017, 2313 women were recruited from these eight hospitals, of whom 85 did not have breast cancer. Of the remaining 2228 women with breast cancer, 58 women with previous treatment or recurrence, and 14 women from small racial groups (white and Asian women in South Africa), were excluded. Of the 2156 women analysed, 1840 (85%) were histologically confirmed, 129 (6%) were cytologically confirmed, and 187 (9%) were clinically confirmed to have breast cancer. 2156 (97%) women were followed up for up to 3 years or up to Jan 1, 2019, whichever was earlier. Up to this date, 879 (41%) of these women had died, 1118 (52%) were alive, and 159 (7%) were censored early. 3-year overall survival was 50% (95% CI 48-53), but we observed variations in 3-year survival between different races in Namibia (from 90% in white women to 56% in Black women) and in South Africa (from 76% in mixed-race women to 59% in Black women), and between different countries (44-47% in Uganda and Zambia vs 36% in Nigeria). 215 (10%) of all women had died within 6 months of diagnosis, but 3-year overall survival remained low in women who survived to this timepoint (58%). Among survival determinants, improvements in early diagnosis and treatment were predicted to contribute to the largest increases in survival, with a combined absolute increase in survival of up to 22% in Nigeria, Zambia, and Uganda, when compared with the contributions of other factors (such as HIV or aggressive subtypes). INTERPRETATION: Large variations in breast cancer survival in sub-Saharan African countries indicate that improvements are possible. At least a third of the projected 416 000 breast cancer deaths that will occur in this region in the next decade could be prevented through achievable downstaging and improvements in treatment. Improving survival in socially disadvantaged women warrants special attention. FUNDING: Susan G Komen and the International Agency for Research on Cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
8.
Br J Radiol ; 93(1112): 20200154, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525693

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the associations between automated volumetric estimates of mammographic asymmetry and breast cancers detected at the same ("contemporaneous") screen, at subsequent screens, or in between (interval cancers). METHODS: Automated measurements from mammographic images (N = 79,731) were used to estimate absolute asymmetry in breast volume (BV) and dense volume (DV) in a large ethnically diverse population of attendees of a UK breast screening programme. Logistic regression models were fitted to assess asymmetry associations with the odds of a breast cancer detected at contemporaneous screen (767 cases), adjusted for relevant confounders.Nested case-control investigations were designed to examine associations between asymmetry and the odds of: (a) interval cancer (numbers of cases/age-matched controls: 153/646) and (b) subsequent screen-detected cancer (345/1438), via conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: DV, but not BV, asymmetry was positively associated with the odds of contemporaneous breast cancer (P-for-linear-trend (Pt) = 0.018). This association was stronger for first (prevalent) screens (Pt = 0.012). Both DV and BV asymmetry were positively associated with the odds of an interval cancer diagnosis (Pt = 0.060 and 0.030, respectively). Neither BV nor DV asymmetry were associated with the odds of having a subsequent screen-detected cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Increased DV asymmetry was associated with the risk of a breast cancer diagnosis at a contemporaneous screen or as an interval cancer. BV asymmetry was positively associated with the risk of an interval cancer diagnosis. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: The findings suggest that DV and BV asymmetry may provide additional signals for detecting contemporaneous cancers and assessing the likelihood of interval cancers in population-based screening programmes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Mamografia , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador , Idoso , Mama/patologia , Densidade da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Mamografia/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Reino Unido
9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 9688, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546843

RESUMO

In breast cancer, high levels of homeobox protein Hox-B13 (HOXB13) have been associated with disease progression of ER-positive breast cancer patients and resistance to tamoxifen treatment. Since HOXB13 p.G84E is a prostate cancer risk allele, we evaluated the association between HOXB13 germline mutations and breast cancer risk in a previous study consisting of 3,270 familial non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer cases and 2,327 controls from the Netherlands. Although both recurrent HOXB13 mutations p.G84E and p.R217C were not associated with breast cancer risk, the risk estimation for p.R217C was not very precise. To provide more conclusive evidence regarding the role of HOXB13 in breast cancer susceptibility, we here evaluated the association between HOXB13 mutations and increased breast cancer risk within 81 studies of the international Breast Cancer Association Consortium containing 68,521 invasive breast cancer patients and 54,865 controls. Both HOXB13 p.G84E and p.R217C did not associate with the development of breast cancer in European women, neither in the overall analysis (OR = 1.035, 95% CI = 0.859-1.246, P = 0.718 and OR = 0.798, 95% CI = 0.482-1.322, P = 0.381 respectively), nor in specific high-risk subgroups or breast cancer subtypes. Thus, although involved in breast cancer progression, HOXB13 is not a material breast cancer susceptibility gene.

10.
JAMA Dermatol ; 2020 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579178

RESUMO

Importance: Associations between atopic eczema and cancer are unclear, with competing theories that increased immune surveillance decreases cancer risk and that immune stimulation increases cancer risk. Establishing baseline cancer risk in people with atopic eczema is important before exploring the association between new biologic drugs for atopic eczema and cancer risk. Objective: To investigate whether atopic eczema is associated with cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: Matched cohort studies were conducted from January 2, 1998, to March 31, 2016, in England and from January 1, 1982, to June 30, 2016, in Denmark. We conducted our analyses between July 2018 and July 2019. The setting was English primary care and nationwide Danish data. Participants with atopic eczema (adults only in England and any age in Denmark) were matched on age, sex, and calendar period (as well as primary care practice in England only) to those without atopic eczema. Exposure: Atopic eczema. Main Outcomes and Measures: Overall cancer risk and risk of specific cancers were compared in people with and without atopic eczema. Results: In England, matched cohorts included 471 970 individuals with atopic eczema (median [IQR] age, 41.1 [24.9-60.7] years; 276 510 [58.6%] female) and 2 239 775 individuals without atopic eczema (median [IQR] age, 39.8 [25.9-58.4] years; 1 301 074 [58.1%] female). In Denmark, matched cohorts included 44 945 individuals with atopic eczema (median [IQR] age, 13.7 [1.7-21.1] years; 22 826 [50.8%] female) and 445 673 individuals without atopic eczema (median [IQR] age, 13.5 [1.7-20.8] years; 226 323 [50.8%] female). Little evidence was found of associations between atopic eczema and overall cancer (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.04; 99% CI, 1.02-1.06 in England and 1.05; 99% CI, 0.95-1.16 in Denmark) or for most specific cancers. However, noncutaneous lymphoma risk was increased in people with atopic eczema in England (adjusted HR, 1.19; 99% CI, 1.07-1.34 for non-Hodgkin lymphoma [NHL] and 1.48; 99% CI, 1.07-2.04 for Hodgkin lymphoma). Lymphoma risk was increased in people with greater eczema severity vs those without atopic eczema (NHL adjusted HR, 1.06; 99% CI, 0.90-1.25 for mild eczema; 1.24; 99% CI, 1.04-1.48 for moderate eczema; and 2.08; 99% CI, 1.42-3.04 for severe eczema). Danish point estimates also showed increased lymphoma risk in people with moderate to severe eczema compared with those without atopic eczema (minimally adjusted HR, 1.31; 99% CI, 0.76-2.26 for NHL and 1.35; 99% CI, 0.65-2.82 for Hodgkin lymphoma), but the 99% CIs were wide. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings from 2 large population-based studies performed in different settings do not support associations between atopic eczema and most cancers. However, an association was observed between atopic eczema and lymphoma, particularly NHL, that increased with eczema severity. This finding warrants further study as new immunomodulatory systemic therapeutics are brought to market that may alter cancer risk.

12.
Am J Epidemiol ; 189(10): 1185-1196, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383449

RESUMO

Accurate survival estimates are needed for guiding cancer control efforts in sub-Saharan Africa, but previous studies have been hampered by unknown biases due to excessive loss to follow-up (LTFU). In the African Breast Cancer-Disparities in Outcomes Study, a prospective breast cancer cohort study, we implemented active mobile health follow-up, telephoning each woman or her next-of-kin (NOK) trimonthly on her mobile phone to update information on her vital status. Dates of every contact with women/NOK were analyzed from diagnosis in 2014-2017 to the earliest of September 1, 2018, death, or 3 years postdiagnosis. The cumulative incidence of being LTFU was calculated considering deaths as competing events. In all, 1,490 women were followed for a median of 24.2 (interquartile range (IQR), 14.2-34.5) months, corresponding to 8,529 successful contacts (77% of total contacts) with the women/NOK. Median time between successful contacts was 3.0 (IQR, 3.0-3.7) months. In all, 71 women (5.3%) were LTFU at 3 years: 0.8% in Nigeria, 2.2% in Namibia, and 5.6% in Uganda. Because of temporary discontinuity of active follow-up, 20.3% of women were LTFU after 2 years in Zambia. The median time to study notification of a death was 9.1 (IQR, 3.9-14.0) weeks. Although the present study was not a randomized controlled trial, in this cancer cohort with active mobile health follow-up, LTFU was much lower than in previous studies and enabled estimation of up-to-date and reliable cancer survival.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Sobreviventes de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Perda de Seguimento , Telemedicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
13.
EClinicalMedicine ; 20: 100312, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32215367

RESUMO

Background: We aimed to establish a Medical-Insurance-System-based Cancer Surveillance System (MIS-CASS) in China and evaluate the completeness and timeliness of this system through reporting cancer incidence rates using claims data in two regions in northern and southern China. Methods: We extracted claims data from medical insurance systems in Hua County of Henan Province, and Shantou City in Guangdong Province in China from Jan 1, 2012 to Jun 30, 2019. These two regions have been considered to be high risk regions for oesophageal cancer. We developed a rigorous procedure to establish the MIS-CASS, which includes data extraction, cleaning, processing, case ascertainment, privacy protection, etc. Text-based diagnosis in conjunction with ICD-10 codes were used to determine cancer diagnosis. Findings: In 2018, the overall age-standardised (Segi population) incidence rates (ASR World) of cancer in Hua County and Shantou City were 167·39/100,000 and 159·78/100,000 respectively. In both of these areas, lung cancer and breast cancer were the most common cancers in males and females respectively. Hua County is a high-risk region for oesophageal cancer (ASR World: 25·95/100,000), whereas Shantou City is not a high-risk region for oesophageal cancer (ASR World: 11·43/100,000). However, Nanao island had the highest incidence of oesophageal cancer among all districts and counties in Shantou (ASR World: 36·39/100,000). The age-standardised male-to-female ratio for oesophageal cancer was lower in Hua County than in Shantou (1·69 vs. 4·02). A six-month lag time was needed to report these cancer incidences for the MIS-CASS. Interpretation: MIS-CASS efficiently reflects cancer burden in real-time, and has the potential to provide insight for improvement of cancer surveillance in China. Funding: The National Key R&D Program of China (2016YFC0901404), the Digestive Medical Coordinated Development Center of Beijing Municipal Administration of Hospitals (XXZ0204), the Sanming Project of Shenzhen (SZSM201612061), and the Shantou Science and Technology Bureau (190829105556145, 180918114960704).

14.
AIDS ; 34(6): 931-941, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32073446

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the validity of self-reported HIV status, and investigate factors that influence accurate reporting of HIV-positive status, in a population tested and informed of their HIV test result. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: We compared self-reported HIV status with biomarker-confirmed HIV test status among participants of Karonga Health and Demographic Surveillance Site in rural northern Malawi. We linked information on HIV test results to subsequent self-reported HIV status, and calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for self-reported HIV status (considered as a diagnostic test). We used Poisson regression with robust variance estimators to examine predictors of accurate self-reporting of HIV-positive status. RESULTS: Among 17 445 adults who tested for HIV, were recorded as having received their HIV test results, and had a subsequent self-reported HIV status between 2007 and 2018: positive predictive value of self-reported HIV status was 98.0% (95% confidence interval: 97.3-98.7); negative predictive value was 98.3 (98.1-98.5); sensitivity was 86.1% (84.5-87.7); and specificity was 99.8% (99.7-99.9). Among true HIV-positive people, those who were younger, interviewed in community settings, and had tested for HIV longer ago were more likely to misreport their HIV-positive status. CONCLUSION: In this setting, self-report provides good estimates of test-detected HIV prevalence, suggesting that it can be used when HIV test results are not available. Despite frequent HIV testing, younger people and those interviewed in community settings were less likely to accurately report their HIV-positive status. More research on barriers to self-reporting of HIV status is needed in these subgroups.

15.
Br J Radiol ; 93(1105): 20190328, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661305

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Exposure to sex hormones is important in the pathogenesis of breast cancer and inability to tolerate such exposure may be reflected in increased asymmetrical growth of the breasts. This study aims to characterize, for the first time, asymmetry in breast volume (BV) and radiodense volume (DV) in a large ethnically diverse population. METHODS: Automated measurements from digital raw mammographic images of 54,591 cancer-free participants (aged 47-73) in a UK breast screening programme were used to calculate absolute (cm3) and relative asymmetry in BV and DV. Logistic regression models were fitted to assess asymmetry associations with age and ethnicity. RESULTS: BV and DV absolute asymmetry were positively correlated with the corresponding volumetric dimension (BV or DV). BV absolute asymmetry increased, whilst DV absolute asymmetry decreased, with increasing age (P-for-linear-trend <0.001 for both). Relative to Whites, Blacks had statistically significantly higher, and Chinese lower, BV and DV absolute asymmetries. However, after adjustment for the corresponding underlying volumetric dimension the age and ethnic differences were greatly attenuated. Median relative (fluctuating) BV and DV asymmetry were 2.34 and 3.28% respectively. CONCLUSION: After adjusting for the relevant volumetric dimension (BV or DV), age and ethnic differences in absolute breast asymmetry were largely resolved. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: Previous small studies have reported breast asymmetry-breast cancer associations. Automated measurements of asymmetry allow the conduct of large-scale studies to further investigate these associations.


Assuntos
Densidade da Mama/etnologia , Mama/anormalidades , Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Mamografia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
JAMA Oncol ; 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580391

RESUMO

Importance: Moving to multigene testing for all women with breast cancer (BC) could identify many more mutation carriers who can benefit from precision prevention. However, the cost-effectiveness of this approach remains unaddressed. Objective: To estimate incremental lifetime effects, costs, and cost-effectiveness of multigene testing of all patients with BC compared with the current practice of genetic testing (BRCA) based on family history (FH) or clinical criteria. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cost-effectiveness microsimulation modeling study compared lifetime costs and effects of high-risk BRCA1/BRCA2/PALB2 (multigene) testing of all unselected patients with BC (strategy A) with BRCA1/BRCA2 testing based on FH or clinical criteria (strategy B) in United Kingdom (UK) and US populations. Data were obtained from 11 836 patients in population-based BC cohorts (regardless of FH) recruited to 4 large research studies. Data were collected and analyzed from January 1, 2018, through June 8, 2019. The time horizon is lifetime. Payer and societal perspectives are presented. Probabilistic and 1-way sensitivity analyses evaluate model uncertainty. Interventions: In strategy A, all women with BC underwent BRCA1/BRCA2/PALB2 testing. In strategy B, only women with BC fulfilling FH or clinical criteria underwent BRCA testing. Affected BRCA/PALB2 carriers could undertake contralateral preventive mastectomy; BRCA carriers could choose risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO). Relatives of mutation carriers underwent cascade testing. Unaffected relative carriers could undergo magnetic resonance imaging or mammography screening, chemoprevention, or risk-reducing mastectomy for BC risk and RRSO for ovarian cancer (OC) risk. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was calculated as incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained and compared with standard £30 000/QALY and $100 000/QALY UK and US thresholds, respectively. Incidence of OC, BC, excess deaths due to heart disease, and the overall population effects were estimated. Results: BRCA1/BRCA2/PALB2 multigene testing for all patients detected with BC annually would cost £10 464/QALY (payer perspective) or £7216/QALY (societal perspective) in the United Kingdom or $65 661/QALY (payer perspective) or $61 618/QALY (societal perspective) in the United States compared with current BRCA testing based on clinical criteria or FH. This is well below UK and US cost-effectiveness thresholds. In probabilistic sensitivity analysis, unselected multigene testing remained cost-effective for 98% to 99% of UK and 64% to 68% of US health system simulations. One year's unselected multigene testing could prevent 2101 cases of BC and OC and 633 deaths in the United Kingdom and 9733 cases of BC and OC and 2406 deaths in the United States. Correspondingly, 8 excess deaths due to heart disease occurred in the United Kingdom and 35 in the United States annually. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found unselected, high-risk multigene testing for all patients with BC to be extremely cost-effective compared with testing based on FH or clinical criteria for UK and US health systems. These findings support changing current policy to expand genetic testing to all women with BC.

19.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22: e190045, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482984

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The study assessed interobserver reliability in the classification of record pairs formed during probabilistic linkage of health-related databases, a key step in the methodology validation to be used in a larger on-going study on inequalities in the access to breast and cervical cancer control activities in Brazil (DAAC-SIS). METHODOLOGY: The RecLink software was used to link two databases of the Breast Cancer Control Information System (SISMAMA) in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil: a reference database, which included 301 screening mammograms with probable benign diagnosis (BI-RADS 3 category) recorded in October 2010, and a database comprising 158,517 mammograms registered in 2011. Subsequently, the 215 pairs of records that were not assigned the maximum RecLink score were independently classified as being true or false by ten independent evaluators from four participating centers. RESULTS: The Kappa coefficient ranged from 0.87 to 1.00. Six evaluators were in perfect agreement with one or more evaluators from the other centers. The global Kappa was 0.96 (95% confidence interval - 95%CI 0.94 - 0.99). DISCUSSION: Assessment of interobserver reliability is key to ensuring the quality of the record linkage, and it should be routine practice in studies of this nature. The disclosure of such results contributes to transparency in the conduct of such studies and in the reporting of their findings. CONCLUSION: Interobserver reliability in this study was excellent, indicating satisfactory team consistency in the classification of record pairs.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Sistemas de Informação em Saúde , Registro Médico Coordenado , Brasil , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Mamografia , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Integração de Sistemas
20.
Lancet ; 394(10203): 1041-1054, 2019 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The past few decades have seen substantial improvements in cancer survival, but concerns exist about long-term cardiovascular disease risk in survivors. Evidence is scarce on the risks of specific cardiovascular diseases in survivors of a wide range of cancers to inform prevention and management. In this study, we used large-scale electronic health records data from multiple linked UK databases to address these evidence gaps. METHODS: For this population-based cohort study, we used linked primary care, hospital, and cancer registry data from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink to identify cohorts of survivors of the 20 most common cancers who were 18 years or older and alive 12 months after diagnosis and controls without history of cancer, matched for age, sex, and general practice. We compared risks for a range of cardiovascular disease outcomes using crude and adjusted Cox models. We fitted interactions to investigate effect modification, and flexible parametric survival models to estimate absolute excess risks over time. FINDINGS: Between Jan 1, 1990, and Dec 31, 2015, 126 120 individuals with a diagnosis of a cancer of interest still being followed up at least 1 year later were identified and matched to 630 144 controls. After exclusions, 108 215 cancer survivors and 523 541 controls were included in the main analyses. Venous thromboembolism risk was elevated in survivors of 18 of 20 site-specific cancers compared with that of controls; adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) ranged from 1·72 (95% CI 1·57-1·89) in patients after prostate cancer to 9·72 (5·50-17·18) after pancreatic cancer. HRs decreased over time, but remained elevated more than 5 years after diagnosis. We observed increased risks of heart failure or cardiomyopathy in patients after ten of 20 cancers, including haematological (adjusted HR 1·94, 1·66-2·25, with non-Hodgkin lymphoma; 1·77, 1·50-2·09, with leukaemia; and 3·29, 2·59-4·18, with multiple myeloma), oesophageal (1·96, 1·46-2·64), lung (1·82, 1·52-2·17) kidney (1·73, 1·38-2·17) and ovarian (1·59, 1·19-2·12). Elevated risks of arrhythmia, pericarditis, coronary artery disease, stroke, and valvular heart disease were also observed for multiple cancers, including haematological malignancies. HRs for heart failure or cardiomyopathy and venous thromboembolism were greater in patients without previous cardiovascular disease and in younger patients. However, absolute excess risks were generally greater with increasing age. Increased risks of these outcomes seemed most pronounced in patients who had received chemotherapy. INTERPRETATION: Survivors of most site-specific cancers had increased medium-term to long-term risk for one or more cardiovascular diseases compared with that for the general population, with substantial variations between cancer sites. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust and Royal Society.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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