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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6199, 2022 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35418701

RESUMO

Use of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) is associated with increased risk for breast cancer. However, the relevant mechanisms and its interaction with genetic variants are not fully understood. We conducted a genome-wide interaction analysis between MHT use and genetic variants for breast cancer risk in 27,585 cases and 34,785 controls from 26 observational studies. All women were post-menopausal and of European ancestry. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to test for multiplicative interactions between genetic variants and current MHT use. We considered interaction p-values < 5 × 10-8 as genome-wide significant, and p-values < 1 × 10-5 as suggestive. Linkage disequilibrium (LD)-based clumping was performed to identify independent candidate variants. None of the 9.7 million genetic variants tested for interactions with MHT use reached genome-wide significance. Only 213 variants, representing 18 independent loci, had p-values < 1 × 105. The strongest evidence was found for rs4674019 (p-value = 2.27 × 10-7), which showed genome-wide significant interaction (p-value = 3.8 × 10-8) with current MHT use when analysis was restricted to population-based studies only. Limiting the analyses to combined estrogen-progesterone MHT use only or to estrogen receptor (ER) positive cases did not identify any genome-wide significant evidence of interactions. In this large genome-wide SNP-MHT interaction study of breast cancer, we found no strong support for common genetic variants modifying the effect of MHT on breast cancer risk. These results suggest that common genetic variation has limited impact on the observed MHT-breast cancer risk association.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Terapia de Reposição de Estrogênios/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Menopausa , Fatores de Risco
2.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 125, 2022 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35436960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endometrial cancer is the most common gynaecological cancer in high-income countries. Elevated body mass index (BMI) is an established modifiable risk factor for this condition and is estimated to confer a larger effect on endometrial cancer risk than any other cancer site. However, the molecular mechanisms underpinning this association remain unclear. We used Mendelian randomization (MR) to evaluate the causal role of 14 molecular risk factors (hormonal, metabolic and inflammatory markers) in endometrial cancer risk. We then evaluated and quantified the potential mediating role of these molecular traits in the relationship between BMI and endometrial cancer using multivariable MR. METHODS: Genetic instruments to proxy 14 molecular risk factors and BMI were constructed by identifying single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) reliably associated (P < 5.0 × 10-8) with each respective risk factor in previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Summary statistics for the association of these SNPs with overall and subtype-specific endometrial cancer risk (12,906 cases and 108,979 controls) were obtained from a GWAS meta-analysis of the Endometrial Cancer Association Consortium (ECAC), Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium (E2C2) and UK Biobank. SNPs were combined into multi-allelic models and odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were generated using inverse-variance weighted random-effects models. The mediating roles of the molecular risk factors in the relationship between BMI and endometrial cancer were then estimated using multivariable MR. RESULTS: In MR analyses, there was strong evidence that BMI (OR per standard deviation (SD) increase 1.88, 95% CI 1.69 to 2.09, P = 3.87 × 10-31), total testosterone (OR per inverse-normal transformed nmol/L increase 1.64, 95% CI 1.43 to 1.88, P = 1.71 × 10-12), bioavailable testosterone (OR per natural log transformed nmol/L increase: 1.46, 95% CI 1.29 to 1.65, P = 3.48 × 10-9), fasting insulin (OR per natural log transformed pmol/L increase: 3.93, 95% CI 2.29 to 6.74, P = 7.18 × 10-7) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG, OR per inverse-normal transformed nmol/L increase 0.71, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.85, P = 2.07 × 10-4) had a causal effect on endometrial cancer risk. Additionally, there was suggestive evidence that total serum cholesterol (OR per mg/dL increase 0.90, 95% CI 0.81 to 1.00, P = 4.01 × 10-2) had an effect on endometrial cancer risk. In mediation analysis, we found evidence for a mediating role of fasting insulin (19% total effect mediated, 95% CI 5 to 34%, P = 9.17 × 10-3), bioavailable testosterone (15% mediated, 95% CI 10 to 20%, P = 1.43 × 10-8) and SHBG (7% mediated, 95% CI 1 to 12%, P = 1.81 × 10-2) in the relationship between BMI and endometrial cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: Our comprehensive MR analysis provides insight into potential causal mechanisms linking BMI with endometrial cancer risk and suggests targeting of insulinemic and hormonal traits as a potential strategy for the prevention of endometrial cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Endométrio , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias do Endométrio/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Insulina , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Testosterona
3.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 118, 2022 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35430795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammation has been hypothesized to play a role in the development and progression of breast cancer and might differently impact breast cancer risk among pre and postmenopausal women. We performed a nested case-control study to examine whether pre-diagnostic circulating concentrations of adiponectin, leptin, c-reactive protein (CRP), tumour necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ and 6 interleukins were associated with breast cancer risk, overall and by menopausal status. METHODS: Pre-diagnostic levels of inflammatory biomarkers were measured in plasma from 1558 case-control pairs from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) of breast cancer at blood collection, per one standard deviation increase in biomarker concentration. RESULTS: Cases were diagnosed at a mean age of 61.4 years on average 8.6 years after blood collection. No statistically significant association was observed between inflammatory markers and breast cancer risk overall. In premenopausal women, borderline significant inverse associations were observed for leptin, leptin-to-adiponectin ratio and CRP [OR= 0.89 (0.77-1.03), OR= 0.88 (0.76-1.01) and OR= 0.87 (0.75-1.01), respectively] while positive associations were observed among postmenopausal women [OR= 1.16 (1.05-1.29), OR= 1.11 (1.01-1.23), OR= 1.10 (0.99-1.22), respectively]. Adjustment for BMI strengthened the estimates in premenopausal women [leptin: OR = 0.83 (0.68-1.00), leptin-to-adiponectin ratio: OR = 0.80 (0.66-0.97), CRP: OR = 0.85 (0.72-1.00)] but attenuated the estimates in postmenopausal women [leptin: OR = 1.09 (0.96-1.24), leptin-to-adiponectin ratio: OR = 1.02 (0.89-1.16), CRP: OR = 1.04 (0.92-1.16)]. CONCLUSIONS: Associations between CRP, leptin and leptin-to-adiponectin ratio with breast cancer risk may represent the dual effect of obesity by menopausal status although this deserves further investigation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Leptina , Adipocinas , Adiponectina , Biomarcadores , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35437568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a risk factor for endometrial cancer but whether metabolic dysfunction is associated with endometrial cancer independent of body size is not known. METHODS: The association of metabolically-defined body size phenotypes with endometrial cancer risk was investigated in a nested case-control study (817 cases/ 817 controls) within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Concentrations of C-peptide were used to define metabolically healthy (MH; <1st tertile) and metabolically unhealthy (MU; >=1st tertile) status among the control participants. These metabolic health definitions were combined with normal weight (NW; Body Mass Index (BMI)<25kg/m2 or Waist Circumference (WC)<80cm or Waist-to-Hip Ratio (WHR)<0.8) and overweight (OW; BMI>=25kg/m2 or WC>=80cm or WHR>=0.8) status, generating four phenotype groups for each anthropometric measure: (1)MH/NW, (2)MH/OW (3)MU/NW and (4)MU/OW. RESULTS: In a multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression model, compared with MH/NW individuals, endometrial cancer risk was higher among those classified as MU/NW (OR/WC=1.48; 95%CI 1.05-2.10 and OR/WHR=1.68; 95%CI 1.21-2.35) and MU/OW (OR/BMI=2.38, 95%CI 1.73-3.27; OR/WC=2.69, 95%CI 1.92-3.77 and OR/WHR=1.83, 95%CI 1.32-2.54). MH/OW individuals were also at increased endometrial cancer risk compared to MH/NW individuals (OR/WC=1.94, 95%CI 1.24-3.04). CONCLUSIONS: Women with metabolic dysfunction appear to have higher risk of endometrial cancer regardless of their body size. However, overweight status raises endometrial cancer risk even among women with lower insulin levels, suggesting that obesity-related pathways are relevant for the development of this cancer beyond insulin. IMPACT: Classifying women by metabolic health may be of greater utility in identifying those at higher risk for endometrial cancer than anthropometry per se.

5.
Int J Epidemiol ; 50(6): 1914-1926, 2022 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34999853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of obesity and weight change in breast-cancer development is complex and incompletely understood. We investigated long-term weight change and breast-cancer risk by body mass index (BMI) at age 20 years, menopausal status, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and hormone-receptor status. METHODS: Using data on weight collected at three different time points from women who participated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, we investigated the association between weight change from age 20 years until middle adulthood and risk of breast cancer. RESULTS: In total, 150 257 women with a median age of 51 years at cohort entry were followed for an average of 14 years (standard deviation = 3.9) during which 6532 breast-cancer cases occurred. Compared with women with stable weight (±2.5 kg), long-term weight gain >10 kg was positively associated with postmenopausal breast-cancer risk in women who were lean at age 20 [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.42; 95% confidence interval 1.22-1.65] in ever HRT users (HR = 1.23; 1.04-1.44), in never HRT users (HR = 1.40; 1.16-1.68) and in oestrogen-and-progesterone-receptor-positive (ER+PR+) breast cancer (HR = 1.46; 1.15-1.85). CONCLUSION: Long-term weight gain was positively associated with postmenopausal breast cancer in women who were lean at age 20, both in HRT ever users and non-users, and hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Ganho de Peso , Adulto Jovem
6.
Br J Cancer ; 126(9): 1301-1309, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35031764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CA125 is the best available yet insufficiently sensitive biomarker for early detection of ovarian cancer. There is a need to identify novel biomarkers, which individually or in combination with CA125 can achieve adequate sensitivity and specificity for the detection of earlier-stage ovarian cancer. METHODS: In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, we measured serum levels of 92 preselected proteins for 91 women who had blood sampled ≤18 months prior to ovarian cancer diagnosis, and 182 matched controls. We evaluated the discriminatory performance of the proteins as potential early diagnostic biomarkers of ovarian cancer. RESULTS: Nine of the 92 markers; CA125, HE4, FOLR1, KLK11, WISP1, MDK, CXCL13, MSLN and ADAM8 showed an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of ≥0.70 for discriminating between women diagnosed with ovarian cancer and women who remained cancer-free. All, except ADAM8, had shown at least equal discrimination in previous case-control comparisons. The discrimination of the biomarkers, however, was low for the lag-time of >9-18 months and paired combinations of CA125 with any of the 8 markers did not improve discrimination compared to CA125 alone. CONCLUSION: Using pre-diagnostic serum samples, this study identified markers with good discrimination for the lag-time of 0-9 months. However, the discrimination was low in blood samples collected more than 9 months prior to diagnosis, and none of the markers showed major improvement in discrimination when added to CA125.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Proteínas ADAM/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Proteínas Sanguíneas , Antígeno Ca-125 , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Receptor 1 de Folato , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Curva ROC
7.
J Epidemiol Glob Health ; 12(1): 113-123, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34994966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) cause more than 70% of deaths worldwide and share modifiable risk factors including obesity and metabolic abnormalities. Over the past 15 years, many changes in lifestyle, dietary patterns, physical activity, and socioeconomic status have been observed in the Afghan population. This study aims to investigate which specific lifestyle factors, dietary patterns, and characteristics of Westernization are associated with an increased risk of being overweight or obese and with poor metabolic health in the Afghan population. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted where a total of 729 male and female participants were recruited. Face-to-face interviews and anthropometric measurements were conducted by trained health staff using standardized questionnaires which included information on socio-demographic and housing characteristics, income, occupation, ethnicity, personal and family medical history, stress, anthropometry, diet, and physical activity. Bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) was used to estimate body composition, including overall body fatness. Physical activity was measured using the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). For a comprehensive assessment of dietary intake, a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) specific to the Afghan population was developed which included all local food items relevant to the population. Lipid profile and fasting glucose were measured in a local laboratory. Biospecimens were collected using dried blood spots (DBS) and dried stool cards to perform microbiome and biomarker-based research. DISCUSSION: This is the first study which will assess dietary patterns, lifestyle factors, and their association with obesity and metabolic health in Afghanistan. Such a study will aid the development of dietary and lifestyle guidelines in Afghanistan which will promote better health and educate people to make healthy food choices. The findings will also help in designing and implementing effective public health strategies to promote a healthy lifestyle and prevent the epidemic of overweight and obesity, and, hence, reduce the burden of non-communicable diseases in the region.


Assuntos
Doenças não Transmissíveis , Sobrepeso , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia
8.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 65, 2022 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35042965

RESUMO

Germline copy number variants (CNVs) are pervasive in the human genome but potential disease associations with rare CNVs have not been comprehensively assessed in large datasets. We analysed rare CNVs in genes and non-coding regions for 86,788 breast cancer cases and 76,122 controls of European ancestry with genome-wide array data. Gene burden tests detected the strongest association for deletions in BRCA1 (P = 3.7E-18). Nine other genes were associated with a p-value < 0.01 including known susceptibility genes CHEK2 (P = 0.0008), ATM (P = 0.002) and BRCA2 (P = 0.008). Outside the known genes we detected associations with p-values < 0.001 for either overall or subtype-specific breast cancer at nine deletion regions and four duplication regions. Three of the deletion regions were in established common susceptibility loci. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first genome-wide analysis of rare CNVs in a large breast cancer case-control dataset. We detected associations with exonic deletions in established breast cancer susceptibility genes. We also detected suggestive associations with non-coding CNVs in known and novel loci with large effects sizes. Larger sample sizes will be required to reach robust levels of statistical significance.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Células Germinativas , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
9.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 3, 2022 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35012533

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological and experimental evidence has linked chronic inflammation to cancer aetiology. It is unclear whether associations for specific inflammatory biomarkers are causal or due to bias. In order to examine whether altered genetically predicted concentration of circulating cytokines are associated with cancer development, we performed a two-sample Mendelian randomisation (MR) analysis. METHODS: Up to 31,112 individuals of European descent were included in genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analyses of 47 circulating cytokines. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) robustly associated with the cytokines, located in or close to their coding gene (cis), were used as instrumental variables. Inverse-variance weighted MR was used as the primary analysis, and the MR assumptions were evaluated in sensitivity and colocalization analyses and a false discovery rate (FDR) correction for multiple comparisons was applied. Corresponding germline GWAS summary data for five cancer outcomes (breast, endometrial, lung, ovarian, and prostate), and their subtypes were selected from the largest cancer-specific GWASs available (cases ranging from 12,906 for endometrial to 133,384 for breast cancer). RESULTS: There was evidence of inverse associations of macrophage migration inhibitory factor with breast cancer (OR per SD = 0.88, 95% CI 0.83 to 0.94), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist with endometrial cancer (0.86, 0.80 to 0.93), interleukin-18 with lung cancer (0.87, 0.81 to 0.93), and beta-chemokine-RANTES with ovarian cancer (0.70, 0.57 to 0.85) and positive associations of monokine induced by gamma interferon with endometrial cancer (3.73, 1.86 to 7.47) and cutaneous T-cell attracting chemokine with lung cancer (1.51, 1.22 to 1.87). These associations were similar in sensitivity analyses and supported in colocalization analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Our study adds to current knowledge on the role of specific inflammatory biomarker pathways in cancer aetiology. Further validation is needed to assess the potential of these cytokines as pharmacological or lifestyle targets for cancer prevention.


Assuntos
Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Citocinas/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
10.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 312, 2021 12 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34886862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolomics is a promising molecular tool for identifying novel etiological pathways leading to cancer. In an earlier prospective study among pre- and postmenopausal women not using exogenous hormones, we observed a higher risk of breast cancer associated with higher blood concentrations of one metabolite (acetylcarnitine) and a lower risk associated with higher blood concentrations of seven others (arginine, asparagine, phosphatidylcholines (PCs) aa C36:3, ae C34:2, ae C36:2, ae C36:3, and ae C38:2). METHODS: To identify determinants of these breast cancer-related metabolites, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis to identify their lifestyle and anthropometric correlates in 2358 women, who were previously included as controls in case-control studies nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort and not using exogenous hormones at blood collection. Associations of each metabolite concentration with 42 variables were assessed using linear regression models in a discovery set of 1572 participants. Significant associations were evaluated in a validation set (n = 786). RESULTS: For the metabolites previously associated with a lower risk of breast cancer, concentrations of PCs ae C34:2, C36:2, C36:3, and C38:2 were negatively associated with adiposity and positively associated with total and saturated fat intakes. PC ae C36:2 was also negatively associated with alcohol consumption and positively associated with two scores reflecting adherence to a healthy lifestyle. Asparagine concentration was negatively associated with adiposity. Arginine and PC aa C36:3 concentrations were not associated to any of the factors examined. For the metabolite previously associated with a higher risk of breast cancer, acetylcarnitine, a positive association with age was observed. CONCLUSIONS: These associations may indicate possible mechanisms underlying associations between lifestyle and anthropometric factors, and risk of breast cancer. Further research is needed to identify potential non-lifestyle correlates of the metabolites investigated.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
11.
Metabolites ; 11(9)2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34564446

RESUMO

Pooling metabolomics data across studies is often desirable to increase the statistical power of the analysis. However, this can raise methodological challenges as several preanalytical and analytical factors could introduce differences in measured concentrations and variability between datasets. Specifically, different studies may use variable sample types (e.g., serum versus plasma) collected, treated, and stored according to different protocols, and assayed in different laboratories using different instruments. To address these issues, a new pipeline was developed to normalize and pool metabolomics data through a set of sequential steps: (i) exclusions of the least informative observations and metabolites and removal of outliers; imputation of missing data; (ii) identification of the main sources of variability through principal component partial R-square (PC-PR2) analysis; (iii) application of linear mixed models to remove unwanted variability, including samples' originating study and batch, and preserve biological variations while accounting for potential differences in the residual variances across studies. This pipeline was applied to targeted metabolomics data acquired using Biocrates AbsoluteIDQ kits in eight case-control studies nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Comprehensive examination of metabolomics measurements indicated that the pipeline improved the comparability of data across the studies. Our pipeline can be adapted to normalize other molecular data, including biomarkers as well as proteomics data, and could be used for pooling molecular datasets, for example in international consortia, to limit biases introduced by inter-study variability. This versatility of the pipeline makes our work of potential interest to molecular epidemiologists.

12.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(12): 2179-2187, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34548327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence is accumulating that immune cells play a prominent role in pancreatic cancer etiology but prospective investigations are missing. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study with 502 pairs of incident pancreatic cancer cases and matched controls. Relative counts of circulating immune cells (neutrophils and lymphocyte sublineages: total CD3+, CD8+, CD4+, and FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) relative to nucleated cells, (white blood cells) were measured by qRT-PCR. ORs with 95% confidence intervals were estimated using logistic regressions, modeling relative counts of immune cells on a continuous scale. RESULTS: Neither relative counts of immune cell types taken individually, nor mutually adjusted for each other were associated with pancreatic cancer risks. However, in subgroup analyses by strata of lag-time, higher relative counts of Tregs and lower relative counts of CD8+ were significantly associated with an increased pancreatic cancer risks in participants diagnosed within the first 5 years of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: These results might reflect reverse causation, due to higher relative counts of Tregs and lower counts of CD8+ cells among individuals with more advanced stages of latent pancreatic cancer, who are closer to the point of developing clinical manifest disease. IMPACT: We have shown, for the first time, that increased relative counts of regulatory T cells and lower relative counts of CD8+, cytotoxic T cells may be associated with pancreatic cancer risk or relatively late-stage tumor development.See related commentary by Michaud and Kelsey, p. 2176.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética/imunologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Causalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo
13.
Breast Cancer Res ; 23(1): 86, 2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407845

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given the high heterogeneity among breast tumors, associations between common germline genetic variants and survival that may exist within specific subgroups could go undetected in an unstratified set of breast cancer patients. METHODS: We performed genome-wide association analyses within 15 subgroups of breast cancer patients based on prognostic factors, including hormone receptors, tumor grade, age, and type of systemic treatment. Analyses were based on 91,686 female patients of European ancestry from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium, including 7531 breast cancer-specific deaths over a median follow-up of 8.1 years. Cox regression was used to assess associations of common germline variants with 15-year and 5-year breast cancer-specific survival. We assessed the probability of these associations being true positives via the Bayesian false discovery probability (BFDP < 0.15). RESULTS: Evidence of associations with breast cancer-specific survival was observed in three patient subgroups, with variant rs5934618 in patients with grade 3 tumors (15-year-hazard ratio (HR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] 1.32 [1.20, 1.45], P = 1.4E-08, BFDP = 0.01, per G allele); variant rs4679741 in patients with ER-positive tumors treated with endocrine therapy (15-year-HR [95% CI] 1.18 [1.11, 1.26], P = 1.6E-07, BFDP = 0.09, per G allele); variants rs1106333 (15-year-HR [95% CI] 1.68 [1.39,2.03], P = 5.6E-08, BFDP = 0.12, per A allele) and rs78754389 (5-year-HR [95% CI] 1.79 [1.46,2.20], P = 1.7E-08, BFDP = 0.07, per A allele), in patients with ER-negative tumors treated with chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence of four loci associated with breast cancer-specific survival within three patient subgroups. There was limited evidence for the existence of associations in other patient subgroups. However, the power for many subgroups is limited due to the low number of events. Even so, our results suggest that the impact of common germline genetic variants on breast cancer-specific survival might be limited.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida
14.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 186, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glucocorticoids could theoretically decrease breast cancer risk through their anti-inflammatory effects or increase risk through immunosuppression. However, epidemiological evidence is limited regarding the associations between glucocorticoid use and breast cancer risk. METHODS: We investigated the association between systemic glucocorticoid use and breast cancer incidence in the E3N cohort, which includes 98,995 women with information on various characteristics collected from repeated questionnaires complemented with drug reimbursement data available from 2004. Women with at least two reimbursements of systemic glucocorticoids in any previous 3-month period since January 1, 2004, were defined as exposed. We considered exposure as a time-varying parameter, and we used multivariable Cox regression models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of breast cancer. We performed a competing risk analysis using a cause-specific hazard approach to study the heterogeneity by tumour subtype/stage/grade. RESULTS: Among 62,512 postmenopausal women (median age at inclusion of 63 years old), 2864 developed breast cancer during a median follow-up of 9 years (between years 2004 and 2014). Compared with non-exposure, glucocorticoid exposure was not associated with overall breast cancer risk [HR = 0.94 (0.85-1.05)]; however, it was associated with a higher risk of in situ breast cancer and a lower risk of invasive breast cancer [HRinsitu = 1.34 (1.01-1.78); HRinvasive = 0.86 (0.76-0.97); Phomogeneity = 0.01]. Regarding the risk of invasive breast cancer, glucocorticoid exposure was inversely associated with oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer [HRER+ = 0.82 (0.72-0.94); HRER- = 1.21 (0.88-1.66); Phomogeneity = 0.03]; it was also inversely associated with the risk of stage 1 or stage 2 tumours but positively associated with the risk of stage 3/4 breast cancers [HRstage1 = 0.87 (0.75-1.01); HRstage2 = 0.67 (0.52-0.86); HRstage3/4 = 1.49 (1.02-2.20); Phomogeneity = 0.01]. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the association between systemic glucocorticoid use and breast cancer risk may differ by tumour subtype and stage.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Glucocorticoides , Neoplasias da Mama/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pós-Menopausa , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
15.
Breast Cancer Res ; 23(1): 75, 2021 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301304

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While mammographic density is one of the strongest risk factors for breast cancer, little is known about its determinants, especially in young women. We applied targeted metabolomics to identify circulating metabolites specifically associated with mammographic density in premenopausal women. Then, we aimed to identify potential correlates of these biomarkers to guide future research on potential modifiable determinants of mammographic density. METHODS: A total of 132 metabolites (acylcarnitines, amino acids, biogenic amines, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, hexose) were measured by tandem liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry in plasma samples from 573 premenopausal participants in the Mexican Teachers' Cohort. Associations between metabolites and percent mammographic density were assessed using linear regression models, adjusting for breast cancer risk factors and accounting for multiple tests. Mean concentrations of metabolites associated with percent mammographic density were estimated across levels of several lifestyle and metabolic factors. RESULTS: Sphingomyelin (SM) C16:1 and phosphatidylcholine (PC) ae C30:2 were inversely associated with percent mammographic density after correction for multiple tests. Linear trends with percent mammographic density were observed for SM C16:1 only in women with body mass index (BMI) below the median (27.4) and for PC ae C30:2 in women with a BMI over the median. SM C16:1 and PC ae C30:2 concentrations were positively associated with cholesterol (total and HDL) and inversely associated with number of metabolic syndrome components. CONCLUSIONS: We identified new biomarkers associated with mammographic density in young women. The association of these biomarkers with mammographic density and metabolic parameters may provide new perspectives to support future preventive actions for breast cancer.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Densidade da Mama/fisiologia , Pré-Menopausa , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Mamografia , Metabolômica , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfatidilcolinas/sangue , Fatores de Risco , Esfingomielinas/sangue
16.
Gynecol Oncol ; 162(2): 475-481, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endometrial cancer is strongly associated with obesity and dysregulation of metabolic factors such as estrogen and insulin signaling are causal risk factors for this malignancy. To identify additional novel metabolic pathways associated with endometrial cancer we performed metabolomic analyses on pre-diagnostic plasma samples from 853 case-control pairs from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). METHODS: A total of 129 metabolites (acylcarnitines, amino acids, biogenic amines, glycerophospholipids, hexoses, and sphingolipids) were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Conditional logistic regression estimated the associations of metabolites with endometrial cancer risk. An analysis focusing on clusters of metabolites using the bootstrap lasso method was also employed. RESULTS: After adjustment for body mass index, sphingomyelin [SM] C18:0 was positively (OR1SD: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.05-1.33), and glycine, serine, and free carnitine (C0) were inversely (OR1SD: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.80-0.99; OR1SD: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.79-1.00 and OR1SD: 0.91, 95% CI: 0.81-1.00, respectively) associated with endometrial cancer risk. Serine, C0 and two sphingomyelins were selected by the lasso method in >90% of the bootstrap samples. The ratio of esterified to free carnitine (OR1SD: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.02-1.28) and that of short chain to free acylcarnitines (OR1SD: 1.12, 95% CI: 1.00-1.25) were positively associated with endometrial cancer risk. Further adjustment for C-peptide or other endometrial cancer risk factors only minimally altered the results. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that variation in levels of glycine, serine, SM C18:0 and free carnitine may represent specific pathways linked to endometrial cancer development. If causal, these pathways may offer novel targets for endometrial cancer prevention.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Neoplasias do Endométrio/diagnóstico , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Carnitina/sangue , Carnitina/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias do Endométrio/sangue , Neoplasias do Endométrio/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/metabolismo , Feminino , Glicina/sangue , Glicina/metabolismo , Humanos , Metabolômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Serina/sangue , Serina/metabolismo , Esfingomielinas/sangue , Esfingomielinas/metabolismo
17.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 36(9): 953-964, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34148186

RESUMO

The role of chronic inflammation on breast cancer (BC) risk remains unclear beyond as an underlying mechanism of obesity and physical activity. We aimed to evaluate the association between the inflammatory potential of the diet and risk of BC overall, according to menopausal status and tumour subtypes. Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, 318,686 women were followed for 14 years, among whom 13,246 incident BC cases were identified. The inflammatory potential of the diet was characterized by an inflammatory score of the diet (ISD). Multivariable Cox regression models were used to assess the potential effect of the ISD on BC risk by means of hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). ISD was positively associated with BC risk. Each increase of one standard deviation (1-Sd) of the score increased by 4% the risk of BC (HR = 1.04; 95% CI 1.01-1.07). Women in the highest quintile of the ISD (indicating a most pro-inflammatory diet) had a 12% increase in risk compared with those in the lowest quintile (HR = 1.12; 95% CI 1.04-1.21) with a significant trend. The association was strongest among premenopausal women, with an 8% increased risk for 1-Sd increase in the score (HR = 1.08; 95% CI 1.01-1.14). The pattern of the association was quite homogeneous by BC subtypes based on hormone receptor status. There were no significant interactions between ISD and body mass index, physical activity, or alcohol consumption. Women consuming more pro-inflammatory diets as measured by ISD are at increased risk for BC, especially premenopausal women.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Inflamação/etiologia , Estilo de Vida , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
18.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(7): 1190-1203, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146516

RESUMO

A combination of genetic and functional approaches has identified three independent breast cancer risk loci at 2q35. A recent fine-scale mapping analysis to refine these associations resulted in 1 (signal 1), 5 (signal 2), and 42 (signal 3) credible causal variants at these loci. We used publicly available in silico DNase I and ChIP-seq data with in vitro reporter gene and CRISPR assays to annotate signals 2 and 3. We identified putative regulatory elements that enhanced cell-type-specific transcription from the IGFBP5 promoter at both signals (30- to 40-fold increased expression by the putative regulatory element at signal 2, 2- to 3-fold by the putative regulatory element at signal 3). We further identified one of the five credible causal variants at signal 2, a 1.4 kb deletion (esv3594306), as the likely causal variant; the deletion allele of this variant was associated with an average additional increase in IGFBP5 expression of 1.3-fold (MCF-7) and 2.2-fold (T-47D). We propose a model in which the deletion allele of esv3594306 juxtaposes two transcription factor binding regions (annotated by estrogen receptor alpha ChIP-seq peaks) to generate a single extended regulatory element. This regulatory element increases cell-type-specific expression of the tumor suppressor gene IGFBP5 and, thereby, reduces risk of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer (odds ratio = 0.77, 95% CI 0.74-0.81, p = 3.1 × 10-31).


Assuntos
Proteína 5 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/genética , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Linhagem Celular , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos Humanos Par 2 , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Variação Genética , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Deleção de Sequência
19.
Bull Cancer ; 108(5): 455-464, 2021 May.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33836862

RESUMO

Nutritional factors (diet, weight, alcohol, physical activity) are identified as factors having an impact on the onset of several cancer sites. Less abundant scientific data also underline their impact on the tumor progression. A review of the scientific literature was carried out by a group of experts established by the French National Cancer Institute (INCa) to better document the influence of nutritional factors during and after cancer on outcomes such as overall mortality, cancer specific mortality, recurrence, second primary cancers and quality of life. This analysis of the literature completes messages of reduction of alcohol consumption, prevention of undernutrition or excess weight and adherence to dietary recommendations, avoiding the use of dietary supplements, fasting or restrictive diets and strengthens messages promoting the practice of physical activity and the fight against sedentary lifestyle.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Estado Nutricional , Agaricales , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais , Progressão da Doença , Exercício Físico , Jejum , França , Humanos , Desnutrição/complicações , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/etiologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/etiologia , Política Nutricional , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/prevenção & controle , Qualidade de Vida , Comportamento Sedentário
20.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 101, 2021 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33926456

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mechanisms underlying the obesity-cancer relationship are incompletely understood. This study aimed to characterise metabolic signatures of greater body size and to investigate their association with two obesity-related malignancies, endometrial and colorectal cancers, and with weight loss within the context of an intervention study. METHODS: Targeted mass spectrometry metabolomics data from 4326 participants enrolled in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort and 17 individuals from a single-arm pilot weight loss intervention (Intercept) were used in this analysis. Metabolic signatures of body size were first determined in discovery (N = 3029) and replication (N = 1297) sets among EPIC participants by testing the associations between 129 metabolites and body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) using linear regression models followed by partial least squares analyses. Conditional logistic regression models assessed the associations between the metabolic signatures with endometrial (N = 635 cases and 648 controls) and colorectal (N = 423 cases and 423 controls) cancer risk using nested case-control studies in EPIC. Pearson correlation between changes in the metabolic signatures and weight loss was tested among Intercept participants. RESULTS: After adjustment for multiple comparisons, greater BMI, WC, and WHR were associated with higher levels of valine, isoleucine, glutamate, PC aa C38:3, and PC aa C38:4 and with lower levels of asparagine, glutamine, glycine, serine, lysoPC C17:0, lysoPC C18:1, lysoPC C18:2, PC aa C42:0, PC ae C34:3, PC ae C40:5, and PC ae C42:5. The metabolic signature of BMI (OR1-sd 1.50, 95% CI 1.30-1.74), WC (OR1-sd 1.46, 95% CI 1.27-1.69), and WHR (OR1-sd 1.54, 95% CI 1.33-1.79) were each associated with endometrial cancer risk. Risk of colorectal cancer was positively associated with the metabolic signature of WHR (OR1-sd: 1.26, 95% CI 1.07-1.49). In the Intercept study, a positive correlation was observed between weight loss and changes in the metabolic signatures of BMI (r = 0.5, 95% CI 0.06-0.94, p = 0.03), WC (r = 0.5, 95% CI 0.05-0.94, p = 0.03), and WHR (r = 0.6, 95% CI 0.32-0.87, p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Obesity is associated with a distinct metabolic signature comprising changes in levels of specific amino acids and lipids which is positively associated with both colorectal and endometrial cancer and is potentially reversible following weight loss.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Neoplasias do Endométrio , Índice de Massa Corporal , Tamanho Corporal , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Circunferência da Cintura
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