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1.
J Sch Health ; 90(3): 212-223, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31894581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Violence and bullying perpetration among boys are major public health problems. We address gaps in the literature by examining: (1) how risk and protective factors co-occur, and (2) how different risk/protection profiles are associated with violence and bullying perpetration among adolescent boys. METHODS: Data came from the population-based 2016 Minnesota Student Survey. The analytic sample included boys in grades 8, 9, and 11 (N = 63,818). Latent profile analyses identified patterns of 22 behavioral, intrapersonal, family, and school and community risk/protective factors. Logistic regression analyses examined how these patterns related to violence and bullying perpetration. RESULTS: We identified 5 groups: Class 1: Low risk, high safety, high connectedness; Class 2: Low risk, moderate safety, moderate connectedness; Class 3: Moderate risk, high safety, moderate connectedness; Class 4: High risk, moderate safety, low connectedness; and Class 5: High risk, low safety, low connectedness. Compared to Class 1, Class 5 students had the highest odds of all for violence and bullying perpetration. Class 4 students also demonstrated high odds of violence and bullying, compared to Class 1. Though not as high as Classes 4 or 5, Class 2 and 3 students showed higher odds for both outcomes, compared to Class 1. CONCLUSIONS: Substantive variations exist in boys who engage in violence and bullying. We highlight cumulative, co-occurring risk factors, connectedness to parents and other prosocial adults (eg, teachers), and school and neighborhood safety as important factors to address in school health programs seeking to prevent violence and bullying perpetration among boys.

2.
Prev Sci ; 19(4): 570-578, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29150747

RESUMO

Adolescent substance use continues to be a significant public health problem. Parent training interventions are effective preventive strategies to reduce youth substance use. However, little is known about differences in effectiveness for youth across demographic characteristics. This review assessed the effectiveness of parent training programs at reducing adolescent substance use by participant gender, age, and race/ethnicity. Pubmed/MEDLINE, ERIC, CINAHL, and PsycINFO were searched from database origin to October 31, 2016. We included randomized controlled trials that evaluated parent training interventions; reported youth initiation or use of tobacco, alcohol, or other illicit substances; and included adolescents aged 10 to 19. Two independent reviewers extracted data. Disagreements were resolved by consensus or a third researcher. Data were synthesized using harvest plots stratified by participant demographics. A total of 1806 publications were identified and reviewed; 38 unique studies were included. Risk of bias of included studies was high. No studies targeted male teens or youth in late adolescence. Few studies targeted Asian-American, Black/African-American, or Hispanic/Latino adolescents. Overall, interventions including male and female youth and youth in early adolescence (age 10 to 14 or in 5th to 8th grade) were more beneficial than interventions including female-only or both young and older adolescents. Programs tailored to specific racial/ethnic groups, as well as programs designed for youth from multiple races/ethnic groups, were effective. Current evidence supports the benefits of offering parenting guidance to all families with adolescent children, regardless of the gender, age, or race/ethnicity of the adolescent.


Assuntos
Poder Familiar , Pais/educação , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Youth Adolesc ; 46(11): 2289-2304, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28584921

RESUMO

Involvement in bullying and sexual harassment in adolescence is associated with a variety of internalizing, externalizing, and health-risk behaviors. Yet, the two behaviors are often studied independently. The current study examined how bullying and sexual harassment co-occur and whether social connections protected youth from risk patterns. The data for this study come from the 2013 Minnesota Student Survey (N = 121,311; 50% female, 74% White, 26% received free or reduced-price lunch; M age = 14.9, SD = 1.3). Students reported on bullying and sexual harassment victimization and perpetration. Using latent class analysis, youth were classified into five patterns: High-Risk of All Forms of Victimization and Perpetration (7%), Relational and Cyberbullying Victimization (17%), Sexual Harassment Victimization and Perpetration (8%), Physical Bullying Perpetration (6%), and Low-Risk (62%). Compared to the low-risk class, the four other classes had lower levels of social connections, particularly with teachers and parents. Older youth (9th and 11th grade students) were at greater risk for the sexual harassment pattern, while younger youth (8th grade students) were at greater risk for bullying patterns. The results indicate that efforts to reduce bullying should also address sexual harassment and social connections with adults.


Assuntos
Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Assédio Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Minnesota , Pais , Fatores de Proteção , Professores Escolares , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Am J Prev Med ; 52(3 Suppl 3): S275-S278, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28215380

RESUMO

Over the past 30 years, prevention science in the adolescent health field has moved from interventions focused on preventing single problem behaviors to efforts employing a dual approach, addressing risk factors that predict problems while simultaneously nurturing protective factors and promoting positive development. Through an examination of previous research and empirical case examples with vulnerable youth, this article considers the hypothesis that adolescents' sense of connectedness to caring adults acts as a protective factor against a range of risk behaviors. Multivariate analyses with existing data examined indicators of youth-adult connectedness among two groups at high risk for poor health outcomes: (1) mentor-youth relationship quality in an urban, ethnically diverse sample of students in a school-based mentoring program (2014 survey, N=239); and (2) parent-youth connectedness in a statewide sample of high school students who reported homelessness in the past year (2013 survey, N=3,627). For youth in the mentoring program, a high-quality youth-mentor relationship was significantly associated with positive social, academic, and health-related behaviors. Among students who experienced homelessness, all measures of parent connectedness were significantly associated with lower sexual risk levels. Collectively, findings from these analyses and previously published studies by this research group provide evidence that strong, positive relationships with parents and other caring adults protect adolescents from a range of poor health-related outcomes and promote positive development. Youth-adult connectedness appears to be foundational for adolescent health and well-being. Program, practice, and policy decisions should consider what strengthens or hinders caring, connected youth-adult relationships.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente , Tutoria , Poder Familiar , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Jovens em Situação de Rua , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Sexual , Adulto Jovem
5.
Body Image ; 18: 96-107, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27352103

RESUMO

The goal of this study was to examine the ways in which transgender youth experience their bodies with regard to gender and body size. Ninety transgender youth and young adults completed in-depth interviews in eight metropolitan areas of the United States, Canada, and Ireland. Using a queer perspective, qualitative analyses revealed two broad conceptual categories: body dissatisfaction and body satisfaction. Within these categories, participants focused on body issues related to gender characteristics and body size. Findings revealed evidence of self-criticism and social distress related to body image dissatisfaction and self-acceptance and social acceptance related to body image satisfaction. Data demonstrated how gender, body size, and the intersection of gender and body size influenced personal perceptions of body dissatisfaction and satisfaction. Developmental processes were evident: participants further along in consolidating a gender identity described gaining a sense of social awareness, self-acceptance, and body satisfaction reflecting a sense of resilience.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia , Adolescente , Tamanho Corporal , Canadá , Comparação Transcultural , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Entrevista Psicológica , Irlanda , Masculino , Satisfação Pessoal , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Med Internet Res ; 18(6): e169, 2016 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27334833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some evidence suggests parents are drawn to media-based interventions over face-to-face interventions, but little is known about the factors associated with parents' use of Internet-based or Internet-enhanced programs, especially among military families. Research is needed to understand characteristics of parents who may be most likely to use online components or attend face-to-face meetings in order to ensure maximum engagement. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we examined characteristics that predict various patterns of Internet use and face-to-face attendance in a parenting program designed for military families. METHODS: An ecological framework guided analysis of differences in patterns of Internet-based use and face-to-face attendance by parents' demographic characteristics (gender, education, employment, and child age), incentives offered, and number of months the parent was deployed. We reported differences in the total number of online components completed over the 14 modules, total number of face-to-face sessions attended, and the use of different types of online components accessed (videos, downloadable handouts, mindfulness exercises, knowledge checks, and downloadable summaries). Then, we computed multinomial logistic regression accounting for nestedness (parents within families) to examine associations between demographic, programmatic, and military-related characteristics and patterns of engagement (use of online components and attendance at face-to-face sessions). RESULTS: Just over half (52.2%, 193/370) of the participants used the online components at least once, and the majority of participants (73.2%, 271/370) attended at least 1 face-to-face session. An examination of different patterns of participation revealed that compared with those who participated primarily in face-to-face sessions, parents who participated online but had little face-to-face participation were more likely to have received incentives than those who did not (95% CI 1.9-129.7). Among participants who had been deployed, those who had earned a 4-year degree (95% CI 1.0-2.2) and those who had been offered incentives to participate online (95% CI 2.1-58.6) were more likely to be highly engaged in online components and attend face-to-face compared with those who attended primarily face-to-face. However, those with a high number of months of deployment (95% CI 0.6-1.0) were less likely to be in the pattern of highly engaged in online components and face-to-face attendance. Compared with those who participated primarily face-to-face, deployed mothers were about 4 times more likely to engage in moderate online use with face-to-face attendance than deployed fathers (95% CI 1.21-11.83) and participate primarily online (95% CI 0.77-25.20). CONCLUSIONS: Results imply that parents may be drawn to different delivery options of a parenting program (online components vs face-to-face sessions) depending on their education level, incentives to engage in online components, and their military-related experience. Results suggest potential directions for tailoring Internet-based interventions.


Assuntos
Internet , Família Militar , Poder Familiar , Pais , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Escolaridade , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Motivação
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