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1.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919929

RESUMO

AIMS: N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), high-sensitivity troponin T (hs-TnT) and soluble suppression of tumorigenesis-2 (sST2) predict outcome in chronic heart failure (HF). We assessed the influence of age on circulating levels and prognostic significance of these biomarkers. METHODS AND RESULTS: Individual data from 5301 patients with chronic HF and NT-proBNP, hs-TnT, and sST2 data were evaluated. Patients were stratified according to age: <60 years (n = 1332, 25%), 60-69 years (n = 1628, 31%), 70-79 years (n = 1662, 31%), and ≥ 80 years (n = 679, 13%). Patients (median age 66 years, 75% men, median left ventricular ejection fraction 28%, 64% with ischaemic HF) had median NT-proBNP 1564 ng/L, hs-TnT 21 ng/L, and sST2 29 ng/mL. Age independently predicted NT-proBNP and hs-TnT, but not sST2. The best NT-proBNP and hs-TnT cut-offs for 1-year and 5-year all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and 1- to 12-month HF hospitalization increased with age, while the best sST2 cut-offs did not. When stratifying patients according to age- and outcome-specific cut-offs, this stratification yielded independent prognostic significance over NT-proBNP levels only, or the composite of NT-proBNP and hs-TnT, and improved risk prediction for most endpoints. Finally, absolute NT-proBNP, hs-TnT, and sST2 levels predicted outcomes independent of age, sex, left ventricular ejection fraction category, ethnic group, and other variables. CONCLUSIONS: Soluble ST2 is less influenced by age than NT-proBNP or hs-TnT; all these biomarkers predict outcome regardless of age. The use of age- and outcome-specific cut-offs of NT-proBNP, hs-TnT and sST2 allows more accurate risk stratification than NT-proBNP alone or the combination of NT-proBNP and hs-TnT.

2.
Med Care ; 58(2): e9-e16, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568163

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop and validate a mortality risk index from multimorbidity using pharmaceutical dispensing data. DESIGN: The P3 (Pharmaceutical Prescribing Profile) mortality risk index was created (development n=2,331,645) using pharmaceutical dispensing records for the last 12 months for long-term conditions. ß coefficients from a Cox proportional hazards model for mortality provided component scores for 30 medication categories. Index validity was tested (validation n=1,000,166) for risk of mortality and overnight hospitalization over 1 year, and predictive ability calculated for the P3 index relative to the hospital admission-based Charlson and M3 indices (all models adjusted for age/sex). SETTING: This study was carried out in the setting of routine health data sources for the New Zealand adult general population, for an index date of January 1, 2012. RESULTS: The P3 index performed equivalently to Charlson for 1-year mortality risk [c-statistics=0.920 and 0.921, respectively; difference=-0.001; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.004, 0.001]; P3 outperformed Charlson for overnight hospitalization risk (c-statistics=0.712 and 0.682; difference=0.029; 95% CI: 0.028, 0.031). Adding P3 to a model already containing the M3 index led to only marginal improvement for mortality (difference in c-statistics=0.004; 95% CI: 0.002, 0.005) but some improvement for hospitalization risk (difference in c-statistics=0.020; 95% CI: 0.018, 0.021). CONCLUSIONS: The P3 index provides an appropriate alternative to measures like the Charlson and M3 index when analysts only have access to pharmaceutical dispensing data for determining multimorbidity. The P3 index had a performance advantage over Charlson when analyzing risk for overnight hospital admissions.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393578

RESUMO

AIMS: Clinical registry-derived data are widely used to represent patient populations. In New Zealand (NZ), a national registry - the All New Zealand Acute Coronary Syndrome Quality Improvement (ANZACS-QI) registry - aims to include all patients undergoing coronary angiography; other acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients are also registered but without complete capture. This study compares national hospitalisation data of all first-time ACS admissions in NZ with patients in the ANZACS-QI registry, to investigate the use of clinical registry-derived data in research and in assessing clinical care. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients admitted with first-time ACS in the NZ National Hospitalisation Dataset between 01/01/2015-31/12/2016 were included. Clinical characteristics and time to 12-month clinical outcomes were compared between patients captured and not-captured in the registry. 16,569 patients were admitted with first-time ACS, median age 69 years, 61% male; 60% (n = 9918) were enrolled in ANZACS-QI. Registry-captured patients were younger, more often male, and with a lower comorbidity burden than non-captured patients. Overall, 16% patients died within 12 months, 15% experienced a non-fatal cardiovascular readmission and 28% either died or were readmitted. Patients not captured in the registry were more than twice as likely to have experienced death or a non-fatal cardiovascular readmission within 12 months as captured patients. CONCLUSIONS: First-time ACS patients captured in the ANZACS-QI registry had very different clinical characteristics and outcomes than those not captured. Cardiovascular registry-derived data is dependent on registry design and may not be representative of the wider patient population; this must be considered when using registry-derived data.

4.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 71(10): 1733-1738, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31162825

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether gout and serum urate (SU) levels are associated with increased risk of death, time to first readmission for any cardiovascular event, or incident heart failure in individuals with cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Individuals presenting with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) were enrolled in the Coronary Disease Cohort Study. Clinical data were collected from the medical records at the index hospital admission, and clinical, echocardiographic, and biochemical data were collected postdischarge. Gout was defined by self-report, use of urate-lowering therapy, or use of colchicine with evidence of gout on review of the medical record. The primary end points were all-cause mortality, time to readmission for a cardiac ischemic event, and time to readmission for heart failure. RESULTS: Data from 1,514 participants were available. During the follow-up period, 53 of 160 participants with gout (33.1%) and 298 of 1,354 participants without gout (22.0%) died. After adjustment for other factors known to be associated with mortality, there was no gout-specific increase in risk of mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 0.98 [95% confidence interval 0.69-1.38]). Time to readmission for heart failure was significantly briefer in those with, compared to those without, gout (adjusted hazard ratio 1.42 [95% confidence interval 1.02-1.97]). Irrespective of whether a participant had gout or not, as SU level increased, there was an increased risk of death and readmission for either a cardiovascular event or heart failure. CONCLUSION: Survival post-ACS is similar with and without the presence of gout. People with gout are at an increased risk of readmission for heart failure and have longer hospital stays. Risk of these events increases in parallel with increases in SU levels.


Assuntos
Gota/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Hiperuricemia/epidemiologia , Mortalidade , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Gota/sangue , Humanos , Hiperuricemia/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
5.
Clin Chem ; 65(9): 1115-1124, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Plasma concentrations of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) or its amino terminal congener (NT-proBNP) are used for HF diagnosis and risk stratification. Because BNP concentrations are inexplicably lowered in obese patients, we investigated the relationship between proBNP glycosylation, plasma NT-proBNP, and body mass index (BMI) in HF patients. METHODS: Three assays were developed to distinguish between total proBNP (glycosylated plus nonglycosylated proBNP), proBNP not glycosylated at threonine 71 (NG-T71), and proBNP not glycosylated in the central region (NG-C). Intraassay and interassay CVs were <15%; limits of detection were <21 ng/L; and samples diluted in parallel. RESULT: Applying these assays and an NT-proBNP assay to plasma samples from 106 healthy volunteers and 238 HF patients determined that concentrations [median (interquartile range)] of proBNP, NG-T71, and NT-proBNP were greater in HF patients compared with controls [300 (44-664), 114 (18-254), and 179 (880-3459) ng/L vs 36 (18-229), 36 (18-175), and 40 (17-68) ng/L, respectively; all P < 0.012]. NG-C was undetectable in most samples. ProBNP concentrations in HF patients with BMI more or less than 30 kg/m2 were not different (P = 0.85), whereas HF patients with BMI >30 kg/m2 had lower NT-proBNP and NG-T71 concentrations (P < 0.003) and higher proBNP/NT-proBNP and proBNP/NG-T71 ratios (P = 0.001 and P = 0.02, respectively) than those with BMI <30 kg/m2. CONCLUSIONS: Increased BMI is associated with decreased concentrations of proBNP not glycosylated at T71. Decreased proBNP substrate amenable to processing could partially explain the lower NT-proBNP and BNP concentrations observed in obese individuals, including those presenting with HF.

7.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(11): 1300-1313, 2019 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinicians need improved tools to better identify nonacute heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to derive and validate circulating microRNA signatures for nonacute heart failure (HF). METHODS: Discovery and validation cohorts (N = 1,710), comprised 903 HF and 807 non-HF patients from Singapore and New Zealand (NZ). MicroRNA biomarker panel discovery in a Singapore cohort (n = 546) was independently validated in a second Singapore cohort (Validation 1; n = 448) and a NZ cohort (Validation 2; n = 716). RESULTS: In discovery, an 8-microRNA panel identified HF with an area under the curve (AUC) 0.96, specificity 0.88, and accuracy 0.89. Corresponding metrics were 0.88, 0.66, and 0.77 in Validation 1, and 0.87, 0.58, and 0.74 in Validation 2. Combining microRNA panels with N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) clearly improved specificity and accuracy from AUC 0.96, specificity 0.91, and accuracy 0.90 for NT-proBNP alone to corresponding metrics of 0.99, 0.99, and 0.93 in the discovery and 0.97, 0.96, and 0.93 in Validation 1. The 8-microRNA discovery panel distinguished HFpEF from HF with reduced ejection fraction with AUC 0.81, specificity 0.66, and accuracy 0.72. Corresponding metrics were 0.65, 0.41, and 0.56 in Validation 1 and 0.65, 0.41, and 0.62 in Validation 2. For phenotype categorization, combined markers achieved AUC 0.87, specificity 0.75, and accuracy 0.77 in the discovery with corresponding metrics of 0.74, 0.59, and 0.67 in Validation 1 and 0.72, 0.52, and 0.68 in Validation 2, as compared with NT-proBNP alone of AUC 0.71, specificity 0.46, and accuracy 0.62 in the discovery; with corresponding metrics of 0.72, 0.44, and 0.57 in Validation 1 and 0.69, 0.48, and 0.66 in Validation 2. Accordingly, false negative (FN) (81% Singapore and all NZ FN cases were HFpEF) as classified by a guideline-endorsed NT-proBNP ruleout threshold, were correctly reclassified by the 8-microRNA panel in the majority (72% and 88% of FN in Singapore and NZ, respectively) of cases. CONCLUSIONS: Multi-microRNA panels in combination with NT-proBNP are highly discriminatory and improved specificity and accuracy in identifying nonacute HF. These findings suggest potential utility in the identification of nonacute HF, where clinical assessment, imaging, and NT-proBNP may not be definitive, especially in HFpEF.


Assuntos
MicroRNA Circulante/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca , MicroRNAs/sangue , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Biomarcadores/sangue , Ecocardiografia Doppler/métodos , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/classificação , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia , Análise de Componente Principal/métodos , Singapura , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda
8.
Heart ; 105(11): 842-847, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30661038

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Ethnic differences in the prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) in heart failure (HF) remain unclear. We compared the prevalence and clinical correlates of AF among different ethnicities in an Asian-Pacific population with HF. METHODS: Patients with validated HF were prospectively studied across Singapore and New Zealand (NZ). RESULTS: Among 1746 patients with HF (62% Asian, 26% women, mean age 66 (SD 13) years, mean ejection fraction (EF) 37 (SD 16%), 39% had AF. The prevalence of AF was markedly lower in Singapore-Asians than NZ-Europeans (24% vs 63%; p<0.001), even after adjusting for age, clinical and echocardiographic covariates, regardless of EF group (pinteraction for EF=0.39). Patients with AF were older, had higher body mass index and were more likely to have a history of hypertension, stroke, peripheral vascular disease, renal disease, chronic respiratory disease and increased alcohol intake, but less likely to have diabetes. Clinical correlates were similar for Asians and NZ-Europeans, except diabetes: Asian diabetic patients with HF had less AF compared with Asian patients without diabetes (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.88), whereas among NZ-Europeans there was no significant association between diabetes and AF (OR 1.22, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.75) (pinteraction for ethnicity=0.01). AF was associated with a higher crude composite outcome of mortality and HF hospitalisations at 2 years (HR 1.19, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.38). CONCLUSION: There is a strikingly lower prevalence of AF among Asian compared with NZ-European patients with HF. The underlying mechanisms for the lower prevalence of AF among Asians, particularly in the presence of diabetes, deserve further study. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12610000374066.

9.
ESC Heart Fail ; 6(1): 62-69, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30311437

RESUMO

AIMS: Impaired left ventricular diastolic function leading to elevated left atrial pressures, particularly during exertion, is a key driver of symptoms and outcomes in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Insertion of an interatrial shunt device (IASD) to reduce left atrial pressure in HFpEF has been shown to be associated with short-term haemodynamic and symptomatic benefit. We aimed to investigate the potential effects of IASD placement on HFpEF survival and heart failure hospitalization (HFH). METHODS AND RESULTS: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction patients participating in the Reduce Elevated Left Atrial Pressure in Patients with Heart Failure study (Corvia Medical) of an IASD were followed for a median duration of 739 days. The theoretical impact of IASD implantation on HFpEF mortality was investigated by comparing the observed survival of the study cohort with the survival predicted from baseline data using the Meta-analysis Global Group in Chronic Heart Failure heart failure risk survival score. Baseline and post-IASD implant parameters associated with HFH were also investigated. Based upon the individual baseline demographic and cardiovascular profile of the study cohort, the Meta-analysis Global Group in Chronic Heart Failure score-predicted mortality was 10.2/100 pt years. The observed mortality rate of the IASD-treated cohort was 3.4/100 pt years, representing a 33% lower rate (P = 0.02). By Kaplan-Meier analysis, the observed survival in IASD patients was greater than predicted (P = 0.014). Baseline parameters were not predictive of future HFH events; however, poorer exercise tolerance and a higher workload-corrected exercise pulmonary capillary wedge pressure at the 6 months post-IASD study were associated with HFH. CONCLUSIONS: The current study suggests IASD implantation may be associated with a reduction in mortality in HFpEF. Large-scale ongoing randomized studies are required to confirm the potential benefit of this therapy.


Assuntos
Pressão Atrial/fisiologia , Átrios do Coração/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/cirurgia , Hospitalização/tendências , Próteses e Implantes , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Idoso , Austrália/epidemiologia , Cateterismo Cardíaco/métodos , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Átrios do Coração/cirurgia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Med Educ Online ; 23(1): 1524688, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30499380

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Competent cardiac auscultation is a declining skill. Digital stethoscopes and hand-held echocardiography (HHE) are modern devices which may improve the accuracy of heart murmur recognition and diagnosis. Their incremental value compared to conventional examination has not been evaluated in depth. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to quantify the utility of digital stethoscopes and HHE as teaching aids to improve medical students' diagnostic accuracy in the evaluation of heart murmurs using a novel clinically weighted scoring system. DESIGN: This pilot study involved eight medical students and eight patients with heart murmurs. Four patients were examined at 2 sessions, 1 week apart. Medical students were randomised into two groups: the 'intervention group' examined patients with a standard and digital stethoscope, and then received demonstration of the valvular lesion with HHE to illustrate the diagnosis. The 'control group' used a standard stethoscope only and were taught using traditional methods. Students' scores were compared to a 'gold standard' derived from a consensus of auscultation findings of three cardiologists. RESULTS: Overall the mean percent correct of total possible score was 65.4% (SD8.4). Using a mixed models ANOVA approach to repeated measures, the mean [95% CI] increase from training to validation period for the control group was 2.5% [-11.5, 16.5] P(Tukey) = 0.95 and 15.8% [1.7,29.8] P(Tukey) = 0.027 for the intervention group. Between the validation and training sessions for both groups, there was an increase of 9.1% [1.82, 16.4] in scores (p = 0.018). The mean [95% CI] difference in scores of the control and intervention groups was 1.9% [-5.4, 9.2] (p = 0.59). The Cohen's effect size estimate was 0.9. CONCLUSION: Digital stethoscopes and hand-held echo may be useful devices for teaching cardiac auscultation. This pilot study provides a novel study design, a heart murmur grading system, and data that will help develop definitive studies to assess new teaching techniques for cardiac auscultation using digital technology.


Assuntos
Tecnologia Educacional/instrumentação , Auscultação Cardíaca , Ecocardiografia , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Projetos Piloto , Estetoscópios
11.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 18(1): 169, 2018 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30111293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Development of collateral circulation in coronary artery disease is cardio-protective. A key process in forming new blood vessels is attraction to occluded arteries of monocytes with their subsequent activation as macrophages. In patients from a prospectively recruited post-acute coronary syndromes cohort we investigated the prognostic performance of three products of activated macrophages, soluble vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors (sFlt-1 and sKDR) and pterins, alongside genetic variants in VEGF receptor genes, VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2. METHODS: Baseline levels of sFlt-1 (VEGFR1), sKDR (VEGFR2) and pterins were measured in plasma samples from subgroups (n = 513; 211; 144, respectively) of the Coronary Disease Cohort Study (CDCS, n = 2067). DNA samples from the cohort were genotyped for polymorphisms from the VEGFR-1 gene SNPs (rs748252 n = 2027, rs9513070 n = 2048) and VEGFR-2 gene SNPs (rs2071559 n = 2050, rs2305948 n = 2066, rs1870377 n = 2042). RESULTS: At baseline, levels of sFlt-1 were significantly correlated with age, alcohol consumption, NTproBNP, BNP and other covariates relevant to cardiovascular pathophysiology. Total neopterin levels were associated with alcohol consumption at baseline. 7,8 dihydroneopterin was associated with BMI. The A allele of VEGFR-2 variant rs1870377 was associated with higher plasma sFlt-1 and lower levels of sKDR at baseline. Baseline plasma sFlt-1 was univariately associated with all cause mortality with (p < 0.001) and in a Cox's proportional hazards regression model sFlt-1 and pterins were both associated with mortality independent of established predictors (p < 0.027). CONCLUSIONS: sFlt-1 and pterins may have potential as prognostic biomarkers in acute coronary syndromes patients. Genetic markers from VEGF system genes warrant further investigation as markers of levels of VEGF system components in these patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry. ACTRN12605000431628 . 16 September 2005, Retrospectively registered.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Pterinas/sangue , Receptor 1 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/sangue , Receptor 1 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/sangue , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Angiografia Coronária , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Ativação de Macrófagos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Fenótipo , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
12.
N Z Med J ; 131(1480): 81-89, 2018 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30116069

RESUMO

Precision medicine seeks to draw on data from both individuals and populations across disparate domains to influence and support diagnosis, management and prevention in healthcare at the level of the individual patient and their family/whanau. Central to this initiative is incorporating the effects of the inherent variation that lies within genomes and can influence health outcomes. Identifying and interpreting such variation requires an accurate, valid and representative dataset to firstly define what variants are present and then assess the potential relevance for the health of a person, their family/whanau and the wider community to which they belong. Globally the variation embedded within genomes differs enormously and has been shaped by the size, constitution, historical origins and evolutionary history of their source populations. Maori, and more broadly Pacific peoples, differ substantially in terms of genomic variation compared to the more closely studied European and Asian populations. In the absence of accurate genomic information from Maori and Pacific populations, the precise interpretation of genomic data and the success and benefits of genomic medicine will be disproportionately less for those Maori and Pacific peoples. In this viewpoint article we, as a group of healthcare professionals, researchers and scientists, present a case for assembling genomic resources that catalogue the characteristics of the genomes of New Zealanders, with an emphasis on peoples of Maori and Polynesian ancestry, as a healthcare imperative. In proposing the creation of these resources, we note that their governance and management must be led by iwi and Maori and Pacific representatives. Assembling a genomic resource must be informed by cultural concepts and values most especially understanding that, at a physical and spiritual level, whakapapa is embodied within the DNA of a person. Therefore DNA and genomic data that connects to whakapapa (genealogy) is considered a taonga (something precious and significant), and its storage, utilisation and interpretation is a culturally significant activity. Furthermore, such resources are not proposed to primarily enable comparisons between those with Maori and broader Pacific ancestries and other Aotearoa peoples but to place an understanding of the genetic contributors to their health outcomes in a valid context. Ongoing oversight and governance of such taonga by Maori and Pacific representatives will maximise hauora (health) while also minimising the risk of misuse of this information.


Assuntos
Genômica , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Medicina de Precisão , Genética Médica , Humanos , Nova Zelândia/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/genética
14.
Int J Cardiol ; 254: 119-124, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29407079

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) complications including stroke. We investigated the assessment and management of cardiovascular risk among patients with AF aged 35-74years, by ethnic group, in a large cohort of people receiving a CVD risk assessment in primary care (PREDICT). METHODS: PREDICT was linked to national dispensing, hospitalisation and mortality records. AF was present if recorded in PREDICT or during a prior hospitalisation; medications were those dispensed ≤6months before or after a PREDICT assessment; the CHA2DS2-VASc score and a New Zealand (NZ) adjusted Framingham CVD risk were calculated. Data were linked to outcomes of stroke or major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE). RESULTS: 12,739 (2.8%) of 447,020 people aged 35-74years had AF. Maori, the indigenous population of NZ, had the highest proportion of AF, which by age group, was similar to that among Europeans 10years older. 77% were at high stroke risk, of whom 42% received anticoagulation; 54% were at high CVD risk, of whom 67% received both lipid- and blood pressure-lowering medication. Per category of predicted risk, stroke risk was overestimated and risk of MACE was underestimated. CONCLUSIONS: The burden of AF and risk factors differed by ethnic group thus recommendations to screen for AF above a universal age threshold may introduce inequity in the detection and management of associated risk. The high burden of comorbidities at younger ages among many ethnic groups contributes to the poor performance of available risk assessment tools, further compounding potential inequity.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/etnologia , Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Estudos de Coortes , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipolipemiantes/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco/métodos
15.
Eur Heart J ; 39(20): 1770-1780, 2018 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29390051

RESUMO

Aims: Whether prevalence and mortality of patients with heart failure with preserved or mid-range (40-49%) ejection fraction (HFpEF and HFmREF) are similar to those of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), as reported in some epidemiologic studies, remains highly controversial. We determined and compared characteristics and outcomes for patients with HFpEF, HFmREF, and HFrEF in a prospective, international, multi-ethnic population. Methods and results: Prospective multi-centre longitudinal study in New Zealand (NZ) and Singapore. Patients with HF were assessed at baseline and followed over 2 years. The primary outcome was death from any cause. Secondary outcome was death and HF hospitalization. Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare outcomes for patients with HFpEF, HFmrEF, and HFrEF. Of 2039 patients enrolled, 28% had HFpEF, 13% HFmrEF, and 59% HFrEF. Compared with HFrEF, patients with HFpEF were older (62 vs. 72 years), more commonly female (17% vs. 48%), and more likely to have a history of hypertension (61% vs. 78%) but less likely to have coronary artery disease (55% vs. 41%). During 2 years of follow-up, 343 (17%) patients died. Adjusting for age, sex, and clinical risk factors, patients with HFpEF had a lower risk of death compared with those with HFrEF (hazard ratio 0.62, 95% confidence interval 0.46-0.85). Plasma (NT-proBNP) was similarly related to mortality in both HFpEF, HFmrEF, and HFrEF independent of the co-variates listed and of ejection fraction. Results were similar for the composite endpoint of death or HF and were consistent between Singapore and NZ. Conclusion: These prospective multinational data showed that the prevalence of HFpEF within the HF population was lower than HFrEF. Death rate was comparable in HFpEF and HFmrEF and lower than in HFrEF. Plasma levels of NT-proBNP were independently and similarly predictive of death in the three HF phenotypes. Trial Registration: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry (ACTRN12610000374066).


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Singapura/epidemiologia
16.
Heart Lung Circ ; 27(5): 568-575, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28606608

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular (CV) risk factor profiles of people experiencing acute coronary syndromes (ACS) vary with age, and in New Zealand (NZ), Maori and people of Pacific Island descent typically present with ACS at a younger age. We aimed to explore age- and ethnicity-related differences in CV risk factors in a large NZ cohort with first-time ACS. METHODS: The All NZ Acute Coronary Syndrome Quality Improvement program (ANZACS-QI) registry collects comprehensive data for patients admitted with ACS at NZ hospitals. This analysis includes patients with no prior atherosclerotic CV disease enrolled from 1 July, 2012 to 30 June, 2015. RESULTS: 14,190 patients had confirmed ACS, 8493 (60%) patients with no prior CVD comprised the study cohort. The mean age was 64 years, 25% were aged <55years, and 66% were male. Those aged <55years were more likely than older patients to be current smokers (48% vs 19%), have higher body mass index (BMI) (48% vs 34% with BMI≥30kg/m2), and higher total cholesterol:HDL ratios (≥4.0, 70% vs 50%), all p<0.001. Sixteen per cent of those <55years had diabetes; these patients often had a BMI≥30kg/m2 (67%) and higher median HbA1c than older patients with diabetes (69mmol/mol vs 55mmol/mol). Maori and people of Pacific Island descent were overrepresented in the younger age group; these patients had a very high risk factor burden. CONCLUSIONS: A quarter of NZ patients admitted to hospital with a first-time CV disease event are aged <55years. Younger patients have a very high risk factor burden: half are current smokers, half have a BMI≥30kg/m2, and 16% have diabetes.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Melhoria de Qualidade , Sistema de Registros , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idade de Início , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Angiografia Coronária , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
17.
Intern Med J ; 48(3): 301-309, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29034985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a major risk factor for ischaemic stroke and cardiovascular events. In New Zealand (NZ), Maori (indigenous New Zealanders) and Pacific people experience higher rates of AF compared with non-Maori/non-Pacific people. AIM: To describe a primary care population with AF in NZ. Stroke risk and medication adherence according to ethnicity are also detailed. METHODS: Electronic medical records for adults (≥20 years, n = 135 840, including 19 918 Maori and 43 634 Pacific people) enrolled at 37 NZ general practices were analysed for AF diagnosis and associated medication prescription information. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of non-valvular AF (NVAF) in this population was 1.3% (1769), and increased with age (4.4% in people ≥55 years). Maori aged ≥55 years were more likely to be diagnosed with NVAF (7.3%) than Pacific (4.0%) and non-Maori/non-Pacific people (4.1%, P < 0.001). Maori and Pacific NVAF patients were diagnosed with AF 10 years earlier than non-Maori/non-Pacific patients (median age of diagnosis: Maori = 60 years, Pacific = 61 years, non-Maori/non-Pacific = 71 years, P < 0.001). Overall, 67% of NVAF patients were at high risk for stroke (CHA2 DS2 -VASc ≥ 2) at the time of AF diagnosis. Almost half (48%) of Maori and Pacific NVAF patients aged <65 years were at high risk for stroke, compared with 22% of non-Maori/non-Pacific (P < 0.001). Irrespective of ethnic group, adherence to AF medication was suboptimal in those NVAF patients with a high risk of stroke or with stroke history. CONCLUSION: AF screening and stroke thromboprophylaxis in Maori and Pacific people could start below the age of 65 years in NZ.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/etnologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/etnologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 24(13): 1435-1444, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28631933

RESUMO

Background SaltSwitch is an innovative smartphone application (app) that enables shoppers to scan the barcode of a packaged food and receive an immediate, interpretive, traffic light nutrition label on the screen, along with suggestions for lower salt alternatives. Our aim was to determine the effectiveness of SaltSwitch to support people with cardiovascular disease to make lower salt food choices. Design Six-week, two-arm, parallel, randomised controlled trial in Auckland, New Zealand (2 weeks baseline and 4 weeks intervention). Methods Sixty-six adults with diagnosed cardiovascular disease (mean (SD) age 64 (7) years) were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to either the SaltSwitch smartphone app or control (usual care). The primary outcome was the salt content of household packaged food purchases during the 4-week intervention (g/MJ). Secondary outcomes were the saturated fat content (g/MJ), energy content (kJ/kg) and expenditure (NZ$) of household food purchases; systolic blood pressure (mmHg), urinary sodium (mg) and use and acceptability of the SaltSwitch app. Results Thirty-three participants with cardiovascular disease were allocated to the SaltSwitch intervention, and 33 to the control group. A significant reduction in mean household purchases of salt was observed (mean difference (95% confidence interval), -0.30 (-0.58 to -0.03) g/MJ), equating to a reduction of ∼0.7 g of salt per person per day during the 4-week intervention phase. There were no significant between-group differences in any secondary outcomes (all P > 0.05). Conclusions The SaltSwitch smartphone app is effective in supporting people with cardiovascular disease to make lower salt food purchases. A larger trial with longer follow-up is warranted to determine the effects on blood pressure. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=365784&isReview=true ACTRN12614000206628.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Rotulagem de Alimentos/métodos , Promoção da Saúde , Aplicativos Móveis , Smartphone , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/farmacologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 5(7): 534-543, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28566218

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lipoprotein(a) concentrations in plasma are associated with cardiovascular risk in the general population. Whether lipoprotein(a) concentrations or LPA genetic variants predict long-term mortality in patients with established coronary heart disease remains less clear. METHODS: We obtained data from 3313 patients with established coronary heart disease in the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) study. We tested associations of tertiles of lipoprotein(a) concentration in plasma and two LPA single-nucleotide polymorphisms ([SNPs] rs10455872 and rs3798220) with all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality by Cox regression analysis and with severity of disease by generalised linear modelling, with and without adjustment for age, sex, diabetes diagnosis, systolic blood pressure, BMI, smoking status, estimated glomerular filtration rate, LDL-cholesterol concentration, and use of lipid-lowering therapy. Results for plasma lipoprotein(a) concentrations were validated in five independent studies involving 10 195 patients with established coronary heart disease. Results for genetic associations were replicated through large-scale collaborative analysis in the GENIUS-CHD consortium, comprising 106 353 patients with established coronary heart disease and 19 332 deaths in 22 studies or cohorts. FINDINGS: The median follow-up was 9·9 years. Increased severity of coronary heart disease was associated with lipoprotein(a) concentrations in plasma in the highest tertile (adjusted hazard radio [HR] 1·44, 95% CI 1·14-1·83) and the presence of either LPA SNP (1·88, 1·40-2·53). No associations were found in LURIC with all-cause mortality (highest tertile of lipoprotein(a) concentration in plasma 0·95, 0·81-1·11 and either LPA SNP 1·10, 0·92-1·31) or cardiovascular mortality (0·99, 0·81-1·2 and 1·13, 0·90-1·40, respectively) or in the validation studies. INTERPRETATION: In patients with prevalent coronary heart disease, lipoprotein(a) concentrations and genetic variants showed no associations with mortality. We conclude that these variables are not useful risk factors to measure to predict progression to death after coronary heart disease is established. FUNDING: Seventh Framework Programme for Research and Technical Development (AtheroRemo and RiskyCAD), INTERREG IV Oberrhein Programme, Deutsche Nierenstiftung, Else-Kroener Fresenius Foundation, Deutsche Stiftung für Herzforschung, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Saarland University, German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Willy Robert Pitzer Foundation, and Waldburg-Zeil Clinics Isny.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/mortalidade , Estudos de Associação Genética , Lipoproteína(a)/sangue , Lipoproteína(a)/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos de Coortes , Doença das Coronárias/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Doença das Coronárias/genética , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
20.
Clin Chem ; 63(1): 316-324, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28062626

RESUMO

AIMS: C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is a paracrine growth factor expressed in the vascular endothelium. Although upregulated in atheromatous arteries, the predictive value of plasma CNP products for outcome in coronary disease is unknown. This study aimed to compare the prognostic value of plasma CNP products with those of other natriuretic peptides in individuals with coronary artery disease, and investigate their associations with cardiac and renal function. METHODS AND RESULTS: Plasma concentrations of CNP and amino-terminal proCNP (NT-proCNP) were measured at baseline in 2129 individuals after an index acute coronary syndrome admission and related to cardiac and renal function, other natriuretic peptides [atrial NP (ANP) and B-type NP (BNP)] and prognosis (primary end point, mortality; secondary end point, cardiac readmission). Median follow-up was 4 years. At baseline, and in contrast to CNP, ANP, and BNP, plasma NT-proCNP was higher in males and weakly related to cardiac function but strongly correlated to plasma creatinine. All NPs were univariately associated with mortality. Resampling at 4 and 12 months in survivors showed stable concentrations of NT-proCNP whereas all other peptides declined. When studied by diagnosis (myocardial infarction, unstable angina) at index admission using a multivariate model, NT-proBNP predicted mortality and readmission in myocardial infarction. In unstable angina, only NT-proCNP predicted both mortality and cardiac readmission. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to the close association of NT-proBNP with cardiac function, and predictive value for outcome after myocardial infarction, plasma NT-proCNP is highly correlated with renal function and is an independent predictor of mortality and cardiac readmission in individuals with unstable angina.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Peptídeo Natriurético Tipo C/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico
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