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3.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4619, 2018 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30397230

RESUMO

Chromatin remodeling is of crucial importance during brain development. Pathogenic alterations of several chromatin remodeling ATPases have been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders. We describe an index case with a de novo missense mutation in CHD3, identified during whole genome sequencing of a cohort of children with rare speech disorders. To gain a comprehensive view of features associated with disruption of this gene, we use a genotype-driven approach, collecting and characterizing 35 individuals with de novo CHD3 mutations and overlapping phenotypes. Most mutations cluster within the ATPase/helicase domain of the encoded protein. Modeling their impact on the three-dimensional structure demonstrates disturbance of critical binding and interaction motifs. Experimental assays with six of the identified mutations show that a subset directly affects ATPase activity, and all but one yield alterations in chromatin remodeling. We implicate de novo CHD3 mutations in a syndrome characterized by intellectual disability, macrocephaly, and impaired speech and language.

4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(5): 752-768, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30388402

RESUMO

The nuclear factor I (NFI) family of transcription factors play an important role in normal development of multiple organs. Three NFI family members are highly expressed in the brain, and deletions or sequence variants in two of these, NFIA and NFIX, have been associated with intellectual disability (ID) and brain malformations. NFIB, however, has not previously been implicated in human disease. Here, we present a cohort of 18 individuals with mild ID and behavioral issues who are haploinsufficient for NFIB. Ten individuals harbored overlapping microdeletions of the chromosomal 9p23-p22.2 region, ranging in size from 225 kb to 4.3 Mb. Five additional subjects had point sequence variations creating a premature termination codon, and three subjects harbored single-nucleotide variations resulting in an inactive protein as determined using an in vitro reporter assay. All individuals presented with additional variable neurodevelopmental phenotypes, including muscular hypotonia, motor and speech delay, attention deficit disorder, autism spectrum disorder, and behavioral abnormalities. While structural brain anomalies, including dysgenesis of corpus callosum, were variable, individuals most frequently presented with macrocephaly. To determine whether macrocephaly could be a functional consequence of NFIB disruption, we analyzed a cortex-specific Nfib conditional knockout mouse model, which is postnatally viable. Utilizing magnetic resonance imaging and histology, we demonstrate that Nfib conditional knockout mice have enlargement of the cerebral cortex but preservation of overall brain structure and interhemispheric connectivity. Based on our findings, we propose that haploinsufficiency of NFIB causes ID with macrocephaly.

5.
Hum Mutat ; 39(8): 1126-1138, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29851191

RESUMO

Highly conserved TREX-mediated mRNA export is emerging as a key pathway in neuronal development and differentiation. TREX subunit variants cause neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) by interfering with mRNA export from the cell nucleus to the cytoplasm. Previously we implicated four missense variants in the X-linked THOC2 gene in intellectual disability (ID). We now report an additional six affected individuals from five unrelated families with two de novo and three maternally inherited pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in THOC2 extending the genotypic and phenotypic spectrum. These comprise three rare missense THOC2 variants that affect evolutionarily conserved amino acid residues and reduce protein stability and two with canonical splice-site THOC2 variants that result in C-terminally truncated THOC2 proteins. We present detailed clinical assessment and functional studies on a de novo variant in a female with an epileptic encephalopathy and discuss an additional four families with rare variants in THOC2 with supportive evidence for pathogenicity. Severe neurocognitive features, including movement and seizure disorders, were observed in this cohort. Taken together our data show that even subtle alterations to the canonical molecular pathways such as mRNA export, otherwise essential for cellular life, can be compatible with life, but lead to NDDs in humans.

6.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab ; 43(5): 482-490, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29220580

RESUMO

Hepatokines are liver-secreted proteins with potential to influence glucose regulation and other metabolic parameters. This study investigated differences in adiposity status on 5 novel hepatokines and characterised their response to acute moderate-intensity exercise in groups of normal-weight and overweight/obese men. Twenty-two men were recruited into normal-weight and overweight/obese groups (body mass index: 18.5 to 24.9 and 25.0 to 34.9 kg·m-2). Each completed 2 experimental trials, exercise and control. During exercise trials, participants performed 60 min of moderate-intensity treadmill exercise (∼60% peak oxygen uptake) and then rested for 6 h. Participants rested throughout control trials. Circulating fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21), follistatin, leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2 (LECT2), fetuin-A, and selenoprotein-P (SeP) were measured throughout. Fasted (resting) FGF21 and LECT2 were higher in overweight/obese individuals (129% and 55%; P ≤ 0.01) and correlated with indices of adiposity and insulin resistance; whereas circulating follistatin was lower in overweight/obese individuals throughout trial days (17%, P < 0.05). In both groups, circulating concentrations of FGF21 and follistatin were transiently elevated after exercise for up to 6 h (P ≤ 0.02). Circulating fetuin-A and SeP were no different between groups (P ≥ 0.19) and, along with LECT2, were unaffected by exercise (P ≥ 0.06). These findings show that increased adiposity is associated with a modified hepatokine profile, which may represent a novel mechanism linking excess adiposity to metabolic health. Furthermore, acute perturbations in circulating FGF21 and follistatin after exercise may contribute to the health benefits of an active lifestyle.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Exercício , Obesidade/sangue , Sobrepeso/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Teste de Esforço , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/sangue , Folistatina/sangue , Glucagon/sangue , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/sangue , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Selenoproteína P/sangue , Adulto Jovem , alfa-2-Glicoproteína-HS/metabolismo
7.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(5): 768-788, 2017 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29100089

RESUMO

Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CAMK2) is one of the first proteins shown to be essential for normal learning and synaptic plasticity in mice, but its requirement for human brain development has not yet been established. Through a multi-center collaborative study based on a whole-exome sequencing approach, we identified 19 exceedingly rare de novo CAMK2A or CAMK2B variants in 24 unrelated individuals with intellectual disability. Variants were assessed for their effect on CAMK2 function and on neuronal migration. For both CAMK2A and CAMK2B, we identified mutations that decreased or increased CAMK2 auto-phosphorylation at Thr286/Thr287. We further found that all mutations affecting auto-phosphorylation also affected neuronal migration, highlighting the importance of tightly regulated CAMK2 auto-phosphorylation in neuronal function and neurodevelopment. Our data establish the importance of CAMK2A and CAMK2B and their auto-phosphorylation in human brain function and expand the phenotypic spectrum of the disorders caused by variants in key players of the glutamatergic signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Proteína Quinase Tipo 2 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação/genética , Animais , Encéfalo/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Ácido Glutâmico/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neurônios/patologia , Fosforilação/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética
8.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 49(6): 1219-1228, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28511192

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to characterize the immediate and extended effect of acute exercise on hunger, energy intake, and circulating acylated ghrelin concentrations using a large data set of homogenous experimental trials and to describe the variation in responses between individuals. METHODS: Data from 17 of our group's experimental crossover trials were aggregated yielding a total sample of 192 young, healthy males. In these studies, single bouts of moderate to high-intensity aerobic exercise (69% ± 5% V˙O2 peak; mean ± SD) were completed with detailed participant assessments occurring during and for several hours postexercise. Mean hunger ratings were determined during (n = 178) and after (n = 118) exercise from visual analog scales completed at 30-min intervals, whereas ad libitum energy intake was measured within the first hour after exercise (n = 60) and at multiple meals (n = 128) during the remainder of trials. Venous concentrations of acylated ghrelin were determined at strategic time points during (n = 118) and after (n = 89) exercise. RESULTS: At group level, exercise transiently suppressed hunger (P < 0.010, Cohen's d = 0.77) but did not affect energy intake. Acylated ghrelin was suppressed during exercise (P < 0.001, Cohen's d = 0.10) and remained significantly lower than control (no exercise) afterward (P < 0.024, Cohen's d = 0.61). Between participants, there were notable differences in responses; however, a large proportion of this spread lay within the boundaries of normal variation associated with biological and technical assessment error. CONCLUSION: In young men, acute exercise suppresses hunger and circulating acylated ghrelin concentrations with notable diversity between individuals. Care must be taken to distinguish true interindividual variation from random differences within normal limits.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Exercício/fisiologia , Grelina/sangue , Fome/fisiologia , Apetite/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
10.
Behav Cogn Psychother ; 45(3): 300-311, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28325174

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rumination predicts depression in adults and adolescents. The development of rumination has been linked to parenting practices, but only limited research has investigated this and research has tended to rely on self-report parenting measures. AIMS: To investigate the relationship between female adolescent rumination and maternal modelling, criticism and positivity using an observational measure of parental behaviour. METHOD: A cross-sectional design was used. Daughters aged 16-18 years and their mothers (n = 154 dyads) completed questionnaire measures of rumination and affect. Mothers of girls with rumination scores in the upper and lower quartile (both n = 26) also completed the Five Minute Speech Sample, which was used to measure maternal criticism and positivity. RESULTS: Mothers of low rumination girls made significantly more positive comments about their daughters than the mothers of high ruminators. Mothers made very few critical comments. Self-reported rumination was not correlated in mothers and daughters, suggesting a lack of support for the potential role of modelling. CONCLUSION: Overall, low maternal positivity was associated with rumination in female adolescents. There was no evidence that maternal rumination or criticism were associated with adolescent rumination. The results suggest a number of implications for future research, including the need for prospective longitudinal studies using observational parenting measures.


Assuntos
Mães/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Psicologia do Adolescente , Ruminação Cognitiva , Adolescente , Afeto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Am J Hum Genet ; 100(2): 352-363, 2017 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28132691

RESUMO

Degradation of proteins by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is an essential biological process in the development of eukaryotic organisms. Dysregulation of this mechanism leads to numerous human neurodegenerative or neurodevelopmental disorders. Through a multi-center collaboration, we identified six de novo genomic deletions and four de novo point mutations involving PSMD12, encoding the non-ATPase subunit PSMD12 (aka RPN5) of the 19S regulator of 26S proteasome complex, in unrelated individuals with intellectual disability, congenital malformations, ophthalmologic anomalies, feeding difficulties, deafness, and subtle dysmorphic facial features. We observed reduced PSMD12 levels and an accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins without any impairment of proteasome catalytic activity. Our PSMD12 loss-of-function zebrafish CRISPR/Cas9 model exhibited microcephaly, decreased convolution of the renal tubules, and abnormal craniofacial morphology. Our data support the biological importance of PSMD12 as a scaffolding subunit in proteasome function during development and neurogenesis in particular; they enable the definition of a neurodevelopmental disorder due to PSMD12 variants, expanding the phenotypic spectrum of UPS-dependent disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/genética , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação para Baixo , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Microcefalia/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Peixe-Zebra/genética
12.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 102(2): 460-469, 2017 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27870580

RESUMO

Context: Heterozygous mutations in the aggrecan gene (ACAN) cause autosomal dominant short stature with accelerated skeletal maturation. Objective: We sought to characterize the phenotypic spectrum and response to growth-promoting therapies. Patients and Methods: One hundred three individuals (57 females, 46 males) from 20 families with autosomal dominant short stature and heterozygous ACAN mutations were identified and confirmed using whole-exome sequencing, targeted next-generation sequencing, and/or Sanger sequencing. Clinical information was collected from the medical records. Results: Identified ACAN variants showed perfect cosegregation with phenotype. Adult individuals had mildly disproportionate short stature [median height, -2.8 standard deviation score (SDS); range, -5.9 to -0.9] and a history of early growth cessation. The condition was frequently associated with early-onset osteoarthritis (12 families) and intervertebral disc disease (9 families). No apparent genotype-phenotype correlation was found between the type of ACAN mutation and the presence of joint complaints. Childhood height was less affected (median height, -2.0 SDS; range, -4.2 to -0.6). Most children with ACAN mutations had advanced bone age (bone age - chronologic age; median, +1.3 years; range, +0.0 to +3.7 years). Nineteen individuals had received growth hormone therapy with some evidence of increased growth velocity. Conclusions: Heterozygous ACAN mutations result in a phenotypic spectrum ranging from mild and proportionate short stature to a mild skeletal dysplasia with disproportionate short stature and brachydactyly. Many affected individuals developed early-onset osteoarthritis and degenerative disc disease, suggesting dysfunction of the articular cartilage and intervertebral disc cartilage. Additional studies are needed to determine the optimal treatment strategy for these patients.

13.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 8(48): 33210-33220, 2016 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27934160

RESUMO

Large-scale industrial applications of barrier films and coatings that prevent permeation of degradative gases and moisture call for the development of cost-efficient and ecofriendly polymer nanocomposites. Herein, we report the facile fabrication of latex nanocomposites (LNCs) by incorporating surface-modified graphene oxide (mGO) at various loadings (0.025-1.2 wt %) into a styrene-acrylic latex using water as the processing solvent. LNCs fabricated with mGO exhibited significant reductions (up to 67%) in water vapor sorption, resulting in greater environmental stability when compared to LNCs fabricated with equivalent loading of hydrophilic, unmodified GO. The assembly and coalescence of the exfoliated latex/mGO dispersions during the film formation process produced highly dispersed and well-ordered mGO domains with high aspect ratios, where alignment and overlap of the mGO domains improved with increasing mGO content. The addition of only 0.7 vol % (1.2 wt %) mGO led to an 84% decrease (relative to the neat polymer latex film) in oxygen permeability of the LNC films, an excellent barrier performance attributed to the observed LNC film morphologies. This work enables ecofriendly development of mechanically flexible mGO/LNC films with superior barrier properties for many industrial applications including protective coatings, food packaging, and biomedical products.

14.
Genome Announc ; 4(6)2016 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27856585

RESUMO

Waterfoul is a newly isolated temperate siphovirus of Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2155. It was identified as a member of the K5 cluster of Mycobacterium phages and has a 61,248-bp genome with 95 predicted genes.

15.
Am J Hum Genet ; 99(6): 1368-1376, 2016 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27889060

RESUMO

Early-onset epileptic encephalopathy (EOEE) represents a heterogeneous group of severe disorders characterized by seizures, interictal epileptiform activity with a disorganized electroencephalography background, developmental regression or retardation, and onset before 1 year of age. Among a cohort of 57 individuals with epileptic encephalopathy, we ascertained two unrelated affected individuals with EOEE associated with developmental impairment and autosomal-recessive variants in AP3B2 by means of whole-exome sequencing. The targeted sequencing of AP3B2 in 86 unrelated individuals with EOEE led to the identification of an additional family. We gathered five additional families with eight affected individuals through the Matchmaker Exchange initiative by matching autosomal-recessive mutations in AP3B2. Reverse phenotyping of 12 affected individuals from eight families revealed a homogeneous EOEE phenotype characterized by severe developmental delay, poor visual contact with optic atrophy, and postnatal microcephaly. No spasticity, albinism, or hematological symptoms were reported. AP3B2 encodes the neuron-specific subunit of the AP-3 complex. Autosomal-recessive variations of AP3B1, the ubiquitous isoform, cause Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 2. The only isoform for the δ subunit of the AP-3 complex is encoded by AP3D1. Autosomal-recessive mutations in AP3D1 cause a severe disorder cumulating the symptoms of the AP3B1 and AP3B2 defects.


Assuntos
Complexo 3 de Proteínas Adaptadoras/genética , Subunidades beta do Complexo de Proteínas Adaptadoras/genética , Epilepsia/complicações , Epilepsia/genética , Genes Recessivos/genética , Mutação , Atrofia Óptica/complicações , Atrofia Óptica/genética , Idade de Início , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Microcefalia/genética , Linhagem , Síndrome
16.
Am J Med Genet A ; 170(9): 2338-48, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27271787

RESUMO

One of the goals of evaluating a patient in the genetics clinic is to find the diagnosis that would explain his or her clinical presentation. Sometimes the patient's diagnosis remains undefined or does not explain all of the clinical findings. As clinicians are often guided by a "single disorder" paradigm, diagnosing multiple genetic conditions in the same patient requires a heightened sense of awareness. Over the last few years, we evaluated several patients (n = 14) who were found to have more than one genetic diagnosis. In this paper, we will describe their natural history and diagnoses, and draw on the lessons learned from this phenomenon, which we expect to grow in this era of next-generation diagnostic technologies. To our knowledge, this is by far the largest series of patients with double diagnoses. Based on our findings, we strongly recommend that physicians question every diagnosis to determine whether it indeed explains all of the patients' symptoms, and consider whether they should continue the diagnostic evaluation to look for a more accurate and complete set of diagnoses. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Aneuploidia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deleção Cromossômica , Duplicação Cromossômica , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Feminino , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/terapia , Testes Genéticos , Variação Genética , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
17.
Am J Hum Genet ; 98(6): 1235-1242, 2016 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27259054

RESUMO

Whole-exome sequencing (WES) is increasingly being utilized to diagnose individuals with undiagnosed disorders. Developmental delay and short stature are common clinical indications for WES. We performed WES in three families, using proband-parent trios and two additional affected siblings. We identified a syndrome due to an autosomal-recessively inherited deficiency of transketolase, encoded by TKT, on chromosome 3p21. Our series includes three families with a total of five affected individuals, ranging in age from 4 to 25 years. Two families of Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry were homozygous for an 18 base pair in-frame insertion in TKT. The third family was compound heterozygous for nonsense and missense variants in TKT. All affected individuals had short stature and were developmentally delayed. Congenital heart defects were noted in four of the five affected individuals, and there was a history of chronic diarrhea and cataracts in the older individuals with the homozygous 18 base pair insertion. Enzymatic testing confirmed significantly reduced transketolase activity. Elevated urinary excretion of erythritol, arabitol, ribitol, and pent(ul)ose-5-phosphates was detected, as well as elevated amounts of erythritol, arabitol, and ribitol in the plasma of affected individuals. Transketolase deficiency reduces NADPH synthesis and nucleic acid synthesis and cell division and could explain the problems with growth. NADPH is also critical for maintaining cerebral glutathione, which might contribute to the neurodevelopmental delays. Transketolase deficiency is one of a growing list of inborn errors of metabolism in the non-oxidative part of the pentose phosphate pathway.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/etiologia , Nanismo/etiologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/etiologia , Mutação/genética , Transcetolase/genética , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/metabolismo , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Nanismo/metabolismo , Nanismo/patologia , Feminino , Glutationa/metabolismo , Cardiopatias Congênitas/metabolismo , Cardiopatias Congênitas/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , NADP/metabolismo , Linhagem , Síndrome , Adulto Jovem
18.
Cold Spring Harb Mol Case Stud ; 2(1): a000661, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27148580

RESUMO

We identified five unrelated individuals with significant global developmental delay and intellectual disability (ID), dysmorphic facial features and frequent microcephaly, and de novo predicted loss-of-function variants in chromosome alignment maintaining phosphoprotein 1 (CHAMP1). Our findings are consistent with recently reported de novo mutations in CHAMP1 in five other individuals with similar features. CHAMP1 is a zinc finger protein involved in kinetochore-microtubule attachment and is required for regulating the proper alignment of chromosomes during metaphase in mitosis. Mutations in CHAMP1 may affect cell division and hence brain development and function, resulting in developmental delay and ID.

19.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 42: 50-60, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27090694

RESUMO

In this study, the cytotoxicity of two different crystal phases of TiO2 nanoparticles, with surface modification by humic acid (HA), to Escherichia coli, was assessed. The physicochemical properties of TiO2 nanoparticles were thoroughly characterized. Three different initial concentrations, namely 50, 100, and 200 ppm, of HA were used for synthesis of HA coated TiO2 nanoparticles (denoted as A/RHA50, A/RHA100, and A/RHA200, respectively). Results indicate that rutile (LC50 (concentration that causes 50% mortality compared the control group)=6.5) was more toxic than anatase (LC50=278.8) under simulated sunlight (SSL) irradiation, possibly due to an extremely narrow band gap. It is noted that HA coating increased the toxicity of anatase, but decreased that of rutile. Additionally, AHA50 and RHA50 had the biggest differences compared to uncoated anatase and rutile with LC50 of 201.9 and 21.6, respectively. We then investigated the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by TiO2 nanoparticles in terms of hydroxyl radicals (·OH) and superoxide anions (O2(·-)). Data suggested that O2(·-) was the main ROS that accounted for the higher toxicity of rutile upon SSL irradiation. We also observed that HA coating decreased the generation of ·OH and O2(·-) on rutile, but increased O2(·-) formation on anatase. Results from TEM analysis also indicated that HA coated rutile tended to be attached to the surface of E. coli more than anatase.


Assuntos
Substâncias Húmicas , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Titânio/toxicidade , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Titânio/química
20.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 7(5): 880-892, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27118479

RESUMO

The Lone Star tick, Amblyomma americanum, is endemic to the southeastern United States and capable of transmitting pathogenic diseases and causing non-pathogenic conditions. To remain firmly attached to the host, the tick secretes a proteinaceous matrix termed the cement cone which hardens around the tick's mouthparts to assist in the attachment of the tick as well as to protect the mouthparts from the host immune system. Cement cones collected from ticks on a host are commonly contaminated with host skin and hair making analysis of the cone difficult. To reduce the contamination found in the cement cone, we have adapted an artificial membrane feeding system used to feed long mouthpart ticks. Cones collected from in vivo and membrane fed ticks are analyzed to determine changes in the cone morphology. Comparisons of the cement cones using light microscopy shows similar structures and color however using scanning electron microscopy the cones have drastically different structures. The in vivo cones contain fibrils, sheets, and are heavily textured whereas cones from membrane fed ticks are remarkably smooth with no distinct structures. Analysis of the secondary protein structures using FTIR-ATR show both in vivo and membrane fed cement cones contain ß sheets but only in vivo cement cones contain helical protein structures. Additionally, proteomic analysis using LC-MS/MS identifies many proteins including glycine rich proteins, metalloproteases, and protease inhibitors. Proteomic analysis of the cones identified both secreted and non-secreted tick proteins. Artificial membrane feeding is a suitable model for increased collection of cement cones for proteomic analysis however, structurally there are significant differences.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Artrópodes/química , Ixodidae/química , Membranas Artificiais , Animais , Proteínas de Artrópodes/análise , Proteínas de Artrópodes/metabolismo , Sangue , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Ixodidae/anatomia & histologia , Ixodidae/fisiologia , Masculino , Metaloproteases/análise , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Boca/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteases/análise , Proteômica , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
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