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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865792

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to develop a risk prediction model for patients with nonobstructive CAD. BACKGROUND: Among stable chest pain patients, most cardiovascular (CV) events occur in those with nonobstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). Thus, developing tailored risk prediction approaches in this group of patients, including CV risk factors and CAD characteristics, is needed. METHODS: In Prospective Multicenter Imaging Study for Evaluation of Chest Pain (PROMISE) computed tomographic angiography patients, a core laboratory assessed prevalence of CAD (nonobstructive 1% to 49% left main or 1% to 69% stenosis any coronary artery), degree of stenosis (minimal: 1% to 29%; mild: 30% to 49%; or moderate: 50% to 69%), high-risk plaque (HRP) features (positive remodeling, low-attenuation plaque, and napkin-ring sign), segment involvement score (SIS), and coronary artery calcium (CAC). The primary end point was an adjudicated composite of unstable angina pectoris, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and death. Cox regression analysis determined independent predictors in nonobstructive CAD. RESULTS: Of 2,890 patients (age 61.7 years, 46% women) with any CAD, 90.4% (n = 2,614) had nonobstructive CAD (mean age 61.6 yrs, 46% women, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease [ASCVD] risk 16.2%). Composite events were independently predicted by ASCVD risk (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.03; p = 0.001), degree of stenosis (30% to 69%; HR: 1.91; p = 0.011), and presence of ≥2 HRP features (HR: 2.40; p = 0.008). Addition of ≥2 HRP features to: 1) ASCVD and CAC; 2) ASCVD and SIS; or 3) ASCVD and degree of stenosis resulted in a statistically significant improvement in model fit (p = 0.0036; p = 0.0176; and p = 0.0318; respectively). Patients with ASCVD ≥7.5%, any HRP, and mild/moderate stenosis had significantly higher event rates than those who did not meet those criteria (3.0% vs. 6.2%; p = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: Advanced coronary plaque features have incremental value over total plaque burden for the discrimination of clinical events in low-risk stable chest pain patients with nonobstructive CAD. This may be a first step to improve prevention in this cohort with the highest absolute risk for CV events.

2.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 14(8): 830-845, 2021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33888229

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate 1-year outcomes of valve-in-mitral annular calcification (ViMAC) in the MITRAL (Mitral Implantation of Transcatheter Valves) trial. BACKGROUND: The MITRAL trial is the first prospective study evaluating the feasibility of ViMAC using balloon-expandable aortic transcatheter heart valves. METHODS: A multicenter prospective study was conducted, enrolling high-risk surgical patients with severe mitral annular calcification and symptomatic severe mitral valve dysfunction at 13 U.S. sites. RESULTS: Between February 2015 and December 2017, 31 patients were enrolled (median age 74.5 years [interquartile range (IQR): 71.3 to 81.0 years], 71% women, median Society of Thoracic Surgeons score 6.3% [IQR: 5.0% to 8.8%], 87.1% in New York Heart Association functional class III or IV). Access was transatrial (48.4%), transseptal (48.4%), or transapical (3.2%). Technical success was 74.2%. Left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO) with hemodynamic compromise occurred in 3 patients (transatrial, n = 1; transseptal, n = 1; transapical, n = 1). After LVOTO occurred in the first 2 patients, pre-emptive alcohol septal ablation was implemented to decrease risk in high-risk patients. No intraprocedural deaths or conversions to open heart surgery occurred during the index procedures. All-cause mortality at 30 days was 16.7% (transatrial, 21.4%; transseptal, 6.7%; transapical, 100% [n = 1]; p = 0.33) and at 1 year was 34.5% (transatrial, 38.5%; transseptal, 26.7%; p = 0.69). At 1-year follow-up, 83.3% of patients were in New York Heart Association functional class I or II, the median mean mitral valve gradient was 6.1 mm Hg (IQR: 5.6 to 7.1 mm Hg), and all patients had ≤1+ mitral regurgitation. CONCLUSIONS: At 1 year, ViMAC was associated with symptom improvement and stable transcatheter heart valve performance. Pre-emptive alcohol septal ablation may prevent transcatheter mitral valve replacement-induced LVOTO in patients at risk. Thirty-day mortality of patients treated via transseptal access was lower than predicted by the Society of Thoracic Surgeons score. Further studies are needed to evaluate safety and efficacy of ViMAC.

3.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 14(8): 846-858, 2021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33888230

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The authors report 1-year outcomes of high-risk patients with failed surgical annuloplasty rings undergoing transseptal mitral valve-in-ring (MViR) with the SAPIEN 3 aortic transcatheter heart valve (THV). BACKGROUND: The MITRAL (Mitral Implantation of Transcatheter Valves) trial is the first prospective study evaluating transseptal MViR with the SAPIEN 3 aortic THV in high-risk patients with failed surgical annuloplasty rings. METHODS: Prospective enrollment of high-risk patients with symptomatic moderate to severe or severe mitral regurgitation (MR) or severe mitral stenosis and failed annuloplasty rings at 13 U.S. sites. The primary safety endpoint was technical success. The primary THV performance endpoint was absence of MR grade ≥2+ or mean mitral valve gradient ≥10 mm Hg (30 days and 1 year). Secondary endpoints included procedural success and all-cause mortality (30 days and 1 year). RESULTS: Thirty patients were enrolled between January 2016 and October 2017 (median age 71.5 years [interquartile range: 67.0 to 76.8 years], 36.7% women, median Society of Thoracic Surgeons score 7.6% [interquartile range: 5.1% to 11.8%], 76.7% in New York Heart Association functional class III or IV). Technical success was 66.7% (driven primarily by need for a second valve in 6 patients). There was no intraprocedural mortality or conversion to surgery. The primary performance endpoint was achieved in 85.7% of survivors at 30 days (24 of 28) and 89.5% of patients alive at 1 year with echocardiographic data available (17 of 19). All-cause mortality at 30 days was 6.7% and at 1 year was 23.3%. Among survivors at 1-year follow-up, 84.2% were in New York Heart Association functional class I or II, the median mean mitral valve gradient was 6.0 mm Hg (interquartile range: 4.7 to 7.3 mm Hg), and all had ≤1+ MR. CONCLUSIONS: Transseptal MViR was associated with a 30-day mortality rate lower than predicted by the Society of Thoracic Surgeons score. At 1 year, transseptal MViR was associated with symptom improvement and stable THV performance.

6.
Diabetes Care ; 44(4): 1038-1045, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558267

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Obesity and metabolic syndrome are associated with major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). However, whether distinct metabolic phenotypes differ in risk for coronary artery disease (CAD) and MACE is unknown. We sought to determine the association of distinct metabolic phenotypes with CAD and MACE. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We included patients from the Prospective Multicenter Imaging Study for Evaluation of Chest Pain (PROMISE) who underwent coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography. Obesity was defined as a BMI ≥30 kg/m2 and metabolically healthy as less than or equal to one metabolic syndrome component except diabetes, distinguishing four metabolic phenotypes: metabolically healthy/unhealthy and nonobese/obese (MHN, MHO, MUN, and MUO). Differences in severe calcification (coronary artery calcification [CAC] ≥400), severe CAD (≥70% stenosis), high-risk plaque (HRP), and MACE were assessed using adjusted logistic and Cox regression models. RESULTS: Of 4,381 patients (48.4% male, 60.5 ± 8.1 years of age), 49.4% were metabolically healthy (30.7% MHN and 18.7% MHO) and 50.6% unhealthy (22.3% MUN and 28.4% MUO). MHO had similar coronary CT findings as compared with MHN (severe CAC/CAD and HRP; P > 0.36 for all). Among metabolically unhealthy patients, those with obesity had similar CT findings as compared with nonobese (P > 0.10 for all). However, both MUN and MUO had unfavorable CAD characteristics as compared with MHN (P ≤ 0.017 for all). A total of 130 events occurred during follow-up (median 26 months). Compared with MHN, MUN (hazard ratio [HR] 1.61 [95% CI 1.02-2.53]) but not MHO (HR 1.06 [0.62-1.82]) or MUO (HR 1.06 [0.66-1.72]) had higher risk for MACE. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with stable chest pain, four metabolic phenotypes exhibit distinctly different CAD characteristics and risk for MACE. Individuals who are metabolically unhealthy despite not being obese were at highest risk in our cohort.

7.
Glob Heart ; 16(1): 4, 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33598384

RESUMO

Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Health research is crucial to managing disease burden. Previous work has highlighted marked discrepancies in research output and disease burden between high-income countries (HICs) and low- and lower-middle-income countries (LI-LMICs) and there is little data to understand whether this gap has bridged in recent years. We conducted a global, country level bibliometric analysis of CVD publications with respect to trends in disease burden and county development indicators. Methods: A search filter with a precision and recall of 0.92 and 0.91 respectively was developed to extract cardiovascular publications from the Web of Science (WOS) for the years 2008-2017. Data for disease burden and country development indicators were extracted from the Global Burden of Disease and the World Bank database respectively. Results: Our search revealed 847,708 CVD publications for the period 2008-17, with a 43.4% increase over the decade. HICs contributed 81.1% of the global CVD research output and accounted for 8.1% and 8.5% of global CVD DALY losses deaths respectively. LI-LMICs contributed 2.8% of the total output and accounted for 59.5% and 57.1% global CVD DALY losses and death rates. Conclusions: A glaring disparity in research output and disease burden persists. While LI-LMICs contribute to the majority of DALYs and mortality from CVD globally, their contribution to research output remains the lowest. These data call on national health budgets and international funding support to allocate funds to strengthen research capacity and translational research to impact CVD burden in LI-LMICs.

8.
Eur Radiol ; 2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33501599

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The size of the heart may predict major cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with stable chest pain. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of 3D whole heart volume (WHV) derived from non-contrast cardiac computed tomography (CT). METHODS: Among participants randomized to the CT arm of the Prospective Multicenter Imaging Study for Evaluation of Chest Pain (PROMISE), we used deep learning to extract WHV, defined as the volume of the pericardial sac. We compared the WHV across categories of cardiovascular risk factors and coronary artery disease (CAD) characteristics and determined the association of WHV with MACE (all-cause death, myocardial infarction, unstable angina; median follow-up: 26 months). RESULTS: In the 3798 included patients (60.5 ± 8.2 years; 51.5% women), the WHV was 351.9 ± 57.6 cm3/m2. We found smaller WHV in no- or non-obstructive CAD, women, people with diabetes, sedentary lifestyle, and metabolic syndrome. Larger WHV was found in obstructive CAD, men, and increased atherosclerosis cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk score (p < 0.05). In a time-to-event analysis, small WHV was associated with over 4.4-fold risk of MACE (HR (per one standard deviation) = 0.221; 95% CI: 0.068-0.721; p = 0.012) independent of ASCVD risk score and CT-derived CAD characteristics. In patients with non-obstructive CAD, but not in those with no- or obstructive CAD, WHV increased the discriminatory capacity of ASCVD and CT-derived CAD characteristics significantly. CONCLUSIONS: Small WHV may represent a novel imaging marker of MACE in stable chest pain. In particular, WHV may improve risk stratification in patients with non-obstructive CAD, a cohort with an unmet need for better risk stratification. KEY POINTS: • Heart volume is easily assessable from non-contrast cardiac computed tomography. • Small heart volume may be an imaging marker of major adverse cardiac events independent and incremental to traditional cardiovascular risk factors and established CT measures of CAD. • Heart volume may improve cardiovascular risk stratification in patients with non-obstructive CAD.

9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(1): e2030832, 2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427883

RESUMO

Importance: The proportion of women and underrepresented racial and ethnic groups (UREGs) matriculating into general cardiology fellowships remains low. Objective: To assess a systematic recruitment initiative aimed at ensuring adequate matriculation of women and UREGs in a general cardiology fellowship. Design, Setting, and Participants: This quality improvement study took place at a large, tertiary academic medical center and associated Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Cardiovascular Disease fellowship. Participants included cardiology fellowship and divisional leadership and general cardiology fellow applicants to the Duke Cardiovascular Disease Fellowship Program from 2017 to 2019. Data analysis was performed from December 2019 to May 2020. Exposure: Multipronged initiative that created an environment committed to ensuring equity of opportunity. This included the creation of a fellowship diversity and inclusivity task force that drafted recommendations, which included reorganization of the fellowship recruitment committee, and changes to the applicant screening process, the interview day, applicant ranking process, and postmatch interventions. Main Outcomes and Measures: The percentage of matriculating and overall women and UREGs before and after the interventions were recorded. Results: The fellowship received a mean (SD) of 462 (55) applications annually before the interventions (2006-2016) and 611 (27) applications annually after the interventions (2017-2019). Between the 10-year period before the interventions and the 3-year period during the interventions, there was a significant increase in the annual mean (SD) percentage of women (22.4% [2.9%] vs 26.4% [0.07%]; P < .001) and UREG applicants (10.5% [1.1%] vs 12.5% [1.9%]; P = .01) to the program. Among applicants interviewed, the percentage of women increased from 20.0% to 33.5% (P = .01) and that of and UREGs increased from 14.0% to 20.0% (P = .01). Before the interventions, a mean (SD) of 23.2% (16.2%) women and 9.7% (7.8%) UREGs matriculated as first-year fellows, whereas after the interventions, a mean (SD) of 54.2% (7.2%) women and 33.3% (19.0%) UREGs matriculated as first-year fellows. The proportion of the entire fellowship who were women increased from a 5-year mean (SD) of 27.0% (8.8%) to 54.2% (7.2%) after 3 years of interventions, and that of UREGs increased from 5.6% (4.6%) to 33.3% (19.0%). Overall, the proportion of applicants in the entire population who were either women or from UREGs increased from 27.8% to 66.7%. Conclusions and Relevance: After implementing interventions to promote equity of opportunity in the cardiovascular disease fellowship, the percentage of women and UREGs significantly increased in the fellowship over a 3-year time period. These interventions may be applicable to other cardiovascular disease fellowships seeking to diversify training programs.


Assuntos
Cardiologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Bolsas de Estudo , Cardiologia/educação , Cardiologia/organização & administração , Diversidade Cultural , Bolsas de Estudo/organização & administração , Bolsas de Estudo/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , North Carolina , Universidades , Mulheres
10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 715, 2021 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33514711

RESUMO

Coronary artery calcium is an accurate predictor of cardiovascular events. While it is visible on all computed tomography (CT) scans of the chest, this information is not routinely quantified as it requires expertise, time, and specialized equipment. Here, we show a robust and time-efficient deep learning system to automatically quantify coronary calcium on routine cardiac-gated and non-gated CT. As we evaluate in 20,084 individuals from distinct asymptomatic (Framingham Heart Study, NLST) and stable and acute chest pain (PROMISE, ROMICAT-II) cohorts, the automated score is a strong predictor of cardiovascular events, independent of risk factors (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios up to 4.3), shows high correlation with manual quantification, and robust test-retest reliability. Our results demonstrate the clinical value of a deep learning system for the automated prediction of cardiovascular events. Implementation into clinical practice would address the unmet need of automating proven imaging biomarkers to guide management and improve population health.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Dor no Peito/diagnóstico , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Aprendizado Profundo , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Idoso , Doenças Assintomáticas , Cálcio/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Dor no Peito/etiologia , Vasos Coronários/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
11.
Can J Cardiol ; 37(4): 560-571, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33383166

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) is a leading cause of hospitalisation, morbidity, and mortality in Canada. There are sex-specific differences in the etiology, epidemiology, comorbidities, treatment response, and treatment adverse effects that have implications on outcomes in HF. Sex-specific analyses of some HF trials indicate that optimal doses of drug therapies and benefit of device therapies may differ between male and female patients, but the trials were not designed to test sex differences. The under-representation of female participants in HF randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is a major limitation in assessing the sex-specific efficacy and safety of treatments. To ensure that female patients receive safe and effective HF therapies, RCTs should include participants proportionate to the sex-specific distribution of disease. This review outlines the sex-specific differences in HF phenotype and treatment response, and highlights disparities in services and gaps in knowledge that merit further investigation.

12.
Br J Radiol ; 94(1117): 20200780, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33237824

RESUMO

Cardiovascular imaging has significantly evolved since the turn of the century. Progress in the last two decades has been marked by advances in every modality used to image the heart, including echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance, cardiac CT and nuclear cardiology. There has also been a dramatic increase in hybrid and fusion modalities that leverage the unique capabilities of two imaging techniques simultaneously, as well as the incorporation of artificial intelligence and machine learning into the clinical workflow. These advances in non-invasive cardiac imaging have guided patient management and improved clinical outcomes. The technological developments of the past 20 years have also given rise to new imaging subspecialities and increased the demand for dedicated cardiac imagers who are cross-trained in multiple modalities. This state-of-the-art review summarizes the evolution of multimodality cardiac imaging in the 21st century and highlights opportunities for future innovation.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem Cardíaca/métodos , Imagem Multimodal/métodos , Técnicas de Imagem Cardíaca/tendências , Humanos , Imagem Multimodal/tendências
13.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(25): 2940-2951, 2020 12 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33334422

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have evaluated if diastolic function could predict outcomes in patients with aortic stenosis. OBJECTIVES: The authors aimed to assess the association between diastolic dysfunction (DD) and outcomes in patients with aortic stenosis undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). METHODS: Baseline, 30-day, and 1- and 2-year transthoracic echocardiograms from the PARTNER (Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valves) 2 SAPIEN 3 registry were analyzed by a consortium of core laboratories and divided into the American Society of Echocardiography DD groups. RESULTS: Among the 1,750 included, 682 (54.4%) had grade 1 DD, 352 (28.1%) had grade 2 DD, 168 (13.4%) had grade 3 DD, and 51 (4.1%) had indeterminate DD grade. Incremental baseline grades of DD were associated with an increase in combined 1- and 2-year cardiovascular (CV) death/rehospitalization (all p < 0.002) and all-cause death at 2 years (p = 0.01) but not at 1 year. Improvement in DD grade/grade 1 DD at 30 days post-TAVR was seen in 70.8% patients. Patients with improvement in ≥1 grade of DD/grade 1 DD had reduced 1-year CV death/rehospitalization (p < 0.001) and increased 2-year survival (p = 0.01). Baseline grade 3 DD was a predictor of 1-year CV death/rehospitalization (hazard ratio: 2.73; 95% confidence interval: 1.07 to 6.98; p = 0.04). Improvement in DD grade/grade 1 DD at 30 days was protective for 1-year CV death/rehospitalizations (hazard ratio: 0.39; 95% confidence interval: 0.19 to 0.83; p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In the PARTNER 2 SAPIEN 3 registry, baseline DD was a predictor of up to 2 years clinical outcomes in patients who underwent TAVR. Improvement in DD grade at 30 days was associated with improvement in short-term clinical outcomes. (The PARTNER II Trial: Placement of AoRTic TraNscathetER Valves II - PARTNER II - PARTNERII - S3 Intermediate [PARTNERII S3i]; NCT03222128; PARTNER II Trial: Placement of AoRTic TraNscathetER Valves II - High Risk and Nested Registry 7 [PII S3HR/NR7]; NCT03222141).


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Insuficiência Cardíaca Diastólica , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/mortalidade , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Canadá , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Ecocardiografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca Diastólica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca Diastólica/etiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca Diastólica/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/métodos , Estados Unidos
14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(12): e2028312, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315111

RESUMO

Importance: Both noninvasive anatomic and functional testing strategies are now routinely used as initial workup in patients with low-risk stable chest pain (SCP). Objective: To determine whether anatomic approaches (ie, coronary computed tomography angiography [CTA] and coronary CTA supplemented with noninvasive fractional flow reserve [FFRCT], performed in patients with 30% to 69% stenosis) are cost-effective compared with functional testing for the assessment of low-risk SCP. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cost-effectiveness analysis used an individual-based Markov microsimulation model for low-risk SCP. The model was developed using patient data from the Prospective Multicenter Imaging Study for Evaluation of Chest Pain (PROMISE) trial. The model was validated by comparing model outcomes with outcomes observed in the PROMISE trial for anatomic (coronary CTA) and functional (stress testing) strategies, including diagnostic test results, referral to invasive coronary angiography (ICA), coronary revascularization, incident major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE), and costs during 60 days and 2 years. The validated model was used to determine whether anatomic approaches are cost-effective over a lifetime compared with functional testing. Exposure: Choice of index test for evaluation of low-risk SCP. Main Outcomes and Measures: Downstream ICA and coronary revascularization, MACE (death, nonfatal myocardial infarction), cost, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of competing strategies. Results: The model cohort included 10 003 individual patients (median [interquartile range] age, 60.0 [54.4-65.9] years; 5270 [52.7%] women; 7693 [77.4%] White individuals), who entered the model 100 times. The Markov model accurately estimated the test assignment, results of anatomic and functional index testing, referral to ICA, revascularization, MACE, and costs at 60 days and 2 years compared with observed data in PROMISE (eg, coronary CTA: ICA, 12.2% [95% CI, 10.9%-13.5%] vs 12.3% [95% CI, 12.2%-12.4%]; revascularization, 6.2% [95% CI, 5.5%-6.9%] vs 6.4% [95% CI, 6.3%-6.5%]; functional strategy: ICA, 8.1% [95% CI, 7.4%-8.9%] vs 8.2% [95% CI, 8.1%-8.3%]; revascularization, 3.2% [95% CI, 2.7%-3.7%] vs 3.3% [95% CI, 3.2%-3.4%]; 2-year MACE rates: coronary CTA, 2.1% [95% CI, 1.7%-2.5%] vs 2.3% [95% CI, 2.2%-2.4%]; functional strategy, 2.2% [95% CI, 1.8%-2.6%] vs 2.4% [95% CI, 2.3%-2.4%]). Anatomic approaches led to higher ICA and revascularization rates at 60 days, 2 years, and 5 years compared with functional testing but were more effective in patient selection for ICA (eg, 60-day revascularization-to-ICA ratio, CTA: 53.7% [95% CI, 53.3%-54.0%]; CTA with FFRCT: 59.5% [95% CI, 59.2%-59.8%]; functional testing: 40.7% [95% CI, 40.4%-50.0%]). Over a lifetime, anatomic approaches gained an additional 6 months in perfect health compared with functional testing (CTA, 25.16 [95% CI, 25.14-25.19] QALYs; CTA with FFRCT, 25.14 [95% CI, 25.12-25.17] QALYs; functional testing, 24.68 [95% CI, 24.66-24.70] QALYs). Anatomic strategies were less costly and more effective; thus, CTA with FFRCT dominated and CTA alone was cost-effective (ICERs ranged from $1912/QALY for women and $3,559/QALY for men) compared with functional testing. In probabilistic sensitivity analyses, anatomic approaches were cost-effective in more than 65% of scenarios, assuming a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100 000/QALY. Conclusions and Relevance: The results of this study suggest that anatomic strategies may present a more favorable initial diagnostic option in the evaluation of low-risk SCP compared with functional testing.


Assuntos
Dor no Peito/diagnóstico , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Teste de Esforço , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico , Revascularização Miocárdica , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/economia , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Estenose Coronária/fisiopatologia , Análise Custo-Benefício/métodos , Teste de Esforço/economia , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Cadeias de Markov , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Revascularização Miocárdica/métodos , Revascularização Miocárdica/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco/economia , Medição de Risco/métodos
15.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(21): 2421-2432, 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33213720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) in symptomatic patients referred for diagnostic testing has declined, warranting optimization of individualized diagnostic strategies. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to present a simple, clinically applicable tool enabling estimation of the likelihood of obstructive CAD by combining a pre-test probability (PTP) model (Diamond-Forrester approach using sex, age, and symptoms) with clinical risk factors and coronary artery calcium score (CACS). METHODS: The new tool was developed in a cohort of symptomatic patients (n = 41,177) referred for diagnostic testing. The risk factor-weighted clinical likelihood (RF-CL) was calculated through PTP and risk factors, while the CACS-weighted clinical likelihood (CACS-CL) added CACS. The 2 calculation models were validated in European and North American cohorts (n = 15,411) and compared with a recently updated PTP table. RESULTS: The RF-CL and CACS-CL models predicted the prevalence of obstructive CAD more accurately in the validation cohorts than the PTP model, and markedly increased the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curves of obstructive CAD: for the PTP model, 72 (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 71 to 74); for the RF-CL model, 75 (95% CI: 74 to 76); and for the CACS-CL model, 85 (95% CI: 84 to 86). In total, 38% of the patients in the RF-CL group and 54% in the CACS-CL group were categorized as having a low clinical likelihood of CAD, as compared with 11% with the PTP model. CONCLUSIONS: A simple risk factor and CACS-CL tool enables improved prediction and discrimination of patients with suspected obstructive CAD. The tool empowers reclassification of patients to low likelihood of CAD, who need no further testing.

17.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(17): 1919-1930, 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33092727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical trials change practice in cardiology, and leading them requires research training, mentorship, sponsorship, and networking. Women report challenges in obtaining these opportunities. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this review was to evaluate temporal trends in representation of women as authors in heart failure (HF) randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in high-impact medical journals and explore RCT characteristics associated with women as lead authors. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL for HF RCTs published in journals with an impact factor ≥10 between January 1, 2000, and May 7, 2019. We assessed temporal trends in the gender distribution of authors, and used multivariable logistic regression to determine characteristics associated with women as lead authors. RESULTS: We identified 10,596 unique articles, of which 403 RCTs met inclusion criteria. Women represented 15.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 12.2% to 19.6%), 12.9% (95% CI: 9.8% to 16.6%), and 11.4% (95% CI: 8.5% to 14.9%) of lead, senior, and corresponding authors, respectively. The proportion of women authors has not changed over time. Women had lower odds of lead authorship in RCTs that were multicenter (odds ratio [OR]: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.18 to 0.96; p = 0.037), were coordinated in North America (OR: 0.21; 95% CI: 0.08 to 0.70; p = 0.011) or Europe (OR: 0.33; 95% CI: 0.09 to 0.91; p = 0.039), tested drug interventions (OR: 0.42; 95% CI: 0.16 to 0.97; p = 0.043), or had men as the senior author (OR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.21 to 0.93; p = 0.043). CONCLUSIONS: Women are under-represented as authors of HF RCTs, with no change in temporal trends. Women had lower odds of lead authorship in RCTs that were multicenter, were coordinated in North America or Europe, tested drug interventions, or had men as senior authors.

18.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(21): e017330, 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33086926

RESUMO

Background The relationship between noninvasive cardiac diagnostic testing intensity and downstream clinical outcomes is unclear. Our objective was to examine the relationship between hospital network noninvasive cardiac diagnostic testing intensity and downstream clinical outcomes in patients who were discharged from the emergency department after assessment for chest pain. Methods and Results We employed a retrospective cohort study design of 387 809 patients evaluated for chest pain in the emergency department between April 1, 2010 and March 31, 2016. Hospital networks were divided into tertiles based on usage of noninvasive cardiac diagnostic testing. The primary outcome was a composite of acute myocardial infarction or all-cause mortality. Adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare the hazard of the composite outcome of myocardical infarction and/or all-cause mortality between the tertiles. After adjustment for clinically relevant covariates, patients evaluated for chest pain in intermediate noninvasive cardiac diagnostic testing usage tertile hospital networks did not have significantly different hazards of the composite outcome when compared with those evaluated in low usage tertile hospital networks >90 days (hazard ratio [HR], 1.00; 95% CI, 0.83-1.21), 6 months (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.92-1.24), and 1 year (HR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.94-1.14). Patients evaluated in the high usage tertile also did not have significantly different hazards of the composite outcome compared with those evaluated in the low usage tertile at 90 days (HR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.80-1.19), 6 months (HR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.87-1.17); and 1 year (HR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.86-1.05). Conclusions Our population-based study demonstrated that high noninvasive cardiac diagnostic testing use intensity was not associated with reductions in downstream myocardial infarction or all-cause mortality.

19.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(16): 1830-1843, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether transcatheter valves will have similar durability as surgical bioprosthetic valves. Definitions of structural valve deterioration (SVD), based on valve related reintervention or death, underestimate the incidence of SVD. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine and compare the 5-year incidence of SVD, using new standardized definitions based on echocardiographic follow-up of valve function, in intermediate-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis given transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) or surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) in the PARTNER (Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valves) 2A trial and registry. METHODS: In the PARTNER 2A trial, patients were randomly assigned to receive either TAVR with the SAPIEN XT or SAVR, whereas in the SAPIEN 3 registry, patients were assigned to TAVR with the SAPIEN 3. The primary endpoint was the incidence of SVD, that is, the composite of SVD-related hemodynamic valve deterioration during echocardiographic follow-up and/or SVD-related bioprosthetic valve failure (BVF) at 5 years. RESULTS: Compared with SAVR, the SAPIEN-XT TAVR cohort had a significantly higher 5-year exposure adjusted incidence rates (per 100 patient-years) of SVD (1.61 ± 0.24% vs. 0.63 ± 0.16%), SVD-related BVF (0.58 ± 0.14% vs. 0.12 ± 0.07%), and all-cause (structural or nonstructural) BVF (0.81 ± 0.16% vs. 0.27 ± 0.10%) (p ≤ 0.01 for all). The 5-year rates of SVD (0.68 ± 0.18% vs. 0.60 ± 0.17%; p = 0.71), SVD-related BVF (0.29 ± 0.12% vs. 0.14 ± 0.08%; p = 0.25), and all-cause BVF (0.60 ± 0.15% vs. 0.32 ± 0.11%; p = 0.32) in SAPIEN 3 TAVR were not significantly different to a propensity score matched SAVR cohort. The 5-year rates of SVD and SVD-related BVF were significantly lower in SAPIEN 3 versus SAPIEN XT TAVR matched cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with SAVR, the second-generation SAPIEN XT balloon-expandable valve has a higher 5-year rate of SVD, whereas the third-generation SAPIEN 3 has a rate of SVD that was not different from SAVR. (The PARTNER II Trial: Placement of AoRTic TraNscathetER Valves - PII A [PARTNERII A]; NCT01314313; The PARTNER II Trial: Placement of AoRTic TraNscathetER Valves II - PARTNER II - PARTNERII - S3 Intermediate [PARTNERII S3i]; NCT03222128).

20.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(10): 1223-1225, 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883416
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