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Mol Ther Nucleic Acids ; 18: 580-589, 2019 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678734


Systemic delivery of antisense oligonucleotides (AO) for DMD exon skipping has proven effective for reframing DMD mRNA, rescuing dystrophin expression, and slowing disease progression in animal models. In humans with Duchenne muscular dystrophy treated with AOs, low levels of dystrophin have been induced, and modest slowing of disease progression has been observed, highlighting the need for improved efficiency of human skipping drugs. Here, we demonstrate that dantrolene and Rycals S107 and ARM210 potentiate AO-mediated exon skipping of exon 44 or exon 45 in patient-derived myotube cultures with appropriate mutations. Further, dantrolene is shown to boost AO-mediated exon skipping in patient-derived, induced cardiomyocyte cultures. Our findings further validate the ryanodine receptors (RyR) as the likely target responsible for exon skip boosting and demonstrate potential applicability beyond exon 51 skipping. These data provide preclinical support of dantrolene trial as an adjuvant to AO-mediated exon-skipping therapy in humans and identify a novel Rycal, ARM210, for development as a potential exon-skipping booster. Further, they highlight the value of mutation-specific DMD culture models for basic discovery, preclinical drug screening and translation of personalized genetic medicines.

Neuromuscul Disord ; 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672265


Duchenne muscular dystrophy is caused by mutations in the dystrophin-encoding DMD gene. While Duchenne is most commonly caused by large intragenic deletions that cause frameshift and complete loss of dystrophin expression, in-frame deletions in DMD can result in the expression of internally truncated dystrophin proteins and may be associated with a milder phenotype. In this study, we describe two individuals with large in-frame 5' deletions (exon 3-23 and exon 3-28) that remove the majority of the N-terminal region, including part of the actin binding and central rod domains. Both patients had progressive muscle weakness during childhood but are observed to have a relatively mild disease course compared to typical Duchenne. We show that in muscle biopsies from both patients, truncated dystrophin is expressed at the sarcolemma. We have additionally developed a patient-specific fibroblast-derived cell model, which can be inducibly reprogrammed to form myotubes that largely recapitulate biopsy findings for the patient with the exon 3-23 deletion, providing a culture model for future investigation of this unusual case. We discuss these mutations in the context of previously reported 5' in-frame DMD deletions and relevant animal models, and review the spectrum of phenotypes associated with these deletions.

Genet Med ; 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607746


PURPOSE: We investigated the value of transcriptome sequencing (RNAseq) in ascertaining the consequence of DNA variants on RNA transcripts to improve the diagnostic rate from exome or genome sequencing for undiagnosed Mendelian diseases spanning a wide spectrum of clinical indications. METHODS: From 234 subjects referred to the Undiagnosed Diseases Network, University of California-Los Angeles clinical site between July 2014 and August 2018, 113 were enrolled for high likelihood of having rare undiagnosed, suspected genetic conditions despite thorough prior clinical evaluation. Exome or genome sequencing and RNAseq were performed, and RNAseq data was integrated with genome sequencing data for DNA variant interpretation genome-wide. RESULTS: The molecular diagnostic rate by exome or genome sequencing was 31%. Integration of RNAseq with genome sequencing resulted in an additional seven cases with clear diagnosis of a known genetic disease. Thus, the overall molecular diagnostic rate was 38%, and 18% of all genetic diagnoses returned required RNAseq to determine variant causality. CONCLUSION: In this rare disease cohort with a wide spectrum of undiagnosed, suspected genetic conditions, RNAseq analysis increased the molecular diagnostic rate above that possible with genome sequencing analysis alone even without availability of the most appropriate tissue type to assess.

Genet Med ; 2018 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30245513


PURPOSE: Pathogenic variants in KAT6A have recently been identified as a cause of syndromic developmental delay. Within 2 years, the number of patients identified with pathogenic KAT6A variants has rapidly expanded and the full extent and variability of the clinical phenotype has not been reported. METHODS: We obtained data for patients with KAT6A pathogenic variants through three sources: treating clinicians, an online family survey distributed through social media, and a literature review. RESULTS: We identified 52 unreported cases, bringing the total number of published cases to 76. Our results expand the genotypic spectrum of pathogenic variants to include missense and splicing mutations. We functionally validated a pathogenic splice-site variant and identified a likely hotspot location for de novo missense variants. The majority of clinical features in KAT6A syndrome have highly variable penetrance. For core features such as intellectual disability, speech delay, microcephaly, cardiac anomalies, and gastrointestinal complications, genotype- phenotype correlations show that late-truncating pathogenic variants (exons 16-17) are significantly more prevalent. We highlight novel associations, including an increased risk of gastrointestinal obstruction. CONCLUSION: Our data expand the genotypic and phenotypic spectrum for individuals with genetic pathogenic variants in KAT6A and we outline appropriate clinical management.

Hum Mutat ; 39(9): 1193-1202, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29907980


Antisense oligonucleotide (AON)-mediated exon skipping is an emerging therapeutic for individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Skipping of exons adjacent to common exon deletions in DMD using AONs can produce in-frame transcripts and functional protein. Targeted skipping of DMD exons 8, 44, 45, 50, 51, 52, 53, and 55 is predicted to benefit 47% of affected individuals. We observed a correlation between mutation subgroups and age at loss of ambulation in the Duchenne Registry, a large database of phenotypic and genetic data for DMD (N = 765). Males amenable to exon 44 (N = 74) and exon 8 skipping (N = 18) showed prolonged ambulation compared to other exon skip groups and nonsense mutations (P = 0.035 and P < 0.01, respectively). In particular, exon 45 deletions were associated with prolonged age at loss of ambulation relative to the rest of the exon 44 skip amenable cohort and other DMD mutations. Exon 3-7 deletions also showed prolonged ambulation relative to all other exon 8 skippable mutations. Cultured myotubes from DMD patients with deletions of exons 3-7 or exon 45 showed higher endogenous skipping than other mutations, providing a potential biological rationale for our observations. These results highlight the utility of aggregating phenotypic and genotypic data for rare pediatric diseases to reveal progression differences, identify potentially confounding factors, and probe molecular mechanisms that may affect disease severity.

Genome Med ; 9(1): 90, 2017 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29070057


BACKGROUND: Massively parallel DNA sequencing, such as exome sequencing, has become a routine clinical procedure to identify pathogenic variants responsible for a patient's phenotype. Exome sequencing has the capability of reliably identifying inherited and de novo single-nucleotide variants, small insertions, and deletions. However, due to the use of 100-300-bp fragment reads, this platform is not well powered to sensitively identify moderate to large structural variants (SV), such as insertions, deletions, inversions, and translocations. METHODS: To overcome these limitations, we used next-generation mapping (NGM) to image high molecular weight double-stranded DNA molecules (megabase size) with fluorescent tags in nanochannel arrays for de novo genome assembly. We investigated the capacity of this NGM platform to identify pathogenic SV in a series of patients diagnosed with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), due to large deletions, insertion, and inversion involving the DMD gene. RESULTS: We identified deletion, duplication, and inversion breakpoints within DMD. The sizes of deletions were in the range of 45-250 Kbp, whereas the one identified insertion was approximately 13 Kbp in size. This method refined the location of the break points within introns for cases with deletions compared to current polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based clinical techniques. Heterozygous SV were detected in the known carrier mothers of the DMD patients, demonstrating the ability of the method to ascertain carrier status for large SV. The method was also able to identify a 5.1-Mbp inversion involving the DMD gene, previously identified by RNA sequencing. CONCLUSIONS: We showed the ability of NGM technology to detect pathogenic structural variants otherwise missed by PCR-based techniques or chromosomal microarrays. NGM is poised to become a new tool in the clinical genetic diagnostic strategy and research due to its ability to sensitively identify large genomic variations.

Mapeamento Cromossômico , Genoma Humano , Variação Estrutural do Genoma , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Distrofina/genética , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Triagem de Portadores Genéticos , Humanos , Masculino , Mães , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/diagnóstico , Mutagênese Insercional , Inversão de Sequência