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1.
J Clin Exp Neuropsychol ; : 1-17, 2020 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902277

RESUMO

Introduction: Theory of Mind (ToM) refers to an individual's ability to attribute mental states to others. It is well established that the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia can undermine ToM. However, there is no consensus on how Alzheimer's disease affects ToM. The following report represents a systematic literature review of ToM in Alzheimer's disease over the past ten years.Method: We performed a survey using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyzes (PRISMA) criteria. The literature search was performed using the electronic databases MEDLINE (Pubmed) and Science Citation Index (ISI). The following descriptors were used in the review process: theory of mind or mentalizing and Alzheimer disease or Alzheimer's disease or Alzheimer type dementia. This systematic review was recorded in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) under the number CDR42018115152.Results: We identified 117 articles, 24 of which met our criteria. The most common assessment measure used in the evaluation of the ToM was the first and second order false belief task. Many studies reported that individuals with Alzheimer's disease were impaired on more complex tasks, such as second-order false belief tasks, but had intact performance on simpler tasks, such as first order false beliefs and affective ToM. In contrast, some studies reported that ToM deficits may also appears in simpler and affective tasks.Conclusions: The variability in methodologies, the design and complexity of the tasks applied, the heterogeneity in terms of dementia stage/severity, and the level of cognitive impairment contribute to the variability and inconsistency of the results. Future research should investigate the ToM using more ecological and standardized methods.

2.
Aging Ment Health ; 24(2): 250-258, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30499333

RESUMO

Objectives: To investigate the resilience of caregivers of people with mild and moderate Alzheimer's disease (PwAD) and the related sociodemographic and clinical characteristics.Methods: Cross-sectional assessment of dyads of PwAD and family caregivers (N = 106). Caregivers were assessed for resilience, depression, anxiety, hopelessness, quality of life, burden and cognition. PwAD were assessed for severity of dementia, cognition, neuropsychiatric symptoms, functionality, quality of life and awareness of disease.Results: Most of the caregivers (51.1%) reported emotional problems (symptoms of anxiety, stress and depression). In both mild (p < 0.05) and moderate (p < 0.05) PwAD groups, resilience was inversely related to self-reported emotional problems. There was not a significant difference between caregivers of mild and moderate PwAD resilience (p < 0.05). Upon analyzing the factors related to resilience, we found some differences between the groups of caregivers of mild and moderate PwAD. Neuropsychiatric symptoms of PwAD (p < 0.05) and caregiver's depressive symptoms (p < 0.05) were related to resilience of caregivers of mild PwAD. In the moderate group, caregivers' higher levels of quality of life (p < 0.05) and co-residing with PwAD (p < 0.05) were related to resilience.Conclusion: Caregivers' resilience is driven by different factors according to disease severity. The findings suggest that resilience allows caregivers to manage and respond positively to stressful demands of care.

3.
Int Psychogeriatr ; : 1-11, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647053

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the nature of the relationship between cognitive function, mood state, and functionality in predicting awareness in a non-clinically depressed sample of participants with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) in Brazil. METHODS: People with AD (PwAD) aged 60 years or older were recruited from an outpatient unit at the Center of AD of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Measures of awareness of condition (Assessment Scale of the Psychosocial Impact of the Diagnosis of Dementia), cognitive function (Mini-Mental State Examination), mood state (Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia), and functionality (Pfeffer Functional Activities Questionnaire) were applied to 264 people with mild to moderate AD and their caregivers. Hypotheses were tested statistically using SEM approach. Three competing models were compared. RESULTS: The first model, in which the influence of mood state and cognitive function on awareness was mediated by functionality, showed a very good fit to the data and a medium effect size. The competing models, in which the mediating variables were mood state and cognitive function, respectively, only showed poor model fit. CONCLUSION: Our model supports the notion that the relationship between different factors and awareness in AD is mediated by functionality and not by depressive mood state or cognitive level. The proposed direct and indirect effects on awareness are discussed, as well as the missing direct influence of mood state on awareness. The understanding of awareness in dementia is crucial and our model gives one possible explanation of its underlying structure in AD.

4.
Dement Neuropsychol ; 13(3): 268-283, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31555399

RESUMO

Day care (DC) provides a break in daily care as a support strategy for family caregivers (FC) of people with dementia (PwD). Objective: to analyze the support strategies used by the DC for FC, their methodological and theoretical models, as well as the respective benefits for FC burden, coping strategies and quality of life. Methods: a systematic review following the Prisma methodology was performed on PubMed, PsycInfo, Scopus and SciELO electronic databases in August, 2018. The search keywords were "day care", "dementia" or Alzheimer disease, "caregiver", "quality of life" and "psychological adaptation". Results: twenty-one studies were included. No randomized controlled trials were found. The provision of education, counseling and support, access to information, the professionals' expertise and the quality of their relationship with DC users were highlighted by caregivers. Compared to standard programs centering on PwD, the integrated program focused on PwD and FC activities showed increased feelings of competence and self-confidence of FC to postpone institutionalization. Heterogeneity in the structure and organization of the DC programs, intervention strategies and theoretical basis was observed. Conclusion: Integrated programs are a promising approach that addresses the needs and demands of PwD and their FC in a multidimensional manner.

5.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 13(3): 268-283, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039655

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Day care (DC) provides a break in daily care as a support strategy for family caregivers (FC) of people with dementia (PwD). Objective: to analyze the support strategies used by the DC for FC, their methodological and theoretical models, as well as the respective benefits for FC burden, coping strategies and quality of life. Methods: a systematic review following the Prisma methodology was performed on PubMed, PsycInfo, Scopus and SciELO electronic databases in August, 2018. The search keywords were "day care", "dementia" or Alzheimer disease, "caregiver", "quality of life" and "psychological adaptation". Results: twenty-one studies were included. No randomized controlled trials were found. The provision of education, counseling and support, access to information, the professionals' expertise and the quality of their relationship with DC users were highlighted by caregivers. Compared to standard programs centering on PwD, the integrated program focused on PwD and FC activities showed increased feelings of competence and self-confidence of FC to postpone institutionalization. Heterogeneity in the structure and organization of the DC programs, intervention strategies and theoretical basis was observed. Conclusion: Integrated programs are a promising approach that addresses the needs and demands of PwD and their FC in a multidimensional manner.


RESUMO O centro-dia (CD) permite uma pausa no cuidado diário como estratégia de apoio aos cuidadores familiares (CF) das pessoas com demência (PcD). Objetivo: analisar as estratégias de suporte aos CF oferecidas pelos CD, seus modelos metodológicos e teóricos, bem como os respectivos benefícios sobre sua sobrecarga, estratégias de enfrentamento e qualidade de vida. Métodos: uma revisão sistemática utilizando a metodologia Prisma foi realizada nos bancos de dados eletrônicos PubMed, PsycInfo, Scopus e SciELO em agosto, 2018. As palavras chave da pesquisa foram "centro dia", "demência" ou doença de Alzheimer, "cuidador", "qualidade de vida" e "adaptação psicológica". Resultados: vinte e um estudos foram incluídos. Não foram encontrados estudos randomizados. A oferta de educação, aconselhamento e apoio, o acesso a informações sobre a estrutura e o programa do CD, a expertise dos profissionais e a qualidade da relação destes com os usuários foram aspectos ressaltados pelos cuidadores. Comparados aos programas padrão centrados na PcD, estudos descrevendo o programa integrado, focado nas atividades para PcD e CF, mostraram um aumento no sentimento de competência e autoconfiança do CF e adiamento da institucionalização. Observou-se heterogeneidade na estrutura e organização dos programas de CD, nas estratégias de intervenção e nas bases teóricas. Conclusão: programas integrados são uma abordagem promissora que atende às necessidades e demandas das PcD e seus CF de forma multidimensional.


Assuntos
Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Adaptação Psicológica , Cuidadores , Demência , Doença de Alzheimer
6.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 69(2): 539-549, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104022

RESUMO

 Facial expression recognition is one of the essential abilities for social cognition. We aimed to compare facial expression recognition among people with mild and moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to identify which factors were associated with impairment according to disease severity. We included 52 participants with either mild or moderate AD. FACES includes four subtasks requiring matching expressions with picture stimuli (tasks 1 and 2), labelling emotions (task 3), and recognizing situations with evident emotional content (task 4). There were significant differences between groups in FACES global scores, task 2 and task 4. In the mild AD group, FACES global score was influenced by educational background and cognitive performance, task 1 was associated with comprehension and constructive praxis, task 2 was associated with cognitive flexibility, and task 3 was associated with word finding. In subtask 4, no significant associations were found after adjusting for level of cognitive decline. In the moderate AD group, the awareness of emotional state domain was associated with FACES global score, task 1 was associated with constructive praxis, task 3 was associated with neuropsychiatric symptoms, and task 4 was associated with the ability to recognize emotions through situations. No significant associations were found on task 2, after adjusting for level of cognitive decline. Our findings suggest emotional processing difficulties across AD stages. However, when participants needed to recognize the most preponderant emotion in a situation with evident emotional content, our results suggest that in both groups there was no influence of cognitive impairment.

7.
J Clin Exp Neuropsychol ; 41(2): 192-203, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30088784

RESUMO

Introduction: It is well established that behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia can impair social and emotional function. However, there is no consensus regarding how Alzheimer's disease can affect facial expression recognition. We aim to systematically review all the literature addressing this issue over the last 10 years. Method: We conducted a search based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). The search for literature was undertaken on 19 September 2017, using Pubmed, SciELO, BIREME, and Thomson Reuters Web of Science electronic databases. The key terms for the search were: Alzheimer's disease, dementia, and facial expression recognition. Results: We screened 173 articles, and 22 of them were selected. The most common methodology involved showing participants photographs of people expressing the six basic emotions-fear, anger, sadness, disgust, surprise, and happiness. Results were ambiguous. Among people with mild Alzheimer's disease, happiness was easier to recognize than the other five basic emotions, with sadness and anger the most difficult to recognize. In addition, the intensity level of the emotions presented seems to be important, and facial expression recognition is related to specific cognitive capacities, including executive function and visuoperceptual abilities. Impairment in facial expression recognition does not appear to be a consistent neuropsychological finding in Alzheimer's disease. Conclusions: The lack of standardized assessment instruments and the heterogeneity of the methods and samples used across studies hamper comparisons. Future researches should investigate facial expression recognition through more ecological and standardized methods.

8.
Dement Neuropsychol ; 12(4): 337-352, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30546843

RESUMO

Metamemory is the awareness of one's own knowledge and control of memory, and refers to the online ability to gather information about the current state of the memory system. Objective: Metamemory is one's own knowledge and control of memory. A systematic review was performed to identify the types of tasks used for evaluating metamemory monitoring, the stimuli used in these tasks, their limitations and the outcomes in people with Alzheimer's disease (PwAD). Methods: This systematic review followed PRISMA methodology. A search of Pubmed, Scopus and Web of Science electronic databases was carried out in September, 2018, identifying experimental investigations of metamemory and dementia. Results: We included 21 studies. The most common tasks used were judgement of learning, feeling of knowing, judgement of confidence and global prediction. The rates of discrepancy between PwAD and caregivers still need further research. The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test was the most used list of words. PwAD are able to accurately rate their memory functioning and performance, when the evaluation is done soon afterwards. PwAD tend to overestimate their functioning and performance when the judgement involves forward-looking vision. Conclusion: In the context of metamemory impairment, clinicians and caregivers should seek interventions aiming to identify compensatory styles of functioning. This systematic review provides initial evidence for the use of metamemory measures as part of broader assessments evaluating Alzheimer's disease.

9.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 12(4): 337-352, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-984331

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Metamemory is the awareness of one's own knowledge and control of memory, and refers to the online ability to gather information about the current state of the memory system. Objective: Metamemory is one's own knowledge and control of memory. A systematic review was performed to identify the types of tasks used for evaluating metamemory monitoring, the stimuli used in these tasks, their limitations and the outcomes in people with Alzheimer's disease (PwAD). Methods: This systematic review followed PRISMA methodology. A search of Pubmed, Scopus and Web of Science electronic databases was carried out in September, 2018, identifying experimental investigations of metamemory and dementia. Results: We included 21 studies. The most common tasks used were judgement of learning, feeling of knowing, judgement of confidence and global prediction. The rates of discrepancy between PwAD and caregivers still need further research. The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test was the most used list of words. PwAD are able to accurately rate their memory functioning and performance, when the evaluation is done soon afterwards. PwAD tend to overestimate their functioning and performance when the judgement involves forward-looking vision. Conclusion: In the context of metamemory impairment, clinicians and caregivers should seek interventions aiming to identify compensatory styles of functioning. This systematic review provides initial evidence for the use of metamemory measures as part of broader assessments evaluating Alzheimer's disease.


RESUMO Metamemoria é a consciência do próprio conhecimento e controle da memória, e refere-se à capacidade online de reunir informações sobre o estado atual do sistema de memória. Objetivo: Metamemória é a consciência sobre o próprio conhecimento e controle da memória. Nós conduzimos uma revisão sistemática para identificar os tipos de tarefa usadas para avaliar o monitoramento da metamemória, os estímulos usados nessas tarefas, suas limitações e resultados em pessoas com doenças de Alzheimer. Métodos: Esta revisão sistemática usou a metodologia PRISMA. Uma busca nas bases Pubmed, Scopus e Web of Science foi feita em Setembro de 2018. Foram identificados estudos experimentais em metamória e demência. Resultados: Foram incluídos 21 estudos que se enquadravam nos critérios de inclusão. As tarefas mais comuns foram "judgement of learning", "feeling of knowing", "judgement of confidence" and "global prediction". As discrepâncias, em termos de monitoramento de metamemória, ainda necessitam de pesquisas futuras. O Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test foi a lista de palavras mais usada. Pessoas com doença de Alzheimer são capazes de avaliar de forma acurada o seu funcionamento da memória, quando a avaliação é feita em um momento posterior. Eles tendem a superestimar seu funcionamento quando o julgamento é feito em uma visão de futuro. Conclusão: No contexto do comprometimento da metamemória, é necessário que clínicos e cuidadores procurem intervenções com o objetivo de identificar estilos compensatórios de funcionamento. Assim, esta revisão sistemática fornece evidências iniciais sobre o uso de medidas de metamemória como parte de avaliações mais amplas na doença de Alzheimer.


Assuntos
Humanos , Metacognição , Demência , Doença de Alzheimer/complicações , Testes de Memória e Aprendizagem
10.
Trends Psychiatry Psychother ; 40(3): 258-268, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30304119

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Caregivers of people with Alzheimer disease (PwAD) report significant stress, burden and depression compared to caregivers of people with other dementias, especially when neuropsychiatric symptoms are prominent. Adequate coping strategies can modify the impact of stressful situations and increase the caregivers' quality of life. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the different coping strategies used by caregivers of PwAD to manage neuropsychiatric symptoms. METHOD: We carried out electronic searches using MEDLINE (PubMed), SciELO, Web of Knowledge Cross Search (Thomson Scientific/ISI Web Services) and PsycINFO databases to select studies on coping in PwAD caregivers published from January 2005 to July 2017. The search terms were coping, caregivers, strategy, onset, adaptation, family, behavior, dementia and Alzheimer. The studies were organized in three categories: problem-focused, emotion-focused and dysfunctional coping strategies. RESULTS: We found 2,277 articles. After application of exclusion criteria and exclusion of redundant references, 24 articles were analyzed. Emotion-focused coping was the most commonly used strategy among PwAD caregivers. The use of this strategy associated with religion and spirituality may help reduce symptoms of depression and anxiety. Problem-focused coping strategies were mostly used with active coping interventions. Problem-solving coping may have buffered the impact of acute psychological stressors on procoagulant activity. Dysfunctional coping strategies were associated with increase of caregiver burden. CONCLUSION: The evaluated studies showed that the use and development of coping strategies may have ameliorated the depressive symptoms, anxiety and burden of caregivers. However, longitudinal studies are still needed that clearly describe the type of coping strategy used in relation to the presented results.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Doença de Alzheimer , Cuidadores/psicologia , Doença de Alzheimer/terapia , Humanos
11.
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 40(3): 258-268, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-963102

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction Caregivers of people with Alzheimer disease (PwAD) report significant stress, burden and depression compared to caregivers of people with other dementias, especially when neuropsychiatric symptoms are prominent. Adequate coping strategies can modify the impact of stressful situations and increase the caregivers' quality of life. Objective To systematically review the different coping strategies used by caregivers of PwAD to manage neuropsychiatric symptoms. Method We carried out electronic searches using MEDLINE (PubMed), SciELO, Web of Knowledge Cross Search (Thomson Scientific/ISI Web Services) and PsycINFO databases to select studies on coping in PwAD caregivers published from January 2005 to July 2017. The search terms were coping, caregivers, strategy, onset, adaptation, family, behavior, dementia and Alzheimer. The studies were organized in three categories: problem-focused, emotion-focused and dysfunctional coping strategies. Results We found 2,277 articles. After application of exclusion criteria and exclusion of redundant references, 24 articles were analyzed. Emotion-focused coping was the most commonly used strategy among PwAD caregivers. The use of this strategy associated with religion and spirituality may help reduce symptoms of depression and anxiety. Problem-focused coping strategies were mostly used with active coping interventions. Problem-solving coping may have buffered the impact of acute psychological stressors on procoagulant activity. Dysfunctional coping strategies were associated with increase of caregiver burden. Conclusion The evaluated studies showed that the use and development of coping strategies may have ameliorated the depressive symptoms, anxiety and burden of caregivers. However, longitudinal studies are still needed that clearly describe the type of coping strategy used in relation to the presented results.


Resumo Introdução Cuidadores de pessoas com doença de Alzheimer relatam mais estresse, sobrecarga e depressão em comparação com cuidadores de pessoas com outras patologias, especialmente quando os sintomas neuropsiquiátricos são proeminentes. Estratégias adequadas de enfrentamento podem modificar o impacto de situações estressantes e aumentar a qualidade de vida do cuidador. Objetivo Revisar sistematicamente as diferentes estratégias de enfrentamento utilizadas pelos cuidadores para lidar com sintomas neuropsiquiátricos. Método Foi realizada busca eletrônica em artigos publicados entre janeiro de 2005 e julho de 2017 nos bancos de dados MEDLINE (PubMed), SciELO, Web of Knowledge Cross Search (Thomson Scientific/ISI Web Services) e PsycINFO. Os termos utilizados foram coping, caregivers, strategy, onset, adaptation, family, behavior, dementia and Alzheimer. Os artigos avaliados foram categorizados em estratégias de enfrentamento focadas na resolução do problema, na emoção e estratégias disfuncionais. Resultados Foram encontrados 2.277 artigos. Após aplicação dos critérios de exclusão, foram incluídos 24 artigos. A estratégia de enfrentamento mais utilizada foi a focada na emoção. O uso desta estratégia associada a religião e espiritualidade pode reduzir sintomas de depressão e ansiedade dos cuidadores. As estratégias de enfrentamento focadas na resolução do problema utilizaram principalmente intervenções baseadas no enfrentamento ativo. A resolução de problemas reduz o impacto dos estressores psicológicos agudos sobre a atividade procoagulante. As estratégias disfuncionais estavam associadas ao aumento da sobrecarga dos cuidadores. Conclusão Os estudos mostraram que o desenvolvimento e uso de estratégias de enfrentamento pode aliviar sintomas depressivos, ansiosos e sobrecarga do cuidador. No entanto, ainda são necessários estudos longitudinais que descrevam claramente o tipo de estratégia de enfrentamento utilizada em relação aos desfechos das pesquisas.

12.
Dementia (London) ; : 1471301218789990, 2018 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30058371

RESUMO

Background Cognition and the ability to take care of daily activities and oneself gradually declines among people with dementia. Studies are scarce, especially regarding how people with young-onset dementia (YOD) (<65 years) experience the quality of their lives with the progression of dementia. People with dementia living alone face special challenges. Aim To examine the experience of the quality of life with YOD as a single person. Method The study presents a longitudinal case study with in-depth interviews exploring the experiences of a person with YOD. Individual interviews were conducted seven times over a period of three years from 2014 to 2017. Findings We examined if and how seven themes concerning the quality of life and well-being were fruitful for understanding the experiences of dementia in the everyday life of a single individual. The study explored needs and challenges during the development of dementia, and how the person reacted over time, set in context. The themes significant for well-being are: identity, connectedness, security, autonomy, meaning, growth and joy. Conclusion The study shows how treatment, support, and services must be individualized when dementia develops in order to support identity, resources and mastering capacity, and promote well-being.

13.
Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being ; 13(1): 1490620, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29975182

RESUMO

Having dementia before the age of 65 (YOD) represents a radical break from an age-normative and expected life course. The disease afflicts the person's identity, threatens the self-image and self-confidence, and erodes the person's plans. The aim of the study was toexamine how people living alone with YOD perceive the course of dementia, their needs, and coping strategies, with a focus on narrating everyday life experiences. A longitudinal study using a qualitative approach was used. Five interviews, each with 10 informants, took place every 6 months from 2014 to 2017. The main theme is the person's experiences of changes of identity over time. The most significant aspects of their experiences of the dementia affecting them and their reactions are these: the initial signs, coping efforts, concealing the diagnosis, social retraction, existential anxiety, revival of the self, worse and worse, and health personnel as background. The study concluded thatpeople with dementia are able to describe their experiences and needs for a long time during the progression of dementia. Their voices should be listened to for planning of services. Personalized care should be used to support them in order to preserve their identity in a normalized everyday life as far as possible.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Demência/psicologia , Vida Independente , Narração , Autoimagem , Idade de Início , Idoso , Ansiedade , Progressão da Doença , Existencialismo , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Isolamento Social , Apoio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Dement Neuropsychol ; 11(3): 308-311, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29213530

RESUMO

Studies report that people with young onset Alzheimer's disease (YOAD) have higher levels of disease awareness compared to those with late onset AD. We report a case of a man with YOAD who had preserved awareness of disease, depression and risk of suicide associated with the development of the dementia. Cognitive functioning, disease severity, depressive symptoms and awareness of disease were assessed using validated measures. The person with YOAD showed a moderate level of disease severity and high degree of dependence for activities of daily living. There was recognition of memory problems and routine changes with presence of intense pessimism, low self-esteem and suicidal ideation. This case points to the existence of specific issues related to young onset dementia and the clinical importance of identifying and treating patients who might be aware of their condition.

15.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 11(3): 308-311, July-Sept. 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-891023

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Studies report that people with young onset Alzheimer's disease (YOAD) have higher levels of disease awareness compared to those with late onset AD. We report a case of a man with YOAD who had preserved awareness of disease, depression and risk of suicide associated with the development of the dementia. Cognitive functioning, disease severity, depressive symptoms and awareness of disease were assessed using validated measures. The person with YOAD showed a moderate level of disease severity and high degree of dependence for activities of daily living. There was recognition of memory problems and routine changes with presence of intense pessimism, low self-esteem and suicidal ideation. This case points to the existence of specific issues related to young onset dementia and the clinical importance of identifying and treating patients who might be aware of their condition.


RESUMO Estudos relatam que pessoas com doença de Alzheimer (DA) de início precoce possuem maior consciência da doença comparadas com as de início tardio. Descrevemos o caso de um homem com DA de início precoce, que apresenta consciência da doença preservada, depressão e risco de suicídio associado ao desenvolvimento da demência. O funcionamento cognitivo, gravidade da doença, sintomas depressivos e a consciência da doença foram acessados através de instrumentos validados. A pessoa com DA de início precoce apresentou um nível de gravidade da doença moderado e um elevado grau de dependência para as atividades de vida diária. Houve reconhecimento dos problemas de memória e mudanças de rotina com presença de pessimismo intenso, baixa autoestima e ideação suicida. Esse caso indica a existência de questões específicas relacionadas à demência de início precoce e a importância clínica de identificar e tratar pacientes que possam estar conscientes de sua condição.


Assuntos
Humanos , Suicídio , Demência , Diagnóstico Precoce , Depressão , Doença de Alzheimer
16.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 75(1): 36-43, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28099561

RESUMO

Objective:: We adapted the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Treatment (MacCAT-T) to Brazilian Portuguese, pilot testing it on mild and moderate patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods:: The cross-cultural process required six steps. Sixty-six patients with AD were assessed for competence to consent to treatment, global cognition, working memory, awareness of disease, functionality, depressive symptoms and dementia severity. Results:: The items had semantic, idiomatic, conceptual and experiential equivalence. We found no difference between mild and moderate patients with AD on the MacCAT-T domains. The linear regressions showed that reasoning (p = 0.000) and functional status (p = 0.003) were related to understanding. Understanding (p = 0.000) was related to appreciation and reasoning. Awareness of disease (p = 0.001) was related to expressing a choice. Conclusions:: The MacCAT-T adaptation was well-understood and the constructs of the original version were maintained. The results of the pilot study demonstrated an available Brazilian tool focused on decision-making capacity in AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/terapia , Brasil , Características Culturais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Psicometria , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Tradução
17.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 75(1): 36-43, Jan. 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-838858

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: We adapted the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Treatment (MacCAT-T) to Brazilian Portuguese, pilot testing it on mild and moderate patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods: The cross-cultural process required six steps. Sixty-six patients with AD were assessed for competence to consent to treatment, global cognition, working memory, awareness of disease, functionality, depressive symptoms and dementia severity. Results: The items had semantic, idiomatic, conceptual and experiential equivalence. We found no difference between mild and moderate patients with AD on the MacCAT-T domains. The linear regressions showed that reasoning (p = 0.000) and functional status (p = 0.003) were related to understanding. Understanding (p = 0.000) was related to appreciation and reasoning. Awareness of disease (p = 0.001) was related to expressing a choice. Conclusions: The MacCAT-T adaptation was well-understood and the constructs of the original version were maintained. The results of the pilot study demonstrated an available Brazilian tool focused on decision-making capacity in AD.


RESUMO Objetivo: Adaptamos o MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Treatment (MacCAT-T) para o português brasileiro, realizando estudo piloto em amostra de pessoas com doença de Alzheimer (DA) leve e moderada. Métodos: O processo transcultural apresentou seis passos. Posteriormente, avaliamos competência para consentimento do tratamento, cognição global, memória de trabalho, consciência da doença, funcionalidade, sintomas depressivos e gravidade da doença de 66 pessoas com DA. Resultados: Os itens apresentaram equivalência semântica, idiomática, conceitual e experiencial. Não encontramos diferenças entre pessoas com DA leve e moderada nos domínios do MacCAT-T. Regressões lineares demonstraram que raciocínio (p = 0.000) e funcionalidade (p = 0.003) estavam relacionados à compreensão. Compreensão (p = 0.000) estava relacionada ao julgamento e raciocínio. Consciência da doença (p = 0.001) estava relacionada à expressão da escolha. Conclusões: A adaptação da MacCAT-T foi bem compreendida e os constructos da versão original mantidos. Resultados do estudo piloto apontaram disponibilidade de ferramenta brasileira sobre tomada de decisões na DA.

18.
Int Psychogeriatr ; 29(2): 185-193, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27719688

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) affects couples' relationship. We investigated the perception of change and sexual satisfaction in spouse-caregivers and their partners diagnosed with AD. METHODS: We compared 74 dyads of people with Alzheimer's disease (PwAD)/spouse-caregivers and 21 elderly dyads control. We assessed sexual satisfaction with Questionnaire on Sexual Experience and Satisfaction (QSES), cognition using a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), disease severity using a Clinical Dementia Rating scale (CDR), awareness of disease with Assessment Scale of Psychosocial Impact of the Diagnosis of Dementia (ASPIDD), functionality with Pfeffer Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ), depressive symptoms with Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD), quality of life using a Quality of Life in Alzheimer's Disease Scale (QoL-AD), and burden using a Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI). RESULTS: We found differences between the perception and no perception of change in sexual activity of PwAD (p < 0.001), spouse-caregivers (p < 0.01), and controls (p < 0.05). Moderate to severe sexual dissatisfaction was observed in 36.5% of PwAD, 65% of spouse-caregivers, and 31% of controls. PwAD sexual satisfaction was related to cognitive impairment (p < 0.05). Spouse-caregivers sexual satisfaction was related to gender (p < 0.05) and the presence of sexual activity (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The perception of change with higher sexual dissatisfaction, were significant in PwAD and their spouse-caregivers, in comparison with couples of elderly without dementia.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Cuidadores/psicologia , Orgasmo , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Cônjuges/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Conscientização , Brasil , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
19.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 74(12): 967-973, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27991993

RESUMO

Resilience is the capacity for successful adaptation when faced with the stress of adversity. We aimed to investigate the relationship between caregivers' resilience and the sociodemographic and clinical factors of people with dementia. Cross-sectional assessment of 58 people with dementia and their caregiver dyads showed that most caregivers were female adult children. The caregivers reported moderate to higher levels of resilience, lower levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms and moderate levels of burden. Resilience was not related to the caregiver's gender (p = 0.883), nor clinical (p = 0.807) or emotional problems (p = 0.420). The regression showed that resilience was related to the caregiver's quality of life (p < 0.01) and inversely associated with their depressive symptoms (p < 0.01). There was no relationship between caregivers' resilience and the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of people with dementia. We can assume that resilience is an individual characteristic. Support groups should also focus on the factors that may increase resilience among caregivers.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Demência/enfermagem , Resiliência Psicológica , Adaptação Psicológica , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ansiedade/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Demência/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Qualidade de Vida , Análise de Regressão , Fatores Socioeconômicos
20.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 74(12): 967-973, Dec. 2016. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-828006

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Resilience is the capacity for successful adaptation when faced with the stress of adversity. We aimed to investigate the relationship between caregivers’ resilience and the sociodemographic and clinical factors of people with dementia. Cross-sectional assessment of 58 people with dementia and their caregiver dyads showed that most caregivers were female adult children. The caregivers reported moderate to higher levels of resilience, lower levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms and moderate levels of burden. Resilience was not related to the caregiver’s gender (p = 0.883), nor clinical (p = 0.807) or emotional problems (p = 0.420). The regression showed that resilience was related to the caregiver’s quality of life (p < 0.01) and inversely associated with their depressive symptoms (p < 0.01). There was no relationship between caregivers’ resilience and the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of people with dementia. We can assume that resilience is an individual characteristic. Support groups should also focus on the factors that may increase resilience among caregivers.


RESUMO Resiliência é a capacidade de adaptação bem-sucedida, quando confrontado com o estresse da adversidade. Nosso objetivo foi investigar a relação entre a resiliência dos cuidadores e fatores sociodemográficos e clínicos de pessoas com demência. A avaliação transversal de 58 pessoas com demência e suas duplas de cuidadores, mostrou que a maioria dos cuidadores eram do sexo feminino e filhas adultas. Os cuidadores relataram níveis moderados a altos de resiliência, níveis mais baixos de ansiedade e sintomas depressivos e níveis moderados de sobrecarga. Resiliência não estava relacionada ao gênero (p = 0.883) e problemas clínicos (p = 0.807) e emocionais (p = 0.420) dos cuidadores. A regressão mostrou que a resiliência foi relacionada à qualidade de vida (p < 0,01) dos cuidadores e inversamente associada com os sintomas depressivos (p < 0,01). Não havia uma relação significativa entre a resiliência dos cuidadores e as características sociodemográficos e clínicas das pessoas com demência. Podemos supor que a resiliência é uma característica individual. Os grupos de apoio devem enfatizar os fatores que podem aumentar a resiliência entre os cuidadores.

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