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1.
J Phys Chem A ; 124(7): 1240-1252, 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31976674

RESUMO

The conformer-specific reactivity of gas-phase pyruvic acid following the S1(nπ*) ← S0 excitation at λmax = 350 nm (290-380 nm) and the effect of water are investigated for the two lowest energy conformers. Conformer-specific gas-phase pyruvic acid photolysis rate constants and their respective populations are measured by monitoring their distinct vibrational OH-stretching frequencies. The geometry, relative energies, fundamental vibrational frequencies, and electronic transitions of the pyruvic acid conformers and their monohydrated complexes are calculated with density functional theory and ab initio methods. Results from experiment and theory show that the more stable conformer with an intramolecular hydrogen bond dominates the gas-phase photolysis of pyruvic acid. Water greatly affects the gas-phase pyruvic acid conformer population and photochemistry through hydrogen bonding interactions. The addition of water decreases the gas-phase relative population of the more stable conformer and decreases the molecule's gas-phase photolysis rate constants. The theoretical results show that even a single water molecule interrupts the intramolecular hydrogen bond, which is essential for the efficient photodissociation of gas-phase pyruvic acid. Results of this study suggest that the aqueous-phase photochemistry of pyruvic acid proceeds through hydrogen-bonded conformers lacking an intramolecular hydrogen bond.

2.
J Phys Chem A ; 123(44): 9462-9468, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31609621

RESUMO

Reaction rate constants for the reaction of n-dodecane with hydroxyl radicals were measured as a function of temperature between 283 and 303 K, using the relative rate method in the CESAM chamber (French acronym for "experimental multiphasic atmospheric simulation chamber"). The rate constants obtained at 283, 293, and 303 K are (1.27 ± 0.31) × 10-11, (1.33 ± 0.34) × 10-11, and (1.27 ± 0.40) × 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1, respectively. Rate constants measured were in excellent agreement with the few available data in the literature over the studied temperature range (283-340 K). Rate constants estimated by the structure-activity relationship and transition state theory methods agreed with our experimental data within 14%. From these data combined with previous literature measurement, the following Arrhenius expression, kDDC+OH = (9.77 ± 6.19) × 10-11 × exp[(-595 ± 5580)/T] cm3 molecule-1 s-1, was found to be valid over a temperature range (283-340 K) of the tropospheric interest.

3.
J Phys Chem A ; 123(7): 1469-1484, 2019 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30626185

RESUMO

The influence of the precursor chemical structure on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation was investigated through the study of the ozonolysis of two anthropogenic aromatic alkenes: 2-methylstyrene and indene. Experiments were carried out in three different simulation chambers: ICARE 7300L FEP Teflon chamber (ICARE, Orléans, France), EUPHORE FEP Teflon chamber (CEAM, Valencia, Spain), and CESAM evacuable stainless steel chamber (LISA, Créteil, France). For both precursors, SOA yield and growth were studied on a large range of initial concentrations (from ∼60 ppbv to 1.9 ppmv) and the chemical composition of both gaseous and particulate phases was investigated at a molecular level. Gas phase was described using FTIR spectroscopy and online gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, and particulate chemical composition was analyzed (i) online by thermo-desorption coupled to chemical ionization mass spectrometry and (ii) offline by supercritical fluid extraction coupled to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The results obtained from a large set of experiments performed in three different chambers and using several complementary analytical techniques were in very good agreement. SOA yield was up to 10 times higher for indene ozonolysis than for 2-methylstyrene ozonolysis at the same reaction advancement. For 2-methylstyrene ozonolysis, formaldehyde and o-tolualdehyde were the two main gaseous phase products while o-toluic acid was the most abundant among six products detected within the particulate phase. For indene ozonolysis, traces of formic and phthalic acids as well as 11 species were detected in the gaseous phase and 11 other products were quantified in the particulate phase, where phthaldialdehyde was the main product. On the basis of the identified products, reaction mechanisms were proposed that highlight specific pathways due to the precursor chemical structure. These mechanisms were finally compared and discussed regarding SOA formation. In the case of 2-methylstyrene ozonolysis, ozone adds mainly on the external and monosubstituted double bond, yielding only one C8- and monofunctionalized Criegee intermediate and hence more volatile products as well as lower SOA mass than indene ozonolysis in similar experimental conditions. In the case of indene, ozone adds mainly on the five-carbon-ring and disubstituted C═C double bond, leading to the formation of two C9- and bifunctionalized Criegee intermediates, which then evolve via different pathways including the hydroperoxide channel and form highly condensable first-generation products.

4.
J Phys Chem A ; 122(21): 4854-4860, 2018 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29741899

RESUMO

In order to predict the amount of secondary organic aerosol formed by heterogeneous processing of methylglyoxal, uptake coefficients (γ) and estimates of uptake reversibility are needed. Here, uptake coefficients are extracted from chamber studies involving ammonium sulfate and glycine seed aerosol at high relative humidity (RH ≥ 72%). Methylglyoxal uptake coefficients on prereacted glycine aerosol particles had a strong dependence on RH, increasing from γ = 0.4 × 10-3 to 5.7 × 10-3 between 72 and 99% RH. Continuous methylglyoxal losses were also observed in the presence of aqueous ammonium sulfate at 95% RH (γAS,wet = 3.7 ± 0.8 × 10-3). Methylglyoxal uptake coefficients measured at ≥95% RH are larger than those reported for glyoxal on nonacidified, aqueous aerosol surfaces at 90% RH. Slight curvature in first-order uptake plots suggests that methylglyoxal uptake onto aqueous aerosol surfaces is not entirely irreversible after 20 min. Methylglyoxal uptake by cloud droplets was rapid and largely reversible, approaching equilibrium within the 1 min mixing time of the chamber. PTR-MS measurements showed that each cloud event extracted 3 to 8% of aerosol-phase methylglyoxal and returned it to the gas phase, likely by an oligomer hydrolysis mechanism.

5.
Environ Sci Technol ; 52(7): 4061-4071, 2018 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29510022

RESUMO

Aqueous methylglyoxal chemistry has often been implicated as an important source of oligomers in atmospheric aerosol. Here we report on chemical analysis of brown carbon aerosol particles collected from cloud cycling/photolysis chamber experiments, where gaseous methylglyoxal and methylamine interacted with glycine, ammonium, or methylammonium sulfate seed particles. Eighteen N-containing oligomers were identified in the particulate phase by liquid chromatography/diode array detection/electrospray ionization high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Chemical formulas were determined and, for 6 major oligomer products, MS2 fragmentation spectra were used to propose tentative structures and mechanisms. Electronic absorption spectra were calculated for six tentative product structures by an ab initio second order algebraic-diagrammatic-construction/density functional theory approach. For five structures, matching calculated and measured absorption spectra suggest that they are dominant light-absorbing species at their chromatographic retention times. Detected oligomers incorporated methylglyoxal and amines, as expected, but also pyruvic acid, hydroxyacetone, and significant quantities of acetaldehyde. The finding that ∼80% (by mass) of detected oligomers contained acetaldehyde, a methylglyoxal photolysis product, suggests that daytime methylglyoxal oligomer formation is dominated by radical addition mechanisms involving CH3CO*. These mechanisms are evidently responsible for enhanced browning observed during photolytic cloud events.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio , Aldeído Pirúvico , Aerossóis , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Fotólise
6.
J Phys Chem A ; 121(44): 8348-8358, 2017 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29035055

RESUMO

Pyruvic acid is an atmospherically abundant α-keto-acid that degrades efficiently from the troposphere via gas-phase photolysis. To explore conditions relevant to the environment, 2-12 ppm pyruvic acid is irradiated by a solar simulator in the environmental simulation chamber, CESAM. The combination of the long path length available in the chamber and its low surface area to volume ratio allows us to quantitatively examine the quantum yield and photochemical products of pyruvic acid. Such details are new to the literature for the low initial concentrations of pyruvic acid employed here. We determined photolysis quantum yields of ϕobsN2 = 0.84 ± 0.1 in nitrogen and ϕobsAir = 3.2 ± 0.5 in air, which are higher than those reported by previous studies that used higher partial pressures of pyruvic acid. The quantum yield greater than unity in air is due to secondary chemistry, driven by O2, that emerges under the conditions in these experiments. The low concentration of pyruvic acid and the resulting oxygen effect also alter the product distribution such that acetic acid, rather than acetaldehyde, is the primary product in air. These results indicate that tropospheric pyruvic acid may degrade in part via photoinduced mechanisms that are different than previously expected.

7.
J Phys Chem A ; 121(40): 7641-7654, 2017 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28902512

RESUMO

Aerosol-cloud interaction contributes to the largest uncertainties in the estimation and interpretation of the Earth's changing energy budget. The present study explores experimentally the impacts of water condensation-evaporation events, mimicking processes occurring in atmospheric clouds, on the molecular composition of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from the photooxidation of methacrolein. A range of on- and off-line mass spectrometry techniques were used to obtain a detailed chemical characterization of SOA formed in control experiments in dry conditions, in triphasic experiments simulating gas-particle-cloud droplet interactions (starting from dry conditions and from 60% relative humidity (RH)), and in bulk aqueous-phase experiments. We observed that cloud events trigger fast SOA formation accompanied by evaporative losses. These evaporative losses decreased SOA concentration in the simulation chamber by 25-32% upon RH increase, while aqueous SOA was found to be metastable and slowly evaporated after cloud dissipation. In the simulation chamber, SOA composition measured with a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer, did not change during cloud events compared with high RH conditions (RH > 80%). In all experiments, off-line mass spectrometry techniques emphasize the critical role of 2-methylglyceric acid as a major product of isoprene chemistry, as an important contributor to the total SOA mass (15-20%) and as a key building block of oligomers found in the particulate phase. Interestingly, the comparison between the series of oligomers obtained from experiments performed under different conditions show a markedly different reactivity. In particular, long reaction times at high RH seem to create the conditions for aqueous-phase processing to occur in a more efficient manner than during two relatively short cloud events.

8.
Environ Sci Technol ; 51(13): 7458-7466, 2017 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28562016

RESUMO

The effects of methylglyoxal uptake on the physical and optical properties of aerosol containing amines or ammonium sulfate were determined before and after cloud processing in a temperature- and RH-controlled chamber. The formation of brown carbon was observed upon methylglyoxal addition, detected as an increase in water-soluble organic carbon mass absorption coefficients below 370 nm and as a drop in single-scattering albedo at 450 nm. The imaginary refractive index component k450 reached a maximum value of 0.03 ± 0.009 with aqueous glycine aerosol particles. Browning of solid particles occurred at rates limited by chamber mixing (<1 min), and in liquid particles occurred more gradually, but in all cases occurred much more rapidly than in bulk aqueous studies. Further browning in AS and methylammonium sulfate seeds was triggered by cloud events with chamber lights on, suggesting photosensitized brown carbon formation. Despite these changes in optical aerosol characteristics, increases in dried aerosol mass were rarely observed (<1 µg/m3 in all cases), consistent with previous experiments on methylglyoxal. Under dry, particle-free conditions, methylglyoxal reacted (presumably on chamber walls) with methylamine with a rate constant k = (9 ± 2) × 10-17 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 at 294 K and activation energy Ea = 64 ± 37 kJ/mol.


Assuntos
Aerossóis , Compostos de Amônio , Aldeído Pirúvico , Aminas , Carbono
9.
J Phys Chem A ; 121(18): 3327-3339, 2017 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28388049

RESUMO

Aerosol and molecular processing in the atmosphere occurs in a complex and variable environment consisting of multiple phases and interfacial regions. To explore the effects of such conditions on the reactivity of chemical systems, we employ an environmental simulation chamber to investigate the multiphase photolysis of pyruvic acid, which photoreacts in the troposphere in aqueous particles and in the gas phase. Upon irradiation of nebulized pyruvic acid, acetic acid and carbon dioxide are rapidly generated, which is consistent with previous literature on the bulk phase photolysis reactions. Additionally, we identify a new C6 product, zymonic acid, a species that has not previously been reported from pyruvic acid photolysis under any conditions. Its observation here, and corresponding spectroscopic signatures, indicates it could be formed by heterogeneous reactions at the droplet surface. Prior studies of the aqueous photolysis of pyruvic acid have shown that high-molecular-weight compounds are formed via radical reactions; however, they are inhibited by the presence of oxygen, leading to doubt as to whether the chemistry would occur in the atmosphere. Identification of dimethyltartaric acid from the photolysis of multiphase pyruvic acid in air confirms radical polymerization chemistry can compete with oxygen reactions to some extent under aerobic conditions. Evidence of additional polymerization within the particles during irradiation is suggested by the increasing viscosity and organic content of the particles. The implications of multiphase specific processes are then discussed within the broader scope of atmospheric science.

10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 24(16): 14151-14162, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28417329

RESUMO

Health risks posed by ambient air pollutants to the urban Lebanese population have not been well characterized. The aim of this study is to assess cancer risk and mortality burden of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and particulates (PM) based on two field-sampling campaigns conducted during summer and winter seasons in Beirut. Seventy NMHCs were analyzed by TD-GC-FID. PM2.5 elemental carbon (EC) components were examined using a Lab OC-EC aerosol Analyzer, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were analyzed by GC-MS. The US EPA fraction-based approach was used to assess non-cancer hazard and cancer risk for the hydrocarbon mixture, and the UK Committee on Medical Effects of Air Pollutants (COMEAP) guidelines were followed to determine the PM2.5 attributable mortality burden. The average cumulative cancer risk exceeded the US EPA acceptable level (10-6) by 40-fold in the summer and 30-fold in the winter. Benzene was found to be the highest contributor to cancer risk (39-43%), followed by 1,3-butadiene (25-29%), both originating from traffic gasoline evaporation and combustion. The EC attributable average mortality fraction was 7.8-10%, while the average attributable number of deaths (AD) and years of life lost (YLL) were found to be 257-327 and 3086-3923, respectively. Our findings provide a baseline for future air monitoring programs, and for interventions aiming at reducing cancer risk in this population.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Medição de Risco , Poluição do Ar , Benzeno/toxicidade , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Material Particulado , Emissões de Veículos/toxicidade
11.
Environ Sci Technol ; 51(1): 192-201, 2017 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27966908

RESUMO

The temperature and concentration dependence of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) yields has been investigated for the first time for the photooxidation of n-dodecane (C12H26) in the presence of NOx in the CESAM chamber (French acronym for "Chamber for Atmospheric Multiphase Experimental Simulation"). Experiments were performed with and without seed aerosol between 283 and 304.5 K. In order to quantify the SOA yields, a new parametrization is proposed to account for organic vapor loss to the chamber walls. Deposition processes were found to impact the aerosol yields by a factor from 1.3 to 1.8 between the lowest and the highest value. As with other photooxidation systems, experiments performed without seed and at low concentration of oxidant showed a lower SOA yield than other seeded experiments. Temperature did not significantly influence SOA formation in this study. This unforeseen behavior indicates that the SOA is dominated by sufficiently low volatility products for which a change in their partitioning due to temperature would not significantly affect the condensed quantities.


Assuntos
Compostos Orgânicos , Temperatura , Aerossóis , Gases , Volatilização
12.
J Phys Chem A ; 120(51): 10123-10133, 2016 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27992197

RESUMO

In this work, we investigate the impact of pressure and oxygen on the kinetics of and products from the gas-phase photolysis of pyruvic acid. The results reveal a decrease in the photolysis quantum yield as pressure of air or nitrogen is increased, a trend not yet documented in the literature. A Stern-Volmer analysis demonstrates this effect is due to deactivation of the singlet state of pyruvic acid when the photolysis is performed in nitrogen, and from quenching of both the singlet and triplet state in air. Consistent with previous studies, acetaldehyde and CO2 are observed as the major products; however, other products, most notably acetic acid, are also identified in this work. The yield of acetic acid increases with increasing pressure of buffer gas, an effect that is amplified by the presence of oxygen. At least two mechanisms are necessary to explain the acetic acid, including one that requires reaction of photolysis intermediates with O2. These findings extend the fundamental understanding of the gas-phase photochemistry of pyruvic acid, highlighting the importance of pressure on the photolysis quantum yields and products.

13.
Sci Rep ; 6: 35038, 2016 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27733773

RESUMO

Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) accounts for a dominant fraction of the submicron atmospheric particle mass, but knowledge of the formation, composition and climate effects of SOA is incomplete and limits our understanding of overall aerosol effects in the atmosphere. Organic oligomers were discovered as dominant components in SOA over a decade ago in laboratory experiments and have since been proposed to play a dominant role in many aerosol processes. However, it remains unclear whether oligomers are relevant under ambient atmospheric conditions because they are often not clearly observed in field samples. Here we resolve this long-standing discrepancy by showing that elevated SOA mass is one of the key drivers of oligomer formation in the ambient atmosphere and laboratory experiments. We show for the first time that a specific organic compound class in aerosols, oligomers, is strongly correlated with cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activities of SOA particles. These findings might have important implications for future climate scenarios where increased temperatures cause higher biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions, which in turn lead to higher SOA mass formation and significant changes in SOA composition. Such processes would need to be considered in climate models for a realistic representation of future aerosol-climate-biosphere feedbacks.

14.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 40: 92-104, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26969549

RESUMO

Molecular speciation of atmospheric organic matter was investigated during a short summer field campaign performed in a citrus fruit field in northern Corsica (June 2011). Aimed at assessing the performance on the field of newly developed analytical protocols, this work focuses on the molecular composition of both gas and particulate phases and provides an insight into partitioning behavior of the semi-volatile oxygenated fraction. Limonene ozonolysis tracers were specifically searched for, according to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) data previously recorded for smog chamber experiments. A screening of other oxygenated species present in the field atmosphere was also performed. About sixty polar molecules were positively or tentatively identified in gas and/or particle phases. These molecules comprise a wide range of branched and linear, mono and di-carbonyls (C3-C7), mono and di-carboxylic acids (C3-C18), and compounds bearing up to three functionalities. Among these compounds, some can be specifically attributed to limonene oxidation and others can be related to α- or ß-pinene oxidation. This provides an original snapshot of the organic matter composition at a Mediterranean site in summer. Furthermore, for compounds identified and quantified in both gaseous and particulate phases, an experimental gas/particle partitioning coefficient was determined. Several volatile products, which are not expected in the particulate phase assuming thermodynamic equilibrium, were nonetheless present in significant concentrations. Hypotheses are proposed to explain these observations, such as the possible aerosol viscosity that could hinder the theoretical equilibrium to be rapidly reached.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/análise , Aerossóis/química , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos , Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes/análise , Cicloexenos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , França , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Gases/análise , Gases/química , Limoneno , Região do Mediterrâneo , Monoterpenos/análise , Oxirredução , Smog/análise , Terpenos/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Tempo (Meteorologia)
15.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 40: 105-13, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26969550

RESUMO

NitroMAC (French acronym for continuous atmospheric measurements of nitrogenous compounds) is an instrument which has been developed for the semi-continuous measurement of atmospheric nitrous acid (HONO). This instrument relies on wet chemical sampling and detection using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-visible absorption at 540 nm. Sampling proceeds by dissolution of gaseous HONO in a phosphate buffer solution followed by derivatization with sulfanilamide/N-(1-naphthyl)-ethylenediamine. The performance of this instrument was found to be as follows: a detection limit of around 3 ppt with measurement uncertainty of 10% over an analysis time of 10 min. Intercomparison was made between the instrument and a long-path absorption photometer (LOPAP) during two experiments in different environments. First, air was sampled in a smog chamber with concentrations up to 18 ppb of nitrous acid. NitroMAC and LOPAP measurements showed very good agreement. Then, in a second experiment, ambient air with HONO concentrations below 250 ppt was sampled. While NitroMAC showed its capability of measuring HONO in moderate and highly polluted environments, the intercomparison results in ambient air highlighted that corrections must be made for minor interferences when low concentrations are measured.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Ácido Nitroso/análise , Atmosfera , Desenho de Equipamento , França , Limite de Detecção , Fotometria/instrumentação , Fotometria/métodos
16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 21(2): 1258-69, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23892614

RESUMO

A new sensitive technique for the quantification of formaldehyde (HCHO) and total aldehydes has been developed in order to monitor these compounds, which are known to be involved in air quality issues and to have health impacts. Our approach is based on a colorimetric method where aldehydes are initially stripped from the air into a scrubbing solution by means of a turning coil sampler tube and then derivatised with 3-methylbenzothiazolinone-2-hydrazone in acid media (pH = -0.5). Hence, colourless aldehydes are transformed into blue dyes that are detected by UV-visible spectroscopy at 630 nm. Liquid core waveguide LCW Teflon® AF-2400 tube was used as innovative optical cells providing a HCHO detection limit of 4 pptv for 100 cm optical path with a time resolution of 15 min. This instrument showed good correlation with commonly used techniques for aldehydes analysis such as DNPH derivatisation chromatographic techniques with off-line and on-line samplers, and DOAS techniques (with deviation below 6%) for both indoor and outdoor conditions. This instrument is associated with simplicity and low cost, which is a prerequisite for indoor monitoring.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Aldeídos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Formaldeído/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 110(33): 13294-9, 2013 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23898188

RESUMO

The hydroxyl (OH) radical is the most important oxidant in the atmosphere since it controls its self-oxidizing capacity. The main sources of OH radicals are the photolysis of ozone and the photolysis of nitrous acid (HONO). Due to the attenuation of solar radiation in the indoor environment, the possibility of OH formation through photolytic pathways indoors has been ignored up to now. In the indoor air, the ozonolysis of alkenes has been suggested as an alternative route of OH formation. Models and indirect measurements performed up to now according to this hypothesis suggest concentrations of OH radicals on the order of 10(4)-10(5) molecules per cubic centimeter. Here, we present direct measurements of significant amounts of OH radicals of up to 1.8⋅10(6) molecules per cubic centimeter during an experimental campaign carried out in a school classroom in Marseille. This concentration is on the same order of magnitude of outdoor OH levels in the urban scenario. We also show that photolysis of HONO is an important source of OH radicals indoors under certain conditions (i.e., direct solar irradiation inside the room). Additionally, the OH concentrations were found to follow a linear dependence with the product J(HONO)⋅[HONO]. This was also supported by using a simple quasiphotostationary state model on the OH radical budget. These findings force a change in our understanding of indoor air quality because the reactivity linked to OH would involve formation of secondary species through chemical reactions that are potentially more hazardous than the primary pollutants in the indoor air.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Radical Hidroxila/análise , Modelos Químicos , Ácido Nitroso/química , França , Oxirredução , Fotólise , Instituições Acadêmicas
18.
J Phys Chem A ; 116(41): 10135-42, 2012 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23004348

RESUMO

Rate constants for the gas-phase reactions of the NO(3) radical with a series of unsaturated aldehydes, trans-2-hexenal, trans-2-heptenal, and trans-2-octenal, have been measured using absolute rate method at 294 ± 3 K and atmospheric pressure. This work was performed to clarify discrepancies found in the literature and thus led to a clearer view of the effect of the increasing carbon chain length on the reactivity of trans-2-alkenals. The rate constants were determined to be (4.7 ± 1.5) × 10(-15), (5.3 ± 1.6) × 10(-15), and (5.6 ± 2.3) × 10(-15) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) for trans-2-hexenal, trans-2-heptenal, and trans-2-octenal, respectively. These results clearly indicate that the carbon chain lengthening of the trans-2-alkenals does not significantly affect the rate constant. In addition, the mechanism for the reaction of NO(3) with these unsaturated aldehydes was also investigated. Unsaturated peroxynitrate-type compounds that are exclusively formed through the abstraction channel were observed as the main products.


Assuntos
Aldeídos/química , Nitratos/química , Radicais Livres/química , Gases/química , Cinética , Estrutura Molecular
19.
Chemphyschem ; 11(18): 3909-20, 2010 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21108277

RESUMO

A new structure-activity relationship (SAR), based on parametrization of the molecular structure according to the group-additivity method, is presented. On the basis of existing experimental data for the degradability of approximately 150 organic compounds by the NO(3) radical, this new SAR is developed to estimate the rate constants for reactions with NO(3) radical. At night, nitrate radicals are the most important oxidant of volatile organic compounds. The rate constants for their reactions are therefore essential to the understanding of VOC degradation and atmospheric modelling. The database used for the SAR development includes most classes of compounds such as alkanes, alkenes (acyclic and cyclic), dienes, terpenes and saturated and unsaturated oxygenated compounds (including alcohols, ketones, ethers and esters). The proposed SAR shows good efficiency, as 91% of the rate constants are reproduced within a factor of two. The overall agreement between measured and predicted rate constants is very good for most of the unsaturated and saturated compounds, although for saturated alcohols it is less reliable.

20.
J Am Chem Soc ; 132(24): 8234-5, 2010 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20509648

RESUMO

The nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) decomposition on illuminated TiO(2) surfaces has been widely studied, but little is known about the subsequent formation of non-nitrogen containing products. In this study, TiO(2) coated glass surfaces and TiO(2) films with nitrate anions (either premixed with TiO(2) as KNO(3) or deposited from gaseous NO(x)) are irradiated with broad-band light. Upon irradiation, detected gas phase products include NO(2), HNO(2), and O(3). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that reveals the production of O(3) from TiO(2) surfaces. By surface charge transfer reactions, nitrate anions are oxidized into nitrate radicals and their photochemistry (almost in the visible) leads to O(3) formation, enhancing the oxidizing power of these surfaces.

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