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1.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691805

RESUMO

Dynamin 2 (DNM2) encodes a ubiquitously expressed large GTPase with membrane fission capabilities that participates in the endocytosis of clathrin-coated vesicles. Heterozygous mutations in DNM2 are associated with two distinct neuromuscular disorders, Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease (CMT) and autosomal dominant centronuclear myopathy (CNM). Despite extensive investigations in cell culture, the role of dynamin 2 in normal muscle development is poorly understood and the consequences of DNM2 mutations at the molecular level in vivo are not known. To address these gaps in knowledge, we developed transgenic zebrafish expressing either wild type dynamin 2 or dynamin 2 with either a CNM or CMT mutation. Taking advantage of the live imaging capabilities of the zebrafish embryo, we establish the localization of wild type and mutant dynamin 2 in vivo, showing for the first time distinctive dynamin 2 subcellular compartments. Additionally, we demonstrate that CNM-related DNM2 mutations are associated with protein mislocalization and aggregation. Lastly, we define core phenotypes associated with our transgenic mutant fish, including impaired motor function and altered muscle ultrastructure, making them the ideal platform for drug screening. Overall, using the power of the zebrafish, we establish novel insights into dynamin 2 localization and dynamics, and provide the necessary groundwork for future studies examining dynamin 2 pathomechanisms and therapy development.

2.
Gastroenterology ; 2019 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Mutations in the tetratricopeptide repeat domain 7A gene (TTC7A) cause intestinal epithelial and immune defects. Patients can become immune deficient and develop apoptotic enterocolitis, multiple intestinal atresia, and recurrent intestinal stenosis. The intestinal disease in patients with TTC7A deficiency is severe, untreatable, and recurs despite resection or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. We screened drugs for those that prevent apoptosis of in cells with TTC7A deficiency and tested their effects in an animal model of the disease. METHODS: We developed a high-throughput screen to identify compounds approved by the Food and Drug Administration that reduce activity of caspases 3 and 7 in TTC7A-knockout HAP1 (human haploid) cells and reduce the susceptibility to apoptosis. We validated the effects of identified agents in HeLa cells that stably express TTC7A with point mutations found in patients. Signaling pathways in cells were analyzed by immunoblots. We tested the effects of identified agents in zebrafish with disruption of ttc7a, which develop intestinal defects, and colonoids derived from biopsies of patients with and without mutations in TTC7A. We performed real-time imaging of intestinal peristalsis in zebrafish and histologic analyses of intestinal tissues from patients and zebrafish. Colonoids were analyzed by immunofluorescence and for ion transport. RESULTS: TTC7A-knockout HAP1 cells have abnormal morphology and undergo apoptosis, due to increased levels of active caspases 3 and 7. We identified drugs that increased cell viability; leflunomide (used to treat patients with inflammatory conditions) reduced caspase 3 and 7 activity in cells by 96%. TTC7A-knockout cells contained cleaved caspase 3 and had reduced levels of phosphorylated AKT and XIAP; incubation of these cells with leflunomide increased levels of phosphorylated AKT and XIAP and reduced levels of cleaved caspase 3. Administration of leflunomide to ttc7a-/- zebrafish increased gut motility, reduced intestinal tract narrowing, increased intestinal cell survival, increased sizes of intestinal luminal spaces, and restored villi and goblet cell morphology. Exposure of patient-derived colonoids to leflunomide increased cell survival, polarity, and transport function. CONCLUSIONS: In a drug screen, we identified leflunomide as an agent that reduces apoptosis and levels of caspase 3 and activates AKT signaling and in TTC7A-knockout cells. In zebrafish with disruption of ttc7a, leflunomide restores gut motility, reduces intestinal tract narrowing, and increases intestinal cell survival. This drug might be repurposed for treatment of TTC7A deficiency.

3.
Biol Open ; 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530540

RESUMO

Nemaline myopathy is a rare neuromuscular disorder that affects 1 in 50,000 live births, with prevalence as high as 1 in 20,000 in certain populations. 13 genes have been linked to nemaline myopathy, all of which are associated with the thin filament of the muscle sarcomere. Of the 13 associated genes, mutations in NEBULIN accounts for up to 50% of all cases. Currently, the disease is incompletely understood and there are no available therapeutics for patients. To address this urgent need for effective treatments for patients affected by NM, we conducted a large scale chemical screen in a zebrafish model of NEB related nemaline myopathy and a ENU based genetic screen in a mouse model of NEB exon 55 deletion, the most common NEBULIN mutation in nemaline myopathy patients. Neither screen was able to identify a candidate for therapy development, highlighting the need to transition from conventional chemical therapeutics to gene-based therapies for the treatment of nemaline myopathy.

4.
Dis Model Mech ; 12(8)2019 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413155

RESUMO

Phosphoinositides (PIPs) are a ubiquitous group of seven low-abundance phospholipids that play a crucial role in defining localized membrane properties and that regulate myriad cellular processes, including cytoskeletal remodeling, cell signaling cascades, ion channel activity and membrane traffic. PIP homeostasis is tightly regulated by numerous inositol kinases and phosphatases, which phosphorylate and dephosphorylate distinct PIP species. The importance of these phospholipids, and of the enzymes that regulate them, is increasingly being recognized, with the identification of human neurological disorders that are caused by mutations in PIP-modulating enzymes. Genetic disorders of PIP metabolism include forms of epilepsy, neurodegenerative disease, brain malformation syndromes, peripheral neuropathy and congenital myopathy. In this Review, we provide an overview of PIP function and regulation, delineate the disorders associated with mutations in genes that modulate or utilize PIPs, and discuss what is understood about gene function and disease pathogenesis as established through animal models of these diseases.

7.
Hum Mol Genet ; 28(18): 3024-3036, 2019 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31107960

RESUMO

Ryanodine receptor type I (RYR1)-related myopathies (RYR1 RM) are a clinically and histopathologically heterogeneous group of conditions that represent the most common subtype of childhood onset non-dystrophic muscle disorders. There are no treatments for this severe group of diseases. A major barrier to therapy development is the lack of an animal model that mirrors the clinical severity of pediatric cases of the disease. To address this, we used CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing to generate a novel recessive mouse model of RYR1 RM. This mouse (Ryr1TM/Indel) possesses a patient-relevant point mutation (T4706M) engineered into 1 allele and a 16 base pair frameshift deletion engineered into the second allele. Ryr1TM/Indel mice exhibit an overt phenotype beginning at 14 days of age that consists of reduced body/muscle mass and myofibre hypotrophy. Ryr1TM/Indel mice become progressively inactive from that point onward and die at a median age of 42 days. Histopathological assessment shows myofibre hypotrophy, increased central nuclei and decreased triad number but no clear evidence of metabolic cores. Biochemical analysis reveals a marked decrease in RYR1 protein levels (20% of normal) as compared to only a 50% decrease in transcript. Functional studies at end stage show significantly reduced electrically evoked Ca2+ release and force production. In summary, Ryr1TM/Indel mice exhibit a post-natal lethal recessive form of RYR1 RM that pheno-copies the severe congenital clinical presentation seen in a subgroup of RYR1 RM children. Thus, Ryr1TM/Indel mice represent a powerful model for both establishing the pathomechanisms of recessive RYR1 RM and pre-clinical testing of therapies for efficacy.

8.
Semin Pediatr Neurol ; 29: 3-11, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060723

RESUMO

Congenital myopathies (CM) represent a continuously growing group of disorders with a wide range of clinical and histopathologic presentations. The refinement and application of new technologies for genetic diagnosis have broadened our understanding of the genetic causes of CM. Our growing knowledge has revealed that there are no clear limits between each subgroup of CM, and thus the clinical overlap between genes has become more evident. The implementation of next generation sequencing has produced vast amounts of genomic data that may be difficult to interpret. With an increasing number of reports revealing variants of unknown significance, it is essential to support the genetic diagnosis with a well characterized clinical description of the patient. Phenotype-genotype correlation should be a priority at the moment of disclosing the genetic results. Thus, a detailed physical examination can provide us with subtle differences that are not only key in order to arrive at a correct diagnosis, but also in the characterization of new myopathies and candidate genes.

9.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(6): 1210-1222, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079897

RESUMO

We delineate a KMT2E-related neurodevelopmental disorder on the basis of 38 individuals in 36 families. This study includes 31 distinct heterozygous variants in KMT2E (28 ascertained from Matchmaker Exchange and three previously reported), and four individuals with chromosome 7q22.2-22.23 microdeletions encompassing KMT2E (one previously reported). Almost all variants occurred de novo, and most were truncating. Most affected individuals with protein-truncating variants presented with mild intellectual disability. One-quarter of individuals met criteria for autism. Additional common features include macrocephaly, hypotonia, functional gastrointestinal abnormalities, and a subtle facial gestalt. Epilepsy was present in about one-fifth of individuals with truncating variants and was responsive to treatment with anti-epileptic medications in almost all. More than 70% of the individuals were male, and expressivity was variable by sex; epilepsy was more common in females and autism more common in males. The four individuals with microdeletions encompassing KMT2E generally presented similarly to those with truncating variants, but the degree of developmental delay was greater. The group of four individuals with missense variants in KMT2E presented with the most severe developmental delays. Epilepsy was present in all individuals with missense variants, often manifesting as treatment-resistant infantile epileptic encephalopathy. Microcephaly was also common in this group. Haploinsufficiency versus gain-of-function or dominant-negative effects specific to these missense variants in KMT2E might explain this divergence in phenotype, but requires independent validation. Disruptive variants in KMT2E are an under-recognized cause of neurodevelopmental abnormalities.

10.
Neurology ; 92(16): e1852-e1867, 2019 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30902907

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Because X-linked myotubular myopathy (XLMTM) is a rare neuromuscular disease caused by mutations in the MTM1 gene with a large phenotypic heterogeneity, to ensure clinical trial readiness, it was mandatory to better quantify disease burden and determine best outcome measures. METHODS: We designed an international prospective and longitudinal natural history study in patients with XLMTM and assessed muscle strength and motor and respiratory functions over the first year of follow-up. The humoral immunity against adeno-associated virus serotype 8 was also monitored. RESULTS: Forty-five male patients aged 3.5 months to 56.8 years were enrolled between May 2014 and May 2017. Thirteen patients had a mild phenotype (no ventilation support), 7 had an intermediate phenotype (ventilation support less than 12 hours a day), and 25 had a severe phenotype (ventilation support 12 or more hours a day). Most strength and motor function assessments could be performed even in very weak patients. Motor Function Measure 32 total score, grip and pinch strengths, and forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in the first second of exhalation, and peak cough flow measures discriminated the 3 groups of patients. Disease history revealed motor milestone loss in several patients. Longitudinal data on 37 patients showed that the Motor Function Measure 32 total score significantly decreased by 2%. Of the 38 patients evaluated, anti-adeno-associated virus type 8 neutralizing activity was detected in 26% with 2 patients having an inhibitory titer >1:10. CONCLUSIONS: Our data confirm that XLMTM is slowly progressive for male survivors regardless of their phenotype and provide outcome validation and natural history data that can support clinical development in this population. CLINICALTRIALSGOV IDENTIFIER: NCT02057705.

11.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(3): 466-483, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827497

RESUMO

Gene-panel and whole-exome analyses are now standard methodologies for mutation detection in Mendelian disease. However, the diagnostic yield achieved is at best 50%, leaving the genetic basis for disease unsolved in many individuals. New approaches are thus needed to narrow the diagnostic gap. Whole-genome sequencing is one potential strategy, but it currently has variant-interpretation challenges, particularly for non-coding changes. In this study we focus on transcriptome analysis, specifically total RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), by using monogenetic neuromuscular disorders as proof of principle. We examined a cohort of 25 exome and/or panel "negative" cases and provided genetic resolution in 36% (9/25). Causative mutations were identified in coding and non-coding exons, as well as in intronic regions, and the mutational pathomechanisms included transcriptional repression, exon skipping, and intron inclusion. We address a key barrier of transcriptome-based diagnostics: the need for source material with disease-representative expression patterns. We establish that blood-based RNA-seq is not adequate for neuromuscular diagnostics, whereas myotubes generated by transdifferentiation from an individual's fibroblasts accurately reflect the muscle transcriptome and faithfully reveal disease-causing mutations. Our work confirms that RNA-seq can greatly improve diagnostic yield in genetically unresolved cases of Mendelian disease, defines strengths and challenges of the technology, and demonstrates the suitability of cell models for RNA-based diagnostics. Our data set the stage for development of RNA-seq as a powerful clinical diagnostic tool that can be applied to the large population of individuals with undiagnosed, rare diseases and provide a framework for establishing minimally invasive strategies for doing so.

12.
Neurotherapeutics ; 15(4): 966-975, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30426359

RESUMO

Dynamin 2 (DNM2) belongs to a family of large GTPases that are well known for mediating membrane fission by oligomerizing at the neck of membrane invaginations. Autosomal dominant mutations in the ubiquitously expressed DNM2 cause 2 discrete neuromuscular diseases: autosomal dominant centronuclear myopathy (ADCNM) and dominant intermediate Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy (CMT). CNM and CMT mutations may affect DNM2 in distinct manners: CNM mutations may cause protein hyperactivity with elevated GTPase and fission activities, while CMT mutations could impair DNM2 lipid binding and activity. DNM2 is also a modifier of the X-linked and autosomal recessive forms of CNM, as DNM2 protein levels are upregulated in animal models and patient muscle samples. Strikingly, reducing DNM2 has been shown to revert muscle phenotypes in preclinical models of CNM. As DNM2 emerges as the key player in CNM pathogenesis, the role(s) of DNM2 in skeletal muscle remains unclear. This review aims to provide insights into potential pathomechanisms related to DNM2-CNM mutations, and discuss exciting outcomes of current and future therapeutic approaches targeting DNM2 hyperactivity.

13.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4849, 2018 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30451841

RESUMO

Myotubular myopathy (MTM) is a severe X-linked disease without existing therapies. Here, we show that tamoxifen ameliorates MTM-related histopathological and functional abnormalities in mice, and nearly doubles survival. The beneficial effects of tamoxifen are mediated primarily via estrogen receptor signaling, as demonstrated through in vitro studies and in vivo phenotypic rescue with estradiol. RNA sequencing and protein expression analyses revealed that rescue is mediated in part through post-transcriptional reduction of dynamin-2, a known MTM modifier. These findings demonstrate an unexpected ability of tamoxifen to improve the murine MTM phenotype, providing preclinical evidence to support clinical translation.

14.
Neuromuscul Disord ; 28(7): 592-596, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29759639

RESUMO

Mutations in POMT2 are most commonly associated with Walker-Warburg syndrome and Muscle-Eye-Brain disease, but can also cause limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD2N). We report a case of LGMD due to a novel mutation in POMT2 unmasked by uniparental isodisomy. The patient experienced proximal muscle weakness from three years of age with minimal progression. She developed progressive contractures and underwent unilateral Achilles tenotomy. By age 11, she had borderline low left ventricular ejection fraction and mild restrictive lung disease. Muscle biopsy showed mild dystrophic changes with selective reduction in α-dystroglycan immunostaining. Sequencing of POMT2 showed a novel homozygous c.1502A>C variant that was predicted to be probably pathogenic. Fibroblast complementation studies showed lack of functional glycosylation rescued by wild-type POMT2 expression. Chromosomal microarray showed a single 15 Mb copy number neutral loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 14 encompassing POMT2. RNAseq verified homozygosity at this locus. Together, our findings indicate maternal uniparental isodisomy causing LGMD2N.

15.
Front Neurol ; 9: 118, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29556213

RESUMO

The ryanodine receptor 1-related congenital myopathies (RYR1-RM) comprise a spectrum of slow, rare neuromuscular diseases. Affected individuals present with a mild-to-severe symptomatology ranging from proximal muscle weakness, hypotonia and joint contractures to scoliosis, ophthalmoplegia, and respiratory involvement. Although there is currently no FDA-approved treatment for RYR1-RM, our group recently conducted the first clinical trial in this patient population (NCT02362425). This study aimed to characterize novel RYR1 variants with regard to genetic, laboratory, muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and clinical findings. Genetic and histopathology reports were obtained from participant's medical records. Alamut Visual Software was used to determine if participant's variants had been previously reported and to assess predicted pathogenicity. Physical exams, pulmonary function tests, T1-weighted muscle MRI scans, and blood measures were completed during the abovementioned clinical trial. Six novel variants (two de novo, three dominant, and one recessive) were identified in individuals with RYR1-RM. Consistent with established RYR1-RM histopathology, cores were observed in all biopsies, except Case 6 who exhibited fiber-type disproportion. Muscle atrophy and impaired mobility with Trendelenburg gait were the most common clinical symptoms and were identified in all cases. Muscle MRI revealed substantial inter-individual variation in fatty infiltration corroborating the heterogeneity of the disease. Two individuals with dominant RYR1 variants exhibited respiratory insufficiency: a clinical symptom more commonly associated with recessive RYR1-RM cases. This study demonstrates that a genetics-led approach is suitable for the diagnosis of suspected RYR1-RM which can be corroborated through histopathology, muscle MRI and clinical examination.

16.
Handb Clin Neurol ; 148: 549-564, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29478600

RESUMO

Congenital myopathies are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of conditions that most commonly present at or around the time of birth with hypotonia, muscle weakness, and (often) respiratory distress. Historically, this group of disorders has been subclassified based on muscle histopathologic characteristics. There has been an explosion of gene discovery, and there are now at least 32 different genetic causes of disease. With this increased understanding of the genetic basis of disease has come the knowledge that the mutations in congenital myopathy genes can present with a wide variety of clinical phenotypes and can result in a broad spectrum of histopathologic findings on muscle biopsy. In addition, mutations in several genes can share the same histopathologic features. The identification of new genes and interpretation of different pathomechanisms at a molecular level have helped us to understand the clinical and histopathologic similarities that this group of disorders share. In this review, we highlight the genetic understanding for each subtype, its pathogenesis, and the future key issues in congenital myopathies.


Assuntos
Proteínas Musculares/genética , Mutação/genética , Miopatias Congênitas Estruturais/genética , Humanos , Fenótipo
17.
J Med Genet ; 55(2): 104-113, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29097605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: De novo mutations in PURA have recently been described to cause PURA syndrome, a neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by severe intellectual disability (ID), epilepsy, feeding difficulties and neonatal hypotonia. OBJECTIVES: To delineate the clinical spectrum of PURA syndrome and study genotype-phenotype correlations. METHODS: Diagnostic or research-based exome or Sanger sequencing was performed in individuals with ID. We systematically collected clinical and mutation data on newly ascertained PURA syndrome individuals, evaluated data of previously reported individuals and performed a computational analysis of photographs. We classified mutations based on predicted effect using 3D in silico models of crystal structures of Drosophila-derived Pur-alpha homologues. Finally, we explored genotype-phenotype correlations by analysis of both recurrent mutations as well as mutation classes. RESULTS: We report mutations in PURA (purine-rich element binding protein A) in 32 individuals, the largest cohort described so far. Evaluation of clinical data, including 22 previously published cases, revealed that all have moderate to severe ID and neonatal-onset symptoms, including hypotonia (96%), respiratory problems (57%), feeding difficulties (77%), exaggerated startle response (44%), hypersomnolence (66%) and hypothermia (35%). Epilepsy (54%) and gastrointestinal (69%), ophthalmological (51%) and endocrine problems (42%) were observed frequently. Computational analysis of facial photographs showed subtle facial dysmorphism. No strong genotype-phenotype correlation was identified by subgrouping mutations into functional classes. CONCLUSION: We delineate the clinical spectrum of PURA syndrome with the identification of 32 additional individuals. The identification of one individual through targeted Sanger sequencing points towards the clinical recognisability of the syndrome. Genotype-phenotype analysis showed no significant correlation between mutation classes and disease severity.

19.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(4): 804-841, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28889642

RESUMO

Pediatric neuromuscular diseases encompass all disorders with onset in childhood and where the primary area of pathology is in the peripheral nervous system. These conditions are largely genetic in etiology, and only those with a genetic underpinning will be presented in this review. This includes disorders of the anterior horn cell (e.g., spinal muscular atrophy), peripheral nerve (e.g., Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease), the neuromuscular junction (e.g., congenital myasthenic syndrome), and the muscle (myopathies and muscular dystrophies). Historically, pediatric neuromuscular disorders have uniformly been considered to be without treatment possibilities and to have dire prognoses. This perception has gradually changed, starting in part with the discovery and widespread application of corticosteroids for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. At present, several exciting therapeutic avenues are under investigation for a range of conditions, offering the potential for significant improvements in patient morbidities and mortality and, in some cases, curative intervention. In this review, we will present the current state of treatment for the most common pediatric neuromuscular conditions, and detail the treatment strategies with the greatest potential for helping with these devastating diseases.

20.
Genet Med ; 20(4): 435-443, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28771251

RESUMO

PurposeGenetic testing is an integral diagnostic component of pediatric medicine. Standard of care is often a time-consuming stepwise approach involving chromosomal microarray analysis and targeted gene sequencing panels, which can be costly and inconclusive. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) provides a comprehensive testing platform that has the potential to streamline genetic assessments, but there are limited comparative data to guide its clinical use.MethodsWe prospectively recruited 103 patients from pediatric non-genetic subspecialty clinics, each with a clinical phenotype suggestive of an underlying genetic disorder, and compared the diagnostic yield and coverage of WGS with those of conventional genetic testing.ResultsWGS identified diagnostic variants in 41% of individuals, representing a significant increase over conventional testing results (24%; P = 0.01). Genes clinically sequenced in the cohort (n = 1,226) were well covered by WGS, with a median exonic coverage of 40 × ±8 × (mean ±SD). All the molecular diagnoses made by conventional methods were captured by WGS. The 18 new diagnoses made with WGS included structural and non-exonic sequence variants not detectable with whole-exome sequencing, and confirmed recent disease associations with the genes PIGG, RNU4ATAC, TRIO, and UNC13A.ConclusionWGS as a primary clinical test provided a higher diagnostic yield than conventional genetic testing in a clinically heterogeneous cohort.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Exoma , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Estudos de Associação Genética/normas , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Testes Genéticos/normas , Variação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Fenótipo , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/normas , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/normas , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/normas
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