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1.
Nutrients ; 11(1)2019 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30609725

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine if increased mortality associated with low levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) reflects a causal relationship by using a Mendelian randomisation (MR) approach with genetic variants in the vitamin D synthesis pathway. Individual participant data from three European cohorts were harmonized with standardization of 25(OH)D according to the Vitamin D Standardization Program. Most relevant single nucleotide polymorphisms of the genes CYP2R1 (rs12794714, rs10741657) and DHCR7/NADSYN1 (rs12785878, rs11234027), were combined in two allelic scores. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used with the ratio estimator and the delta method for calculating the hazards ratio (HR) and standard error of genetically determined 25(OH)D effect on all-cause mortality. We included 10,501 participants (50.1% females, 67.1±10.1 years) of whom 4003 died during a median follow-up of 10.4 years. The observed adjusted HR for all-cause mortality per decrease in 25(OH)D by 20 nmol/L was 1.20 (95% CI: 1.15⁻1.25). The HR per 20 nmol/L decrease in genetically determined 25(OH)D was 1.32 (95% CI: 0.80⁻2.24) and 1.35 (95% CI of 0.81 to 2.37) based on the two scores. In conclusion, the results of this MR study in a combined sample from three European cohort studies provide further support for a causal relationship between vitamin D deficiency and increased all-cause mortality. However, as the current study, even with ~10,000 participants, was underpowered for the study of the effect of the allele score on mortality, larger studies on genetics and mortality are needed to improve the precision.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carbono-Nitrogênio Ligases com Glutamina como Doadora de N-Amida/genética , Carbono-Nitrogênio Ligases com Glutamina como Doadora de N-Amida/metabolismo , Colestanotriol 26-Mono-Oxigenase/genética , Colestanotriol 26-Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Família 2 do Citocromo P450/genética , Família 2 do Citocromo P450/metabolismo , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-CH/genética , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-CH/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Vitamina D/sangue
2.
Nutr Res ; 59: 36-43, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30442231

RESUMO

Ultraviolet-irradiated yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) can be used to biofortify bakery products with vitamin D, but in bread, it was not effective in increasing serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in humans, possibly because of the low digestibility of the yeast matrix. We investigated the effects of vitamin D2-rich intact yeast cells and their separated fraction, yeast cell walls, which we hypothesized to provide vitamin D2 in a more bioavailable form, on serum 25(OH)D and its metabolites in growing female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 54) compared to vitamin D2 and D3 supplements (8 treatment groups: 300 or 600 IU vitamin D/d, and a control group, 8-week intervention). The D3 supplement groups had the highest 25(OH)D concentrations, and the vitamin D2 supplement at the 600-IU dose increased 25(OH)D better than any yeast form (P < .001 for all, analysis of covariance, adjusted for body weight). There were no significant differences between the yeast forms at the same dose (P > .05). Serum 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (a vitamin D catabolite) concentrations and the trend in the differences between the groups were in line with 25(OH)D (P < .001 for all). The 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D to 25(OH)D ratio between the D2 supplement and the yeast groups did not differ (P > .05). These findings do not support the hypothesis: the ability of the different ultraviolet-treated vitamin D2-containing yeast forms to increase 25(OH)D did not differ, and the poor bioavailability of vitamin D2 in the yeasts compared D3 or D2 supplements could not be explained by the increased vitamin D catabolism in the yeast-treated groups.

3.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2018 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30007343

RESUMO

Background: The Mediterranean diet (MD) is widely recommended for the prevention of chronic disease, but evidence for a beneficial effect on bone health is lacking. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a Mediterranean-like dietary pattern [NU-AGE (New Dietary Strategies Addressing the Specific Needs of the Elderly Population for Healthy Aging in Europe)] on indexes of inflammation with a number of secondary endpoints, including bone mineral density (BMD) and biomarkers of bone and collagen degradation in a 1-y multicenter randomized controlled trial (RCT; NU-AGE) in elderly Europeans. Design: An RCT was undertaken across 5 European centers. Subjects in the intervention group consumed the NU-AGE diet for 1 y by receiving individually tailored dietary advice, coupled with supplies of foods including whole-grain pasta, olive oil, and a vitamin D3 supplement (10 µg/d). Participants in the control group were provided with leaflets on healthy eating available in their country. Results: A total of 1294 participants (mean ± SD age: 70.9 ±4.0 y; 44% male) were recruited to the study and 1142 completed the 1-y trial. The Mediterranean-like dietary pattern had no effect on BMD (site-specific or whole-body); the inclusion of compliance to the intervention in the statistical model did not change the findings. There was also no effect of the intervention on the urinary biomarkers free pyridinoline or free deoxypyridinoline. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D significantly increased and parathyroid hormone decreased (P < 0.001) in the MD compared with the control group. Subgroup analysis of individuals with osteoporosis at baseline (site-specific BMD T-score ≤ -2.5 SDs) showed that the MD attenuated the expected decline in femoral neck BMD (n = 24 and 30 in MD and control groups, respectively; P = 0.04) but had no effect on lumbar spine or whole-body BMD. Conclusions: A 1-y intervention of the Mediterranean-like diet together with vitamin D3 supplements (10 µg/d) had no effect on BMD in the normal age-related range, but it significantly reduced the rate of loss of bone at the femoral neck in individuals with osteoporosis. The NU-AGE trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01754012.

4.
Eur J Nutr ; 2018 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30022296

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Current vitamin D recommendations have been established based on an assumption that there are no differences between Caucasian and other ethnic/racial groups in terms of vitamin D requirements. This assumption, largely made due to the absence of data, is a key knowledge gap identified by a number of authorities. OBJECTIVE: To test whether the distribution of dietary requirements for maintaining winter serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations ≥ 30 nmol/L (a priority threshold linked to vitamin D deficiency prevention) differ between Caucasian and Somali women living at northerly latitude. METHODS: We used data from a 5-month, winter-based, vitamin D3 dose-related randomized, placebo-controlled trial in Somali (n 47) and Causcian women (n 69), aged 21-64-year old, living in Southern Finland (60°N), to model the vitamin D intake-serum 25(OH)D dose-response relationship. Regression analyses were used to predict the vitamin D intake required to maintain 97.5% (as well as 50, 90, and 95%) of women in both ethnic groups above serum 25(OH)D thresholds of 30, 40 and 50 nmol/L. RESULTS: Using a model which adjusted for baseline 25(OH)D, age, and BMI, the estimated vitamin D intake that maintained serum 25(OH)D ≥ 30 nmol/L in 97.5% of Caucasian and Somali women was 8 and 18 µg/day, respectively. Ethnic differences were also evident at 40 and 50 nmol/L serum 25(OH)D thresholds. CONCLUSION: The present study adds further evidence that ethnic differences in the dietary requirement for vitamin D do exist and that dose-response vitamin D intervention studies are required in at-risk target populations specified by ethnicity.

5.
BMC Public Health ; 18(1): 845, 2018 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29980236

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Comparability of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) measurements is hampered by method-related differences in measurement values. International standardization of laboratory assays has been suggested to solve this problem. METHODS: As part of the European Commission-funded project 'Food-based solutions for optimal vitamin D nutrition and health through the life cycle' (ODIN), original measurements of serum 25(OH)D of three German national health surveys conducted between 1998 and 2011 have been standardized retrospectively. In these representative population-based samples including persons aged between 1 and 79 years, the original 25(OH)D values were compared with those after standardization. Mean values and prevalences of vitamin D deficiency, insufficiency, and sufficiency (25(OH)D levels < 30, 30- < 50, and > =50 nmol/l, respectively) were calculated by sex and age groups based on original and standardized 25(OH)D data. RESULTS: In comparison to the original 25(OH)D levels, the standardized levels showed higher means overall and in age- and sex-specific analyses. After standardization, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was lower in all surveys while the prevalence of vitamin D sufficiency was higher. Nevertheless, even after standardization ~ 15% of adults and 12.5% of children had serum 25(OH)D levels < 30 nmol/l. Thus, the proportion of deficient vitamin D levels in the German population is still considerable. CONCLUSIONS: The use of standardization of 25(OH)D levels has a substantial impact on estimates of the vitamin D status in Germany. Since clinical diagnostic, therapeutic and public health decision-making require valid and comparable data, standardization and calibration of commercial, clinical and research laboratory assays for 25(OH)D measurement should become common practice. Until then, researchers, health practitioners and policy makers should be aware of the peculiarities of the measurement methods when comparing and interpreting 25(OH)D levels.

6.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 107(6): 1043-1053, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29868916

RESUMO

Background: Evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for the causal role of vitamin D on noncommunicable disease outcomes is inconclusive. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether there are beneficial or harmful effects of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) supplementation according to subgroups of remeasured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] on cardiovascular and glucometabolic surrogate markers with the use of individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis of RCTs. Design: Twelve RCTs (16 wk to 1 y of follow-up) were included. For standardization, 25(OH)D concentrations for all participants (n = 2994) at baseline and postintervention were re-measured in bio-banked serum samples with the use of a certified liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method traceable to a reference measurement procedure. IPD meta-analyses were performed according to subgroups of remeasured 25(OH)D. Main outcomes were blood pressure and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Secondary outcomes were LDL, HDL, and total cholesterol and triglycerides; parathyroid hormone (PTH); fasting glucose, insulin, and C-peptide; and 2-h glucose. In secondary analyses, other potential effect modifiers were studied. Results: Remeasurement of 25(OH)D resulted in a lower mean 25(OH)D concentration in 10 of 12 RCTs. Vitamin D supplementation had no effect on the main outcomes of blood pressure and HbA1c. Supplementation resulted in 10-20% lower PTH concentrations, irrespective of the 25(OH)D subgroups. The subgroup analyses according to achieved 25(OH)D concentrations showed a significant decrease in LDL-cholesterol concentrations after vitamin D supplementation in 25(OH)D subgroups with <75, <100, and <125 nmol of -0.10 mmol/L (95% CI: -0.20, -0.00 mmol/L), -0.10 mmol/L (95% CI: -0.18, -0.02 mmol/L), and -0.07 mmol/L (95% CI: -0.14, -0.00 mmol/L), respectively. Patient features that modified the treatment effect could not be identified. Conclusions: For the main outcomes of blood pressure and HbA1c, the data support no benefit for vitamin D supplementation. For the secondary outcomes, in addition to its effect on PTH, we observed indications for a beneficial effect of vitamin D supplementation only on LDL cholesterol, which warrants further investigation. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02551835.

7.
Meat Sci ; 143: 60-68, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29715661

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of synthetic and natural sources of vitamin D biofortification in pig diets on pork vitamin D activity and pork quality. One hundred and twenty pigs (60 male, 60 female) were assigned to one of four dietary treatments for a 55 d feeding period. The dietary treatments were (1)50 µg vitamin D3/kg of feed; (2)50 µg of 25-hydroxvitamin D3/kg of feed (25-OH-D3); (3)50 µg vitamin D2/kg of feed; (4)50 µg vitamin D2-enriched mushrooms/kg of feed (Mushroom D2). The pigs offered the 25-OH-D3 diet exhibited the highest (P < 0.001) serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and subsequently exhibited the highest (P < 0.05) Longissimus thoracis (LT) total vitamin D activity. Mushroom D2 and 25-OH-D3 supplementation increased pork antioxidant status. The vitamin D2-enriched mushrooms improved (P < 0.05) pig performance, carcass weight and LT colour. In conclusion, 25-OH-D3 is the most successful source for increasing pork vitamin D activity, while Mushroom D2 may be a new avenue to improve animal performance and pork quality.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Calcifediol/administração & dosagem , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Carne/análise , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , 25-Hidroxivitamina D 2/sangue , Agaricales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agaricales/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Calcifediol/análise , Calcifediol/sangue , Calcifediol/metabolismo , Colecalciferol/administração & dosagem , Colecalciferol/análise , Colecalciferol/metabolismo , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Ergocalciferóis/administração & dosagem , Ergocalciferóis/análise , Ergocalciferóis/metabolismo , Feminino , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Humanos , Irlanda , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Valor Nutritivo , Pigmentos Biológicos/análise , Pigmentos Biológicos/biossíntese , Distribuição Aleatória , Sus scrofa , Ganho de Peso
8.
Food Chem ; 256: 18-24, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29606435

RESUMO

This study investigates dietary fortification of heifer feeds with cholecalciferol and ergocalciferol sources and effects on beef total vitamin D activity, vitamer, respective 25-hydroxymetabolite contents, and meat quality. Thirty heifers were allocated to one of three dietary treatments [(1) basal diet + 4000 IU of vitamin D3 (Vit D3); (2) basal diet + 4000 IU of vitamin D2 (Vit D2); and (3) basal diet + 4000 IU of vitamin D2-enriched mushrooms (Mushroom D2)] for a 30 day pre-slaughter period. Supplementation of heifer diets with Vit D3 yielded higher (p < 0.001) Longissimus thoracis (LT) total vitamin D activity (by 38-56%; p < 0.05) and serum 25-OH-D concentration (by 20-36%; p < 0.05), compared to that from Vit D2 and Mushroom D2 supplemented animals. Irrespective of vitamin D source, carcass characteristics, sensory and meat quality parameter were unaffected (p > 0.05) by the dietary treatments. In conclusion, vitamin D3 biofortification of cattle diets is the most efficacious way to enhance total beef vitamin D activity.


Assuntos
Agaricales/efeitos da radiação , Colecalciferol/administração & dosagem , Ergocalciferóis/administração & dosagem , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Carne/análise , Raios Ultravioleta , Agaricales/metabolismo , Animais , Músculos do Dorso/química , Músculos do Dorso/metabolismo , Calcifediol/análise , Calcifediol/sangue , Cálcio/sangue , Bovinos , Colecalciferol/síntese química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Dieta/veterinária , Ergocalciferóis/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
9.
Br J Nutr ; 118(7): 550-558, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28965512

RESUMO

The current study was aiming to report the prevalence of suboptimal vitamin D status among schoolchildren in Greece and investigate the role of sex, urbanisation and seasonality on vitamin D status. A sample of 2386 schoolchildren (9-13 years old) from four distinct prefectures was examined. The prevalence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration <30 and <50 nmol/l (vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency respectively) was 5·2 and 52·5 %, respectively. Girls had a higher prevalence of 25(OH)D<30 (7·2 v. 3·2 %) and 50 nmol/l (57·0 v. 48·0 %) than boys (P<0·001). The highest prevalence rates of 25(OH)D<30 and 50 nmol/l (9·1 and 73·1 %, respectively) were observed during spring (April to June), whereas the lowest (1·5 and 31·9 %, respectively) during autumn (October to December). The prevalence of 25(OH)D<50 nmol/l was higher in urban/semi-urban than rural regions, particularly during spring months (74·6 v. 47·2 %; P<0·001). Female sex, urban/semi-urban region of residence and spring months were found to increase the likelihood of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency, with the highest OR observed for spring months (7·47; 95 % CI 3·23, 17·3 and 5·14; 95 % CI 3·84, 6·89 for 25(OH)D<30 and 50 nmol/l respectively). In conclusion, despite the southerly latitude, the prevalence of low vitamin D status among primary schoolchildren in Greece is comparable to or exceeds the prevalence reported among children and adolescents on a European level. Sub-populations at highest risk are girls in urban/semi-urban areas during spring months, thus indicating the need for effective initiatives to support adequate vitamin D status in these population groups.


Assuntos
Estações do Ano , Urbanização , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , População Rural , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitamina D/sangue
10.
J AOAC Int ; 100(5): 1230-1233, 2017 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28766476

RESUMO

The Vitamin D Standardization Program (VDSP) has collaborated with numerous groups and agencies to assemble a set of tools, i.e., a reference measurement system, that can be used to establish the traceability of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] assays to relevant reference measurement procedures and reference materials. This is done with the goal of verifying end-user laboratory performance using precise statistical criteria to determine whether a specific assay is standardized. The purpose of this paper was to outline a set of steps that routine clinical and research laboratories can use to standardize their 25(OH)D assays using these tools. These steps apply to laboratories using commercially developed immunoassay measurement systems as well as in-house assays, usually based on high HPLC or LC tandem MS measurement systems. The steps are (1) initial calibration, (2) initial assessment of accuracy and bias, (3) assessment of total percent CV and mean bias, (4) use of trueness controls, and (5) participation in accuracy-based performance testing and/or external quality assessment schemes. The goal of each laboratory assay is to have a total CV of ≤10% and mean bias of ≤5%. Rigorous and less rigorous but low-cost options for meeting these statistical criteria are provided. Research laboratories who infrequently measure 25(OH)D are advised to repeat steps 1-4 for every measurement cycle. For users of commercial immunoassays who have relatively little control over standardization, we present an option for using trueness controls to develop a master equation that can be used to standardize results to the reference methods.


Assuntos
Análise Química do Sangue/normas , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/normas , Cromatografia Líquida/normas , Humanos , Imunoensaio/normas , Padrões de Referência , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/normas , Vitamina D/sangue
11.
J AOAC Int ; 100(5): 1308-1317, 2017 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28741469

RESUMO

Six laboratories associated with the Vitamin D Standardization Program (VDSP) participated in an interlaboratory comparison of LC with tandem MS (MS/MS) methods for the determination of 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [24,25(OH)2D3] in human serum. The laboratories analyzed two different serum-based Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) intended for use in the determination of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 30 samples from the Vitamin D External Quality Assessment Scheme (DEQAS). All laboratory methods for 24,25(OH)2D3 were based on isotope dilution LC-MS/MS; three of the methods used derivatization of the vitamin D metabolites before LC-MS/MS. Laboratory results were compared to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) results, which were obtained using their newly developed candidate reference measurement procedure for 24,25(OH)2D3. Laboratory results for the SRM samples varied in comparability to the NIST results, with one laboratory in excellent agreement (-1.6% mean bias), three laboratories at 10-15% mean bias, and the remaining laboratory at 36% mean bias. For the 30 DEQAS samples, the mean bias for the five laboratories ranged from 6 to 15%; however, the SD of the bias ranged from 8 to 29%. As a result of this intercomparison study, one laboratory discovered and corrected a method calculation error and another laboratory modified and improved their LC-MS/MS method.


Assuntos
24,25-Di-Hidroxivitamina D 3/sangue , Análise Química do Sangue/normas , Ensaio de Proficiência Laboratorial , Cromatografia Líquida/normas , Humanos , Padrões de Referência , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/normas , Vitamina D
12.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 105(6): 1512-1520, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28490516

RESUMO

Background: A systematic vitamin D fortification of fluid milk products and fat spreads was started in 2003 in Finland to improve vitamin D status. Objective: We investigated the effects of the vitamin D fortification policy on vitamin D status in Finland between 2000 and 2011.Design: Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [S-25(OH)D] concentrations of a nationally representative sample comprising 6134 and 4051 adults aged ≥30 y from the Health 2000 and Health 2011 surveys, respectively, were standardized according to the Vitamin D Standardization Program with the use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Linear and logistic regression models were used to assess the change in S-25(OH)D concentrations.Results: Between 2000 and 2011, the mean S-25(OH)D increased from 48 nmol/L (95% CI: 47, 48 nmol/L) to 65 nmol/L (95% CI: 65, 66 nmol/L) (P < 0.001). The prevalence of vitamin D supplement users increased from 11% to 41% (P < 0.001). When analyzing the effect of fortification of fluid milk products, we focused on supplement nonusers. The mean increase in S-25(OH)D in daily fluid milk consumers (n = 1017) among supplement nonusers was 20 nmol/L (95% CI: 19, 21 nmol/L), which was 6 nmol/L higher than nonconsumers (n = 229) (14 nmol/L; 95% CI: 12, 16 nmol/L) (P < 0.001). In total, 91% of nonusers who consumed fluid milk products, fat spreads, and fish based on Finnish nutrition recommendations reached S-25(OH)D concentrations >50 nmol/L in 2011.Conclusions: The vitamin D status of the Finnish adult population has improved considerably during the time period studied. The increase is mainly explained by food fortification, especially of fluid milk products, and augmented vitamin D supplement use. Other factors, such as the difference in the ultraviolet radiation index between 2000 and 2011, may partly explain the results. When consuming vitamin D sources based on the nutritional recommendations, vitamin D status is sufficient [S-25(OH)D ≥50 nmol/L], and supplementation is generally not needed.


Assuntos
Alimentos Fortificados , Estado Nutricional , Deficiência de Vitamina D/prevenção & controle , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Finlândia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Leite/química , Política Nutricional , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Raios Ultravioleta , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/tratamento farmacológico , Vitaminas/sangue
13.
J Chromatogr A ; 1497: 102-109, 2017 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28372841

RESUMO

Measurement of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] is considered the best indicator of vitamin D status. Two minor vitamin D metabolites are common interferences encountered in 25(OH)D assays. The first is 3-epi-25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [3-epi-25(OH)D3], which if not chromatographically resolved from 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3], can overestimate 25(OH)D concentrations. The second is 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [24R,25(OH)2D3], which can cross-react with the antibodies in 25(OH)D immunoassays. Our aim was to develop an LC-MS/MS method capable of detecting both 3-epi-25(OH)D3 and 24R,25(OH)2D3 in serum without the use of a derivatization agent. We report an isotope dilution LC-MS/MS method, with electrospray ionization in the positive mode, that can simultaneously detect 24R,25(OH)2D3, 25(OH)D3, 3-epi-25(OH)D3, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D2. The method employs a cost-effective liquid-liquid extraction using only 150µL of sera and a total run time of 10min. Method performance was assessed by using quality controls made from pooled sera as an alternative to sera spiked with analytes. Biobanked samples, originally analyzed by chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA), were re-analyzed with this method to determine the contribution of 24R,25(OH)2D3 cross-reactivity to 25(OH)D measurement bias. The CMIA over-estimation of 25(OH)D measurements relative to LC-MS/MS was found to depend on both 25(OH)D and 24R,25(OH)2D3 concentrations.


Assuntos
24,25-Di-Hidroxivitamina D 3/sangue , Calcifediol/sangue , Imunoensaio , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , 24,25-Di-Hidroxivitamina D 3/imunologia , 24,25-Di-Hidroxivitamina D 3/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos/imunologia , Calcifediol/imunologia , Calcifediol/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Reações Cruzadas , Humanos , Extração Líquido-Líquido , Medições Luminescentes , Vitamina D/metabolismo
14.
PLoS One ; 12(2): e0170791, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28207791

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency may be a risk factor for mortality but previous meta-analyses lacked standardization of laboratory methods for 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentrations and used aggregate data instead of individual participant data (IPD). We therefore performed an IPD meta-analysis on the association between standardized serum 25(OH)D and mortality. METHODS: In a European consortium of eight prospective studies, including seven general population cohorts, we used the Vitamin D Standardization Program (VDSP) protocols to standardize 25(OH)D data. Meta-analyses using a one step procedure on IPD were performed to study associations of 25(OH)D with all-cause mortality as the primary outcome, and with cardiovascular and cancer mortality as secondary outcomes. This meta-analysis is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02438488. FINDINGS: We analysed 26916 study participants (median age 61.6 years, 58% females) with a median 25(OH)D concentration of 53.8 nmol/L. During a median follow-up time of 10.5 years, 6802 persons died. Compared to participants with 25(OH)D concentrations of 75 to 99.99 nmol/L, the adjusted hazard ratios (with 95% confidence interval) for mortality in the 25(OH)D groups with 40 to 49.99, 30 to 39.99, and <30 nmol/L were 1.15 (1.00-1.29), 1.33 (1.16-1.51), and 1.67 (1.44-1.89), respectively. We observed similar results for cardiovascular mortality, but there was no significant linear association between 25(OH)D and cancer mortality. There was also no significantly increased mortality risk at high 25(OH)D levels up to 125 nmol/L. INTERPRETATION: In the first IPD meta-analysis using standardized measurements of 25(OH)D we observed an association between low 25(OH)D and increased risk of all-cause mortality. It is of public health interest to evaluate whether treatment of vitamin D deficiency prevents premature deaths.


Assuntos
Deficiência de Vitamina D/mortalidade , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Idoso , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Padrões de Referência , Taxa de Sobrevida , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitamina D/normas , Deficiência de Vitamina D/prevenção & controle
15.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 104(5): 1301-1309, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27655438

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescents are a population group at high risk of low vitamin D status, yet the evidence base for establishing dietary vitamin D requirements remains weak. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to establish the distribution of vitamin D intakes required to maintain serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations above proposed cutoffs (25, 30, 40, and 50 nmol/L) during winter in white males and females (14-18 y of age) in the United Kingdom (51°N). DESIGN: In a dose-response trial, 110 adolescents (aged 15.9 ± 1.4 y; 43% males) were randomly assigned to receive 0, 10, or 20 µg vitamin D3 supplements/d for 20 wk during winter. A nonlinear regression model was fit to total vitamin D intake and postintervention serum 25(OH)D concentrations, and regression-predicted values estimated the vitamin D intakes required to maintain serum 25(OH)D concentrations above specific cutoffs. RESULTS: Mean ± SD serum 25(OH)D concentrations increased from 49.2 ± 12.0 to 56.6 ± 12.4 nmol/L and from 51.7 ± 13.4 to 63.9 ± 10.6 nmol/L in the 10- and 20-µg/d groups, respectively, and decreased in the placebo group from 46.8 ± 11.4 to 30.7 ± 8.6 nmol/L (all P ≤ 0.001). Vitamin D intakes required to maintain 25(OH)D concentrations >25 and >30 nmol/L in 97.5% of adolescents were estimated to be 10.1 and 13.1 µg/d, respectively, and 6.6 µg/d to maintain 50% of adolescents at concentrations >40 nmol/L. Because the response of 25(OH)D reached a plateau at 46 nmol/L, there is uncertainty in estimating the vitamin D intake required to maintain 25(OH)D concentrations >50 nmol/L in 97.5% of adolescents, but it exceeded 30 µg/d. CONCLUSION: Vitamin D intakes between 10 and ∼30 µg/d are required by white adolescents during winter to maintain serum 25(OH)D concentrations >25-50 nmol/L, depending on the serum 25(OH)D threshold chosen. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02150122 and as International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number ISRCTN40736890.


Assuntos
Necessidades Nutricionais , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitamina D/sangue , Adolescente , Cálcio/sangue , Suplementos Nutricionais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Dinâmica não Linear , Hormônio Paratireóideo/sangue , Estações do Ano , Luz Solar , Reino Unido
16.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 103(4): 1033-44, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26864360

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency has been described as being pandemic, but serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] distribution data for the European Union are of very variable quality. The NIH-led international Vitamin D Standardization Program (VDSP) has developed protocols for standardizing existing 25(OH)D values from national health/nutrition surveys. OBJECTIVE: This study applied VDSP protocols to serum 25(OH)D data from representative childhood/teenage and adult/older adult European populations, representing a sizable geographical footprint, to better quantify the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Europe. DESIGN: The VDSP protocols were applied in 14 population studies [reanalysis of subsets of serum 25(OH)D in 11 studies and complete analysis of all samples from 3 studies that had not previously measured it] by using certified liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry on biobanked sera. These data were combined with standardized serum 25(OH)D data from 4 previously standardized studies (for a total n= 55,844). Prevalence estimates of vitamin D deficiency [using various serum 25(OH)D thresholds] were generated on the basis of standardized 25(OH)D data. RESULTS: An overall pooled estimate, irrespective of age group, ethnic mix, and latitude of study populations, showed that 13.0% of the 55,844 European individuals had serum 25(OH)D concentrations <30 nmol/L on average in the year, with 17.7% and 8.3% in those sampled during the extended winter (October-March) and summer (April-November) periods, respectively. According to an alternate suggested definition of vitamin D deficiency (<50 nmol/L), the prevalence was 40.4%. Dark-skinned ethnic subgroups had much higher (3- to 71-fold) prevalence of serum 25(OH)D <30 nmol/L than did white populations. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D deficiency is evident throughout the European population at prevalence rates that are concerning and that require action from a public health perspective. What direction these strategies take will depend on European policy but should aim to ensure vitamin D intakes that are protective against vitamin D deficiency in the majority of the European population.


Assuntos
Pandemias , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cromatografia Líquida , Bases de Dados Factuais , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estado Nutricional , Prevalência , Estações do Ano , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Scand J Clin Lab Invest ; 75(7): 549-61, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26305421

RESUMO

Knowledge about the distributions of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations in representative population samples is critical for the quantification of vitamin D deficiency as well as for setting dietary reference values and food-based strategies for its prevention. Such data for the European Union are of variable quality making it difficult to estimate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency across member states. As a consequence of the widespread, method-related differences in measurements of serum 25(OH)D concentrations, the Vitamin D Standardization Program (VDSP) developed protocols for standardizing existing serum 25(OH)D data from national surveys around the world. The objective of the present work was to apply the VDSP protocols to existing serum 25(OH)D data from a Danish, a Norwegian, and a Finnish population-based health survey and from a Danish randomized controlled trial. A specifically-selected subset (n 100-150) of bio-banked serum samples from each of the studies were reanalyzed for 25(OH)D by LC-MS/MS and a calibration equation developed between old and new 25(OH)D data, and this equation was applied to the entire data-sets from each study. Compared to estimates based on the original serum 25(OH)D data, the percentage vitamin D deficiency (< 30 nmol/L) decreased by 21.5% in the Danish health survey but by only 1.4% in the Norwegian health survey; but was relatively unchanged (0% and 0.2%) in the Finish survey or Danish RCT, respectively, following VDSP standardization. In conclusion, standardization of serum 25(OH)D concentrations is absolutely necessary in order to compare serum 25(OH)D concentrations across different study populations, which is needed to quantify and prevent vitamin D deficiency.


Assuntos
Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cromatografia Líquida , Protocolos Clínicos , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência , Países Escandinavos e Nórdicos/epidemiologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Vitamina D/sangue , Vitamina D/normas , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia
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