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1.
Am J Bot ; 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737992
2.
Plant Cell ; 32(5): 1434-1448, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32184347

RESUMO

The gene balance hypothesis postulates that there is selection on gene copy number (gene dosage) to preserve the stoichiometric balance among interacting proteins. This presupposes that gene product abundance is governed by gene dosage and that gene dosage responses are consistent for interacting genes in a dosage-balance-sensitive network or complex. Gene dosage responses, however, have rarely been quantified, and the available data suggest that they are highly variable. We sequenced the transcriptomes of two synthetic autopolyploid accessions of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and their diploid progenitors, as well as one natural tetraploid and its synthetic diploid produced via haploid induction, to estimate transcriptome size and dosage responses immediately following ploidy change. Similar to what has been observed in previous studies, overall transcriptome size does not exhibit a simple doubling in response to genome doubling, and individual gene dosage responses are highly variable in all three accessions, indicating that expression is not strictly coupled with gene dosage. Nonetheless, putatively dosage balance-sensitive gene groups (Gene Ontology terms, metabolic networks, gene families, and predicted interacting proteins) exhibit smaller and more coordinated dosage responses than do putatively dosage-insensitive gene groups, suggesting that constraints on dosage balance operate immediately following whole-genome duplication and that duplicate gene retention patterns are shaped by selection to preserve dosage balance.

3.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(2)2020 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012851

RESUMO

Polyploidy is hypothesized to cause dosage imbalances between the nucleus and the other genome-containing organelles (mitochondria and plastids), but the evidence for this is limited. We performed RNA-seq on Arabidopsis thaliana diploids and their derived autopolyploids to quantify the degree of inter-genome coordination of transcriptional responses to nuclear whole genome duplication in two different organs (sepals and rosette leaves). We show that nuclear and organellar genomes exhibit highly coordinated responses in both organs. First, organelle genome copy number increased in response to nuclear whole genome duplication (WGD), at least partially compensating for altered nuclear genome dosage. Second, transcriptional output of the different cellular compartments is tuned to maintain diploid-like levels of relative expression among interacting genes. In particular, plastid genes and nuclear genes whose products are plastid-targeted show coordinated down-regulation, such that their expression levels relative to each other remain constant across ploidy levels. Conversely, mitochondrial genes and nuclear genes with mitochondrial targeting show either constant or coordinated up-regulation of expression relative to other nuclear genes. Thus, cytonuclear coordination is robust to changes in nuclear ploidy level, with diploid-like balance in transcript abundances achieved within three generations after nuclear whole genome duplication.

4.
Front Plant Sci ; 10: 345, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31105714

RESUMO

Based on evolutionary, phylogenomic, and synteny analyses of genome sequences for more than a dozen diverse legume species as well as analysis of chromosome counts across the legume family, we conclude that the genus Cercis provides a plausible model for an early evolutionary form of the legume genome. The small Cercis genus is in the earliest-diverging clade in the earliest-diverging legume subfamily (Cercidoideae). The Cercis genome is physically small, and has accumulated mutations at an unusually slow rate compared to other legumes. Chromosome counts across 477 legume genera, combined with phylogenetic reconstructions and histories of whole-genome duplications, suggest that the legume progenitor had 7 chromosomes - as does Cercis. We propose a model in which a legume progenitor, with 7 chromosomes, diversified into species that would become the Cercidoideae and the remaining legume subfamilies; then speciation in the Cercidoideae gave rise to the progenitor of the Cercis genus. There is evidence for a genome duplication in the remaining Cercidoideae, which is likely due to allotetraploidy involving hybridization between a Cercis progenitor and a second diploid species that existed at the time of the polyploidy event. Outside the Cercidoideae, a set of probably independent whole-genome duplications gave rise to the five other legume subfamilies, at least four of which have predominant counts of 12-14 chromosomes among their early-diverging taxa. An earlier study concluded that independent duplications occurred in the Caesalpinioideae, Detarioideae, and Papilionoideae. We conclude that Cercis may be unique among legumes in lacking evidence of polyploidy, a process that has shaped the genomes of all other legumes thus far investigated.

5.
Trends Plant Sci ; 24(1): 49-57, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30409687

RESUMO

Root nodule endosymbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria provides plants with unlimited access to fixed nitrogen, but at a significant energetic cost. Nodulation is generally considered to have originated in parallel in different lineages, but this hypothesis downplays the genetic complexity of nodulation and requires independent recruitment of many common features across lineages. Recent phylogenomic studies revealed that genes that function in establishing or maintaining nitrogen-fixing nodules are independently lost in non-nodulating relatives of nitrogen-fixing plants. In our opinion, these data are best explained by a scenario of a single gain followed by massively parallel loss of nitrogen-fixing root nodules triggered by events at geological scale.


Assuntos
Fixação de Nitrogênio , Nodulação , Evolução Biológica , Genes de Plantas/fisiologia , Fixação de Nitrogênio/genética , Filogenia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais/genética , Nodulação/genética , Plantas/genética , Simbiose/genética
6.
Plant Cell ; 30(10): 2308-2329, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30143539

RESUMO

Ploidy and size phenomena are observed to be correlated across several biological scales, from subcellular to organismal. Two kinds of ploidy change can affect plants. Whole-genome multiplication increases ploidy in whole plants and is broadly associated with increases in cell and organism size. Endoreduplication increases ploidy in individual cells. Ploidy increase is strongly correlated with increased cell size and nuclear volume. Here, we investigate scaling relationships between ploidy and size by simultaneously quantifying nuclear size, cell size, and organ size in sepals from an isogenic series of diploid, tetraploid, and octoploid Arabidopsis thaliana plants, each of which contains an internal endopolyploidy series. We find that pavement cell size and transcriptome size increase linearly with whole-organism ploidy, but organ area increases more modestly due to a compensatory decrease in cell number. We observe that cell size and nuclear size are maintained at a constant ratio; the value of this constant is similar in diploid and tetraploid plants and slightly lower in octoploid plants. However, cell size is maintained in a mutant with reduced nuclear size, indicating that cell size is scaled to cell ploidy rather than to nuclear size. These results shed light on how size is regulated in plants and how cells and organisms of differing sizes are generated by ploidy change.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/citologia , Arabidopsis/genética , Flores/genética , Ploidias , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Núcleo Celular/genética , Tamanho Celular , Flores/anatomia & histologia , Flores/citologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Mutação , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Células Vegetais/fisiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas
7.
Am J Bot ; 105(6): 1053-1066, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29985538

RESUMO

PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The genetic bottleneck of polyploid formation can be mitigated by multiple origins, gene flow, and recombination among different lineages. In crop plants with limited origins, efforts to increase genetic diversity have limitations. Here we used lineage recombination to increase genetic diversity in peanut, an allotetraploid likely of single origin, by crossing with a novel allopolyploid genotype and selecting improved lines. METHODS: Single backcross progeny from cultivated peanut × wild species-derived allotetraploid cross were studied over successive generations. Using genetic assumptions that encompass segmental allotetraploidy, we used single nucleotide polymorphisms and whole-genome sequence data to infer genome structures. KEY RESULTS: Selected lines, despite a high proportion of wild alleles, are agronomically adapted, productive, and with improved disease resistances. Wild alleles mostly substituted homologous segments of the peanut genome. Regions of dispersed wild alleles, characteristic of gene conversion, also occurred. However, wild chromosome segments sometimes replaced cultivated peanut's homeologous subgenome; A. ipaënsis B sometimes replaced A. hypogaea A subgenome (~0.6%), and A. duranensis replaced A. hypogaea B subgenome segments (~2%). Furthermore, some subgenome regions historically lost in cultivated peanut were "recovered" by wild chromosome segments (effectively reversing the "polyploid ratchet"). These processes resulted in lines with new genome structure variations. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic diversity was introduced by wild allele introgression, and by introducing new genome structure variations. These results highlight the special possibilities of segmental allotetraploidy and of using lineage recombination to increase genetic diversity in peanut, likely mirroring what occurs in natural segmental allopolyploids with multiple origins.


Assuntos
Arachis/genética , Hibridização Genética , Poliploidia , Alelos , Variação Genética , Recombinação Homóloga
8.
BMC Genomics ; 19(1): 439, 2018 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29871589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kudzu, Pueraria montana var. lobata, is a woody vine native to Southeast Asia that has been introduced globally for cattle forage and erosion control. The vine is highly invasive in its introduced areas, including the southeastern US. Modern molecular marker resources are limited for the species, despite its importance. Transcriptomes for P. montana var. lobata and a second phaseoloid legume taxon previously ascribed to genus Pueraria, Neustanthus phaseoloides, were generated and mined for microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms. RESULTS: Roche 454 sequencing of P. montana var. lobata and N. phaseoloides transcriptomes produced read numbers ranging from ~ 280,000 to ~ 420,000. Trinity assemblies produced an average of 17,491 contigs with mean lengths ranging from 639 bp to 994 bp. Transcriptome completeness, according to BUSCO, ranged between 64 and 77%. After vetting for primer design, there were 1646 expressed simple sequence repeats (eSSRs) identified in P. montana var. lobata and 1459 in N. phaseoloides. From these eSSRs, 17 identical primer pairs, representing inter-generic phaseoloid eSSRs, were created. Additionally, 13 primer pairs specific to P. montana var. lobata were also created. From these 30 primer pairs, a final set of seven primer pairs were used on 68 individuals of P. montana var. lobata for characterization across the US, China, and Japan. The populations exhibited from 20 to 43 alleles across the seven loci. We also conducted pairwise tests for high-confidence SNP discovery from the kudzu transcriptomes we sequenced and two previously sequenced P. montana var. lobata transcriptomes. Pairwise comparisons between P. montana var. lobata ranged from 358 to 24,475 SNPs, while comparisons between P. montana var. lobata and N. phaseoloides ranged from 5185 to 30,143 SNPs. CONCLUSIONS: The discovered molecular markers for kudzu provide a starting point for comparative genetic studies within phaseoloid legumes. This study both adds to the current genetic resources and presents the first available genomic resources for the invasive kudzu vine. Additionally, this study is the first to provide molecular evidence to support the hypothesis of Japan as a source of US kudzu and begins to narrow the origin of US kudzu to the central Japanese island of Honshu.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Espécies Introduzidas , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Pueraria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pueraria/genética , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Controle de Qualidade , Análise de Sequência
9.
Appl Plant Sci ; 6(3): e1036, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29732266

RESUMO

Premise of the Study: The development of pipelines for locus discovery has spurred the use of target enrichment for plant phylogenomics. However, few studies have compared pipelines from locus discovery and bait design, through validation, to tree inference. We compared three methods within Leguminosae (Fabaceae) and present a workflow for future efforts. Methods: Using 30 transcriptomes, we compared Hyb-Seq, MarkerMiner, and the Yang and Smith (Y&S) pipelines for locus discovery, validated 7501 baits targeting 507 loci across 25 genera via Illumina sequencing, and inferred gene and species trees via concatenation- and coalescent-based methods. Results: Hyb-Seq discovered loci with the longest mean length. MarkerMiner discovered the most conserved loci with the least flagged as paralogous. Y&S offered the most parsimony-informative sites and putative orthologs. Target recovery averaged 93% across taxa. We optimized our targeted locus set based on a workflow designed to minimize paralog/ortholog conflation and thus present 423 loci for legume phylogenomics. Conclusions: Methods differed across criteria important for phylogenetic marker development. We recommend Hyb-Seq as a method that may be useful for most phylogenomic projects. Our targeted locus set is a resource for future, community-driven efforts to reconstruct the legume tree of life.

10.
Science ; 361(6398)2018 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29794220

RESUMO

The root nodule symbiosis of plants with nitrogen-fixing bacteria affects global nitrogen cycles and food production but is restricted to a subset of genera within a single clade of flowering plants. To explore the genetic basis for this scattered occurrence, we sequenced the genomes of 10 plant species covering the diversity of nodule morphotypes, bacterial symbionts, and infection strategies. In a genome-wide comparative analysis of a total of 37 plant species, we discovered signatures of multiple independent loss-of-function events in the indispensable symbiotic regulator NODULE INCEPTION in 10 of 13 genomes of nonnodulating species within this clade. The discovery that multiple independent losses shaped the present-day distribution of nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbiosis in plants reveals a phylogenetically wider distribution in evolutionary history and a so-far-underestimated selection pressure against this symbiosis.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Fabaceae , Fixação de Nitrogênio , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Nódulos Radiculares de Plantas/microbiologia , Simbiose , Evolução Molecular , Fabaceae/classificação , Fabaceae/genética , Fabaceae/microbiologia , Genoma de Planta , Genômica , Filogenia
11.
Genes (Basel) ; 8(12)2017 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29189710

RESUMO

Root nodule symbioses (nodulation) and whole genome duplication (WGD, polyploidy) are both important phenomena in the legume family (Leguminosae). Recently, it has been proposed that polyploidy may have played a critical role in the origin or refinement of nodulation. However, while nodulation and polyploidy have been studied independently, there have been no direct studies of mechanisms affecting the interactions between these phenomena in symbiotic, nodule-forming species. Here, we examined the transcriptome-level responses to inoculation in the young allopolyploid Glycine dolichocarpa (T2) and its diploid progenitor species to identify underlying processes leading to the enhanced nodulation responses previously identified in T2. We assessed the differential expression of genes and, using weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA), identified modules associated with nodulation and compared their expression between species. These transcriptomic analyses revealed patterns of non-additive expression in T2, with evidence of transcriptional responses to inoculation that were distinct from one or both progenitors. These differential responses elucidate mechanisms underlying the nodulation-related differences observed between T2 and the diploid progenitors. Our results indicate that T2 has reduced stress-related transcription, coupled with enhanced transcription of modules and genes implicated in hormonal signaling, both of which are important for nodulation.

12.
Mol Plant ; 10(10): 1293-1306, 2017 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28917590

RESUMO

The Cucurbita genus contains several economically important species in the Cucurbitaceae family. Here, we report high-quality genome sequences of C. maxima and C. moschata and provide evidence supporting an allotetraploidization event in Cucurbita. We are able to partition the genome into two homoeologous subgenomes based on different genetic distances to melon, cucumber, and watermelon in the Benincaseae tribe. We estimate that the two diploid progenitors successively diverged from Benincaseae around 31 and 26 million years ago (Mya), respectively, and the allotetraploidization happened at some point between 26 Mya and 3 Mya, the estimated date when C. maxima and C. moschata diverged. The subgenomes have largely maintained the chromosome structures of their diploid progenitors. Such long-term karyotype stability after polyploidization has not been commonly observed in plant polyploids. The two subgenomes have retained similar numbers of genes, and neither subgenome is globally dominant in gene expression. Allele-specific expression analysis in the C. maxima × C. moschata interspecific F1 hybrid and their two parents indicates the predominance of trans-regulatory effects underlying expression divergence of the parents, and detects transgressive gene expression changes in the hybrid correlated with heterosis in important agronomic traits. Our study provides insights into polyploid genome evolution and valuable resources for genetic improvement of cucurbit crops.


Assuntos
Instabilidade Cromossômica , Cromossomos de Plantas , Cucurbita/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genoma de Planta , Cariótipo , Tetraploidia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
13.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 72(3): 225-235, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28866817

RESUMO

Winged bean, Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC., is analogous to soybean in yield and nutritional quality, proving a valuable alternative to soybean in tropical regions of the world. The presence of anti-nutritional factors and high costs associated with indeterminate plant habit have been major concerns in this crop. But occurrence of good genetic variability in germplasm collections offers precious resources for winged bean breeding. However, lack of germplasm characterization is hindering such efforts. From a genomic standpoint, winged bean has been little studied despite rapid advancement in legume genomics in the last decade. Exploiting modern genomics/breeding approaches for genetic resource characterization and the breeding of early maturing, high yielding, determinate varieties which are disease resistant and free of anti-nutritional factors along with developing consumer friendly value-added products of local significance are great challenges and opportunities in the future that would boost cultivation of winged bean in the tropics. We review past efforts and future prospects towards winged bean improvement.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/genética , Agricultura , Biotecnologia , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Genômica , Valor Nutritivo
14.
BMC Genomics ; 18(1): 409, 2017 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28545396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The medicinal legume Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC. has attracted attention worldwide as a source of the anti-Parkinson's drug L-Dopa. It is also a popular green manure cover crop that offers many agronomic benefits including high protein content, nitrogen fixation and soil nutrients. The plant currently lacks genomic resources and there is limited knowledge on gene expression, metabolic pathways, and genetics of secondary metabolite production. Here, we present transcriptomic resources for M. pruriens, including a de novo transcriptome assembly and annotation, as well as differential transcript expression analyses between root, leaf, and pod tissues. We also develop microsatellite markers and analyze genetic diversity and population structure within a set of Indian germplasm accessions. RESULTS: One-hundred ninety-one million two hundred thirty-three thousand two hundred forty-two bp cleaned reads were assembled into 67,561 transcripts with mean length of 626 bp and N50 of 987 bp. Assembled sequences were annotated using BLASTX against public databases with over 80% of transcripts annotated. We identified 7,493 simple sequence repeat (SSR) motifs, including 787 polymorphic repeats between the parents of a mapping population. 134 SSRs from expressed sequenced tags (ESTs) were screened against 23 M. pruriens accessions from India, with 52 EST-SSRs retained after quality control. Population structure analysis using a Bayesian framework implemented in fastSTRUCTURE showed nearly similar groupings as with distance-based (neighbor-joining) and principal component analyses, with most of the accessions clustering per geographical origins. Pair-wise comparison of transcript expression in leaves, roots and pods identified 4,387 differentially expressed transcripts with the highest number occurring between roots and leaves. Differentially expressed transcripts were enriched with transcription factors and transcripts annotated as belonging to secondary metabolite pathways. CONCLUSIONS: The M. pruriens transcriptomic resources generated in this study provide foundational resources for gene discovery and development of molecular markers. Polymorphic SSRs identified can be used for genetic diversity, marker-trait analyses, and development of functional markers for crop improvement. The results of differential expression studies can be used to investigate genes involved in L-Dopa synthesis and other key metabolic pathways in M. pruriens.


Assuntos
Etiquetas de Sequências Expressas/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Mucuna/genética , Mineração de Dados , Polimorfismo Genético , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
16.
New Phytol ; 213(2): 487-493, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28000935
18.
Rice (N Y) ; 9(1): 56, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27730519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding population structure of the wild progenitor of Asian cultivated rice (O. sativa), the Oryza rufipogon species complex (ORSC), is of interest to plant breeders and contributes to our understanding of rice domestication. A collection of 286 diverse ORSC accessions was evaluated for nuclear variation using genotyping-by-sequencing (113,739 SNPs) and for chloroplast variation using Sanger sequencing (25 polymorphic sites). RESULTS: Six wild subpopulations were identified, with 25 % of accessions classified as admixed. Three of the wild groups were genetically and geographically closely related to the O. sativa subpopulations, indica, aus and japonica, and carried O. sativa introgressions; the other three wild groups were genetically divergent, had unique chloroplast haplotypes, and were located at the geographical extremes of the species range. The genetic subpopulations were significantly correlated (r 2 = 0.562) with traditional species designations, O. rufipogon (perennial) and O. nivara (annual), differentiated based on morphology and life history. A wild diversity panel of 95 purified (inbred) accessions was developed for future genetic studies. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the cultivated aus subpopulation is most closely related to an annual wild relative, japonica to a perennial wild relative, and indica to an admixed population of diverse annual and perennial wild ancestors. Gene flow between ORSC and O. sativa is common in regions where rice is cultivated, threatening the identity and diversity of wild ORSC populations. The three geographically isolated ORSC populations harbor variation rarely seen in cultivated rice and provide a unique window into the genetic composition of ancient rice subpopulations.

19.
Am J Bot ; 103(10): 1771-1782, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27562208

RESUMO

PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Previous studies have shown that polyploidy can alter biotic interactions, and it has been suggested that these effects may contribute to the increased ability for colonization of new habitats shown by many allopolyploids. Little is known, however, about the effects of allopolyploidy, which combines hybridity and genome doubling, on symbiotic interactions with rhizobial bacteria. METHODS: We examined interactions of the allopolyploid Glycine dolichocarpa (designated T2) with novel rhizobial partners, such as might occur in a context of colonization, and compared these with the responses of its diploid progenitors, G. tomentella (D3) and G. syndetika (D4). We assessed root hair response, nodule formation, nodule mass, nodule number, and plant biomass. KEY RESULTS: The allopolyploid (T2) showed a greater root hair deformation response when exposed to rhizobia, compared with either diploid. T2 had a greater probability of forming nodules with NGR234 compared with diploid D4, and greater total nodule mass per nodulated plant compared with diploid D3. T2 also had greater plant biomass responses to nitrogen and when exposed to NGR234. CONCLUSIONS: The allopolyploid is characterized by transgressive responses to rhizobia for some variables, while also combining certain parental diploid responses such that its capacity for interactions with rhizobia appears to be greater than for either diploid progenitor. This overall enhanced nodulation capacity and the ability to make greater gains from exposure to both rhizobia and additional nitrogen indicate a greater potential of the allopolyploid to benefit from these factors both generally and in a context of colonization.


Assuntos
Bradyrhizobium/fisiologia , Fabaceae/fisiologia , Nodulação , Sinorhizobium/fisiologia , Biomassa , Fabaceae/genética , Fabaceae/microbiologia , Poliploidia
20.
New Phytol ; 212(4): 1083-1093, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27418296

RESUMO

Retention or loss of paralogs following duplication correlates strongly with the function of the gene and whether the gene was duplicated by whole-genome duplication (WGD) or by small-scale duplication. Selection on relative gene dosage (to maintain proper stoichiometry among interacting proteins) has been invoked to explain these patterns of duplicate gene retention and loss. In order for gene dosage to be visible to natural selection, there must necessarily be a correlation between gene copy number and gene expression level (transcript abundance), but this has rarely been examined. We used RNA-Seq data from seven Glycine subgenus Glycine species (three recently formed allotetraploids and their four diploid progenitors) to determine if expression patterns and gene dosage responses at the level of transcription are consistent with selection on relative gene dosage. As predicted, metabolic pathways and gene ontologies that are putatively dosage-sensitive based on duplication history exhibited reduced expression variance across species, and more coordinated expression responses to recent WGD, relative to putatively dosage-insensitive networks. We conclude that selection on relative dosage has played an important role in shaping gene networks in Glycine.


Assuntos
Diploide , Dosagem de Genes , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Poliploidia , Soja/genética , Duplicação Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Genes de Plantas
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