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1.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 32(1): 014001, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514175

RESUMO

The PEC performance of WO3/BiVO4 heterojunction photoanodes with a fixed BiVO4 thick top layer and different WO3 layer thicknesses was investigated under backside irradiation, in comparison with the performance of the same electrodes without a top BiVO4 layer. While the performance of these latter increase with increasing WO3 thickness, the presence of a BiVO4 layer, besides leading to an effective sensitization up to 520 nm, leads to a decrease of incident photon to current efficiency in the short wavelength's range. After having excluded major WO3 filter effects, this has been attributed to charge carrier recombination effects occurring when both oxides get excited and becoming more relevant with increasing WO3 thickness and decreasing excitation wavelength.

2.
Inorg Chem ; 58(21): 14586-14599, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618015

RESUMO

In this work, we report the synthesis of [Ru(phen)32+]-based complexes and their use as photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy (PDT), a treatment of pathological conditions based on the photoactivation of bioactive compounds, which are not harmful in the absence of light irradiation. Of these complexes, Ru-PhenISA and Ru-PhenAN are polymer conjugates containing less than 5%, (on a molar basis), photoactive units. Their performance is compared with that of a small [Ru(phen)32+] compound, [Ru(phen)2BAP](OTf)2 (BAP = 4-(4'-aminobutyl)-1,10-phenanthroline, OTf = triflate anion), used as a model of the photoactive units. The polymer ligands, PhenISA and PhenAN, are polyamidoamines with different acid-base properties. At physiological pH, the former is zwitterionic, the latter moderately cationic, and both intrinsically cytocompatible. The photophysical characterizations show that the complexation to macromolecules does not hamper the Ru(phen)32+ ability to generate toxic singlet oxygen upon irradiation, and phosphorescence lifetimes and quantum yields are similar in all cases. All three compounds are internalized by HeLa cells and can induce cell death upon visible light irradiation. However, their relative PDT efficiency is different: the zwitterionic PhenISA endowed with the Ru-complex lowers the PDT efficiency of the free complex, while conversely, the cationic PhenAN boosts it. Flow cytometry demonstrates that the uptake efficiency of the three agents reflects the observed differences in PDT efficacy. Additionally, intracellular localization studies show that while [Ru(phen)2BAP](OTf)2 remains confined in vesicular structures, Ru-PhenISA localization is hard to determine due to the very low uptake efficiency. Very interestingly, instead, the cationic Ru-PhenAN accumulates inside the nucleus in all treated cells. Overall, the results indicate that the complexation of [Ru(phen)2BAP](OTf)2 with a cationic polyamidoamine to give the Ru-PhenAN complex is an excellent strategy to increase the Ru-complex cell uptake and, additionally, to achieve accumulation at the nuclear level. These unique features together make this compound an excellent photosensitizer with very high PDT efficiency.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Complexos de Coordenação/farmacologia , Fotoquimioterapia , Poliaminas/farmacologia , Rutênio/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexos de Coordenação/síntese química , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Células HeLa , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Tamanho da Partícula , Poliaminas/química , Rutênio/química , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
3.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(43): 14042-14045, 2018 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30296074

RESUMO

The dynamics of photopromoted electrons in BiVO4, WO3, and WO3/BiVO4 heterojunction electrodes has been directly probed by transient absorption (TA) midinfrared (mid-IR) spectroscopy in the picosecond to microsecond time range. By comparison of the dynamics recorded with the two individual oxides at 2050 cm-1 with that of the heterojunction system after excitation at different wavelengths, electron-transfer processes between selectively excited BiVO4 and WO3 have been directly tracked for the first time. These results support the charge carrier interactions which were previously hypothesized by probing the BiVO4 hole dynamics through TA spectroscopy in the visible range. Nanosecond mid-IR TA experiments confirmed that charge carrier separation occurs in WO3/BiVO4 electrodes under visible-light excitation, persisting up to the microsecond time scale.

4.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(33): 27745-27756, 2018 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30048108

RESUMO

In the present work, two H2 evolution photocatalysts were prepared by employing two different oxides, TiO2 and zirconium titanate (ZrTiO4), as the support of various copper phases. For both the supports the same Cu loading (0.5% w/w) was adopted, but two different impregnation procedures have been followed, leading to different forms of Cu in the final composite material that are: (i) Cu(II) species dispersed on the oxide surface and (ii) Cu2O particles dispersed on the oxide surface. The present paper based on the parallel use of photocatalytic test and spectroscopic analysis performed in catalytic conditions illustrates the evolution of photocatalytic systems occurring during the H2 evolution reaction tests, pointing out that the as-prepared materials represent a pre-catalyst and they are modified during irradiation leading to the real working systems different from the starting ones. The herein presented spectroscopic analysis aims to contribute to the living debate on the oxidation state of copper in mixed Cu/oxide materials and on its role in hydrogen evolution under photocatalytic conditions.

5.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 8(15): 9745-54, 2016 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27019104

RESUMO

Crystal shape control on a series of anatase photocatalysts was achieved by varying the amount of HF employed as a capping agent in their hydrothermal synthesis. A systematic comparison between their physicochemical properties, determined by several complementary surface and bulk techniques before and after thermal treatment at 500 °C, allowed one to discern the influence of the relative amount of exposed {001} crystal facets among a series of effects simultaneously affecting their oxidative photocatalytic activity. The results of both formic acid and terephthalic acid photo-oxidation test reactions point to the primary role played by calcination in making {001} facets effectively photoactive. Annealing not only removes most of the residual fluorine capping agent from the photocatalyst surface, thus favoring substrate adsorption, but also produces morphological modifications to a crystal packing that makes accessible a larger portion of surface {001} facets due to the unpiling of platelike crystals. The photocatalyst bearing the highest amount of exposed {001} facets (60%) shows the highest photoactivity in both the direct and the (•)OH-radical-mediated photocatalytic test reaction.

6.
Inorg Chem ; 54(2): 544-53, 2015 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25554822

RESUMO

A polymer complex (1P) was synthesized by binding bis(cyclometalated) Ir(ppy)2(+) fragments (ppy = 2-phenylpyridyl) to phenanthroline (phen) pendants of a poly(amidoamine) copolymer (PhenISA, in which the phen pendants involved ∼6% of the repeating units). The corresponding molecular complex [Ir(ppy)2(bap)](+) (1M, bap = 4-(butyl-4-amino)-1,10-phenanthroline) was also prepared for comparison. In water solution 1P gives nanoaggregates with a hydrodynamic diameter of 30 nm in which the lipophilic metal centers are presumed to be segregated within polymer tasks to reduce their interaction with water. Such confinement, combined with the dilution of triplet emitters along the polymer chains, led to 1P having a photoluminescence quantum yield greater than that of 1M (0.061 vs 0.034, respectively, in an aerated water solution) with a longer lifetime of the (3)MLCT excited states and a blue-shifted emission (595 nm vs 604 nm, respectively). NMR data supported segregation of the metal centers. Photoreaction of O2 with 1,5-dihydroxynaphthalene showed that 1P is able to sensitize (1)O2 generation but with half the quantum yield of 1M. Cellular uptake experiments showed that both 1M and 1P are efficient cell staining agents endowed with two-photon excitation (TPE) imaging capability. TPE microscopy at 840 nm indicated that both complexes penetrate the cellular membrane of HeLa cells, localizing in the perinuclear region. Cellular photodynamic therapy tests showed that both 1M and 1P are able to induce cell apoptosis upon exposure to Xe lamp irradiation. The fraction of apoptotic cells for 1M was higher than that for 1P (74 and 38%, respectively) 6 h after being irradiated for 5 min, but cells incubated with 1P showed much lower levels of necrosis as well as lower toxicity in the absence of irradiation. More generally, the results indicate that cell damage induced by 1M was avoided by binding the iridium sensitizers to the poly(amidoamine).


Assuntos
Irídio/química , Substâncias Luminescentes/química , Compostos Organometálicos/química , Fotoquimioterapia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/química , Poliaminas/química , Oxigênio Singlete/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Células HeLa , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Substâncias Luminescentes/farmacologia , Naftóis/química , Compostos Organometálicos/farmacologia , Oxirredução , Processos Fotoquímicos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia
7.
Photochem Photobiol Sci ; 12(4): 595-601, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22930393

RESUMO

The effect of noble metal (Pt and Au) nanoparticle photodeposition on a series of NH4F-doped TiO2 photocatalysts calcined at 700 °C was investigated both in a thermodynamically down-hill reaction, i.e. the degradation of formic acid in aqueous suspension, and in an up-hill reaction, i.e. hydrogen production from methanol-water vapour mixtures. All photocatalysts were characterized by BET, XRD, UV-vis absorption and HRTEM analysis. Intriguing synergistic effects of simultaneous bulk and surface TiO2 modification were evidenced in both photocatalytic reactions, which can be interpreted in relation to the structural features of the materials. On one hand NH4F doping guarantees that the most active TiO2 anatase phase is stabilised up to high calcination temperature, ensuring high crystallinity and good photoinduced charge carriers production, on the other hand noble metal nanoparticles contribute in increasing the separation of photoproduced charge carriers, resulting in enhanced photocatalytic performances of the surface- and bulk-modified photocatalyst systems.

8.
J Hazard Mater ; 211-212: 188-95, 2012 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21959186

RESUMO

Commercial TiO(2) samples with different phase composition and surface area were tested as photocatalysts in the photoinduced reduction of Cr(VI) in aqueous suspensions at pH 3.7 under UV-visible light irradiation. This reaction was also coupled with the simultaneous photocatalytic oxidation of the pollutant azo dye Acid Orange 8 (AO8) and of formic acid, acting as hole scavengers. The co-presence of oxidizable and reducible species ensured better separation of photogenerated charge carriers, resulting in a higher rate of both organics' oxidation and Cr(VI) reduction, especially in the case of high surface area anatase TiO(2), having the strongest affinity for Cr(VI) and AO8, as demonstrated by competitive adsorption tests. The effects on Cr(VI) photocatalytic reduction of gold nanoparticles photodeposited on TiO(2) and of the Au loading were also investigated, aiming at ascertaining if this noble metal plays a role in the electron transfer processes involved in Cr(VI) reduction.


Assuntos
Cromo/química , Ouro/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Titânio/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Compostos Azo/química , Compostos Azo/efeitos da radiação , Catálise , Cromo/efeitos da radiação , Corantes/química , Corantes/efeitos da radiação , Luz , Oxirredução , Processos Fotoquímicos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos da radiação
9.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 13(40): 18217-27, 2011 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21909553

RESUMO

The photocatalytic behaviour of a series of ammonium fluoride (NH(4)F)-doped titania (TiO(2)) photocatalysts was investigated in the decomposition of acetic acid in aqueous suspensions and in the gas phase mineralization of acetaldehyde. Very similar photocatalytic activity trends, usually increasing with increasing the calcination temperature for a given nominal dopant amount, were obtained for the two test reactions. Moderately doped TiO(2) calcined at 700 °C, consisting of pure anatase, was the best performing photocatalyst in both reactions. The photocatalytic oxidation of acetic acid was investigated systematically as a function of irradiation wavelength, by collecting so-called action spectra. By comparing the shapes of the action spectra with those of the absorption spectra of the investigated photocatalysts a model is proposed, based on spectral features deconvolution, which allows a clear distinction between inactive light absorption and effective photoactivity in acetic acid decomposition.

10.
Photochem Photobiol Sci ; 10(3): 343-9, 2011 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20725691

RESUMO

Two series of doped titanium dioxide samples (S-TiO(2) and F-TiO(2)) were prepared by the sol-gel method in the presence of different amounts of dopant source (thiourea and NH(4)F, respectively), followed by calcination at 500, 600 or 700 °C, and characterised by BET, UV-vis absorption, XPS, HRTEM, XRD and EPR analyses. Reference undoped materials were prepared by the same synthetic procedure. Their photocatalytic activity under visible light was investigated employing the photocatalytic degradation of formic acid in aqueous suspension as test reaction. S-doped TiO(2) showed a photocatalytic activity quite similar to that of undoped materials. In this regard, the insertion of S, characterised by a relatively large ionic radius, into the TiO(2) crystalline structure appears rather difficult, as confirmed by XPS analysis. On the contrary, moderate F doping was beneficial in increasing the rate of formic acid photocatalytic degradation, especially for photocatalysts calcined at high temperature, consisting of highly crystalline pure anatase, in which the rate of detrimental charge carrier recombination was reduced. For both series of doped materials, high doping levels appear to limit the semiconductor photoactivity, probably due to the formation of a progressively increasing number of charge recombination centres. The EPR characterisation of the investigated doped TiO(2) samples evidenced the presence of nitrogen containing species (nitric oxide radical encapsulated in micro-void, with no photoactivity, and N(b)˙ species, active in visible light sensitisation) and of titanium reduced centres Ti(3+), due to charge imbalance consequent to dopant introduction in the TiO(2) lattice either in anionic (F(-)) or in cationic form (S(6+)).

11.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 11(33): 7171-80, 2009 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19672526

RESUMO

The effects of gold nanoparticles deposited on titanium dioxide on the photocatalytic oxidative degradation of two organic substrates, i.e. formic acid and the azo dye Acid Red 1, and on the parallel O(2) reduction yielding hydrogen peroxide have been investigated under visible light irradiation. The method employed to reduce Au(iii) to metallic gold in the preparation of Au/TiO(2) photocatalysts was found to affect their photoactivity, also by modifying the properties of TiO(2). The presence of gold on TiO(2) facilitates both the electron transfer to O(2) and the mineralization of formic acid, which mainly proceeds through direct interaction with photoproduced valence band holes. The so-formed highly reductant CO(2)*(-) intermediate species may contribute in maintaining gold in metallic form. The controversial results obtained in the photocatalytic degradation of the dye were rationalised by taking into account that with this substrate, which mainly undergoes oxidation through a hydroxyl radical mediated mechanism, the photogenerated holes may partly oxidise gold nanoparticles, which consequently act as recombination centres of photoproduced charge carriers.

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