Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 319
Filtrar
1.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 778165, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34803719

RESUMO

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a degenerative retinal disease and one of major causes of irreversible vision loss. AMD has been linked to several pathological factors, such as oxidative stress and inflammation. Moreover, Aß (1-42) oligomers have been found in drusen, the extracellular deposits that accumulate beneath the retinal pigmented epithelium in AMD patients. Hereby, we investigated the hypothesis that treatment with 1,25(OH) 2D3 (vitamin D3) and meso-zeaxathin, physiologically present in the eye, would counteract the toxic effects of three different insults on immortalized human retinal pigmented epithelial cells (ARPE-19). Specifically, ARPE-19 cells have been challenged with Aß (1-42) oligomers, H2O2, LPS, and TNF-α, respectively. In the present study, we demonstrated that the combination of 1,25(OH)2D3 and meso-zeaxanthin significantly counteracted the cell damage induced by the three insults, at least in these in vitro integrated paradigms of AMD. These results suggest that combination of 1,25(OH)2D3 and meso-zeaxathin could be a useful approach to contrast pathological features of AMD, such as retinal inflammation and oxidative stress.

2.
Biomedicines ; 9(10)2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34680428

RESUMO

Uveal melanoma (UM) is a rare disease, but the most common primary intraocular cancer, mostly localized in the choroid. Currently, the first-line treatment options for UM are radiation therapy, resection, and enucleation. However, although these treatments could potentially be curative, half of all patients will develop metastatic disease, whose prognosis is still poor. Indeed, effective therapeutic options for patients with advanced or metastatic disease are still lacking. Recently, the development of new treatment modalities with a lower incidence of adverse events, a better disease control rate, and new therapeutic approaches, have merged as new potential and promising therapeutic strategies. Additionally, several clinical trials are ongoing to find new therapeutic options, mainly for those with metastatic disease. Many interventions are still in the preliminary phases of clinical development, being investigated in phase I trial or phase I/II. The success of these trials could be crucial for changing the prognosis of patients with advanced/metastatic UM. In this systematic review, we analyzed all emerging and available literature on the new perspectives in the treatment of UM and patient outcomes; furthermore, their current limitations and more common adverse events are summarized.

3.
Pharmacol Res ; 174: 105938, 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655773

RESUMO

The recent shift in socio-political debates and growing liberalization of Cannabis use across the globe has raised concern regarding its impact on vulnerable populations such as adolescents. Concurrent with declining perception of Cannabis harms, more adolescents are using it daily in several countries and consuming marijuana strains with high content of psychotropic delta (9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). These dual, related trends seem to facilitate the development of compromised social and cognitive performance at adulthood, which are described in preclinical and human studies. Cannabis exerts its effects via altering signalling within the endocannabinoid system (ECS), which modulates the stress circuitry during the neurodevelopment. In this context early interventions appear to circumvent the emergence of adult neurodevelopmental deficits. Accordingly, Cannabis sativa second-most abundant compound, cannabidiol (CBD), emerges as a potential therapeutic agent to treat neuropsychiatric disorders. We first focus on human and preclinical studies on the long-term effects induced by adolescent THC exposure as a "critical window" of enhanced neurophysiological vulnerability, which could be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and related primary psychotic disorders. Then, we focus on adolescence as a "window of opportunity" for early pharmacological treatment, as novel risk reduction strategy for neurodevelopmental disorders. Thus, we review current preclinical and clinical evidence regarding the efficacy of CBD in terms of positive, negative and cognitive symptoms treatment, safety profile, and molecular targets.

4.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 755052, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34690785

RESUMO

Even for centrally approved products, each European country is responsible for the effective national market access. This step can result in inequalities in terms of access, due to different opinions about the therapeutic value assessed by health technology assessment (HTA) bodies. Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) represent a major issue with regard to the HTA in order to make them available at a national level. These products are based on genes, tissues, or cells, commonly developed as one-shot treatment for rare or ultrarare diseases and mandatorily authorized by the EMA with a central procedure. This study aims to provide a comparative analysis of HTA recommendations issued by European countries (France, Germany, and Italy) following EMA approval of ATMPs. We found a low rate of agreement on the therapeutic value (in particular the "added value" compared to the standard of care) of ATMPs. Despite the differences in terms of clinical assessment, the access has been usually guaranteed, even with different timing and limitations. In view of the importance of ATMPs as innovative therapies for unmet needs, it is crucial to understand and act on the causes of disagreement among the HTA. In addition, the adoption of the new EU regulation on HTA would be useful to reduce disparities of medicine's assessment among European countries.

5.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 910: 174480, 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496302

RESUMO

It has recently been shown that taste receptors, in addition to being present in the oral cavity, exist in various extra-oral organs and tissues such as the thyroid, lungs, skin, stomach, intestines, and pancreas. Although their physiological function is not yet fully understood, it appears that they can help regulate the body's homeostasis and provide an additional defense function against pathogens. Since the vast majority of drugs are bitter, the greatest pharmacological interest is in the bitter taste receptors. In this review, we describe how bitter taste 2 receptors (TAS2Rs) induce bronchodilation and mucociliary clearance in the airways, muscle relaxation in various tissues, inhibition of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in thyrocytes, and release of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and ghrelin in the digestive system. In fact, substances such as dextromethorphan, chloroquine, methimazole and probably glimepiride, being agonists of TAS2Rs, lead to these effects. TAS2Rs and taste 1 receptors (TAS1R2/3) are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). TAS1R2/3 are responsible for sweet taste perception and may induce GLP-1 release and insulin secretion. Umami taste receptors, belonging to the same superfamily of receptors, perform a similar function with regard to insulin. The sour and salty taste receptors work in a similar way, both being channel receptors sensitive to amiloride. Finally, gene-protein coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) and GPR120 for fatty taste perception are also protein-coupled receptors and may induce GLP-1 secretion and insulin release, similar to those of other receptors belonging to the same superfamily.

6.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 707909, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489701

RESUMO

To investigate the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) at different phases of diabetic retinopathy (DR), we assessed the retinal protein expression of VEGF-A164 (corresponding to the VEGF165 isoform present in humans, which is the predominant member implicated in vascular hyperpermeability and proliferation), HIF-1α and PKCß/HuR pathway in Ins2 Akita (diabetic) mice at different ages. We used C57BL6J mice (WT) at different ages as control. Retina status, in terms of tissue morphology and neovascularization, was monitored in vivo at different time points by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fluorescein angiography (FA), respectively. The results showed that VEGF-A164 protein expression increased along time to become significantly elevated (p < 0.05) at 9 and 46 weeks of age compared to WT mice. The HIF-1α protein level was significantly (p < 0.05) increased at 9 weeks of age, while PKCßII and HuR protein levels were increased at 46 weeks of age compared to WT mice. The thickness of retinal nerve fiber layer as measured by OCT was decreased in Ins2 Akita mice at 9 and 46 weeks of age, while no difference in the retinal vasculature were observed by FA. The present findings show that the retina of the diabetic Ins2 Akita mice, as expected for mice, does not develop proliferative retinopathy even after 46 weeks. However, diabetic Ins2 Akita mice recapitulate the same evolution of patients with DR in terms of both retinal neurodegeneration and pro-angiogenic shift, this latter indicated by the progressive protein expression of the pro-angiogenic isoform VEGF-A164, which can be sustained by the PKCßII/HuR pathway acting at post-transcriptional level. In agreement with this last concept, this rise in VEGF-A164 protein is not paralleled by an increment of the corresponding transcript. Nevertheless, the observed increase in HIF-1α at 9 weeks indicates that this transcription factor may favor, in the early phase of the disease, the transcription of other isoforms, possibly neuroprotective, in the attempt to counteract the neurodegenerative effects of VEGF-A164. The time-dependent VEGF-A164 expression in the retina of diabetic Ins2 Akita mice suggests that pharmacological intervention in DR might be chosen, among other reasons, on the basis of the specific stages of the pathology in order to pursue the best clinical outcome.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574524

RESUMO

Apathy is a neuropsychiatric symptom observed in different neurological and psychiatric disorders. Although apathy is considered a symptom, it has been recently reconsidered as a syndrome characterised by three dimensions: cognitive symptoms, affective symptoms and behavioural symptoms. Recent studies have shown that apathy can be considered as a prodromal symptom of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but also an indicator of the transition from mild cognitive impairment to AD. According to this scenario, an early detection of apathy in subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and Mild AD can be a valid psychometric strategy to improve an early diagnosis and promote a prompt intervention. The Apathy Evaluation Scale is a validated tool composed of 18 items that assess and quantify emotional, behavioural and cognitive aspects of apathy. The aim of this study is to assess the specific reliability and validity of the Italian version of the Apathy Evaluation Scale-Clinician Version (AES-C) to detect apathy both in amnestic MCI and mild AD patients. In the present paper, we therefore examined the psychometric properties and the invariance of the Italian Version of the AES-C conducted on a sample composed of an experimental group of amnestic MCI and AD patients (N = 107) and a control group (N = 107) constituted by Age- and Sex-matched healthy controls. Results confirm the goodness of the scale. Confirmatory factory analysis confirmed that the AES-C Italian Version presents the same stability of one second-order factor and three first-order factors identified in the original version, and all items are predicted by a single general factor. Moreover, the scale was found to be invariant across both populations. Moreover, reliability and discriminant analysis showed good values. We found in the experimental group a negative correlation between the AES-C and Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) (rs = -0.21, p < 0.001) and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) (rs = -0.04, p < 0.001), while a positive correlation was found between the AES-C and Hamilton psychiatric Rating scale for Depression (HAM-D) scores (rs = 0.58, p < 0.001) Overall, our data demonstrated the validity of the Italian version of the AES-C for the assessment of apathy both in MCI and in AD patients.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Apatia , Disfunção Cognitiva , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
8.
J Neuroinflammation ; 18(1): 206, 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy characterized by loss of function and death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), leading to irreversible vision loss. Neuroinflammation is recognized as one of the causes of glaucoma, and currently no treatment is addressing this mechanism. We aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 (1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, calcitriol), in a genetic model of age-related glaucomatous neurodegeneration (DBA/2J mice). METHODS: DBA/2J mice were randomized to 1,25(OH)2D3 or vehicle treatment groups. Pattern electroretinogram, flash electroretinogram, and intraocular pressure were recorded weekly. Immunostaining for RBPMS, Iba-1, and GFAP was carried out on retinal flat mounts to assess retinal ganglion cell density and quantify microglial and astrocyte activation, respectively. Molecular biology analyses were carried out to evaluate retinal expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, pNFκB-p65, and neuroprotective factors. Investigators that analysed the data were blind to experimental groups, which were unveiled after graph design and statistical analysis, that were carried out with GraphPad Prism. Several statistical tests and approaches were used: the generalized estimated equations (GEE) analysis, t-test, and one-way ANOVA. RESULTS: DBA/2J mice treated with 1,25(OH)2D3 for 5 weeks showed improved PERG and FERG amplitudes and reduced RGCs death, compared to vehicle-treated age-matched controls. 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment decreased microglial and astrocyte activation, as well as expression of inflammatory cytokines and pNF-κB-p65 (p < 0.05). Moreover, 1,25(OH)2D3-treated DBA/2J mice displayed increased mRNA levels of neuroprotective factors (p < 0.05), such as BDNF. CONCLUSIONS: 1,25(OH)2D3 protected RGCs preserving retinal function, reducing inflammatory cytokines, and increasing expression of neuroprotective factors. Therefore, 1,25(OH)2D3 could attenuate the retinal damage in glaucomatous patients and warrants further clinical evaluation for the treatment of optic neuropathies.

9.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 748886, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34504433
10.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 705405, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34366858

RESUMO

To investigate the neuroprotective effect of brimonidine after retinal ischemia damage on mouse eye. Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy characterized by retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) death, irreversible peripheral and central visual field loss, and high intraocular pressure. Ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury model was used in C57BL/6J mice to mimic conditions of glaucomatous neurodegeneration. Mouse eyes were treated topically with brimonidine and pattern electroretinogram were used to assess the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) function. A wide range of inflammatory markers, as well as anti-inflammatory and neurotrophic molecules, were investigated to figure out the potential protective effects of brimonidine in mouse retina. In particular, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and its death receptor DR-5, TNF-α, GFAP, Iba-1, NOS, IL-1ß and IL-10 were assessed in mouse retina that underwent to I/R insult with or without brimonidine treatment. Brimonidine provided remarkable RGCs protection in our paradigm. PERG amplitude values were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in brimonidine-treated eyes in comparison to I/R retinas. Retinal BDNF mRNA levels in the I/R group dropped significantly (p < 0.05) compared to the control group (normal mice); brimonidine treatment counteracted the downregulation of retinal BDNF mRNA in I/R eyes. Retinal inflammatory markers increased significantly (p < 0.05) in the I/R group and brimonidine treatment was able to revert that. The anti-inflammatory IL-10 decreased significantly (p < 0.05) after retinal I/R insult and increased significantly (p < 0.05) in the group treated with brimonidine. In conclusion, brimonidine was effective in preventing loss of function of RGCs and in regulating inflammatory biomarkers elicited by retinal I/R injury.

11.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(34): 40200-40213, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410709

RESUMO

For their remarkable biomimetic properties implying strong modulation of the intracellular and extracellular redox state, cerium oxide nanoparticles (also termed "nanoceria") were hypothesized to exert a protective role against oxidative stress associated with the harsh environmental conditions of spaceflight, characterized by microgravity and highly energetic radiations. Nanoparticles were supplied to proliferating C2C12 mouse skeletal muscle cells under different gravity and radiation levels. Biological responses were thus investigated at a transcriptional level by RNA next-generation sequencing. Lists of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were generated and intersected by taking into consideration relevant comparisons, which led to the observation of prevailing effects of the space environment over those induced by nanoceria. In space, upregulation of transcription was slightly preponderant over downregulation, implying involvement of intracellular compartments, with the majority of DEGs consistently over- or under-expressed whenever present. Cosmic radiations regulated a higher number of DEGs than microgravity and seemed to promote increased cellular catabolism. By taking into consideration space physical stressors alone, microgravity and cosmic radiations appeared to have opposite effects at transcriptional levels despite partial sharing of molecular pathways. Interestingly, gene ontology denoted some enrichment in terms related to vision, when only effects of radiations were assessed. The transcriptional regulation of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 in space-relevant samples suggests perturbation of the intracellular redox homeostasis, and leaves open opportunities for antioxidant treatment for oxidative stress reduction in harsh environments.

12.
Front Immunol ; 12: 661882, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34295328

RESUMO

Despite the availability of a lot of effective disease-modifying drugs, multiple sclerosis (MS) (in particular the progressive forms) still represents an important unmet medical need, because of issues in terms of effectiveness, duration of response, safety, and patient compliance. An increasing body of evidence from randomized clinical trials and real-world data suggest that rituximab is a highly effective alternative in both relapsing and progressive MS, with a low discontinuation rate, related to a good benefit/risk profile, and a good compliance. To date, the use of rituximab in patients with multiple sclerosis is not in accordance with the authorized product information (off-label use). However, the use of this medicine is widespread in several countries, and in some cases, it is the most commonly used disease-modifying drug for MS subtypes. This use could be officially recognized by national regulatory authorities, according to specific procedures, to ensure equal access for patients to a safe and effective option.


Assuntos
Aprovação de Drogas , Esclerose Múltipla/tratamento farmacológico , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Esclerose Múltipla/classificação , Esclerose Múltipla Crônica Progressiva/tratamento farmacológico , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recidiva
13.
Curr Neuropharmacol ; 2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34191699

RESUMO

The World Health Organization declared the pandemic situation caused by SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2) in March 2020, but the detailed pathophysiological mechanisms of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are not yet completely understood. Therefore, to date, few therapeutic options are available for patients with mild-moderate or serious disease. In addition to systemic and respiratory symptoms, several reports have documented various neurological symptoms and impairments of mental health. The current review aims to provide the available evidence about the effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on mental health. The present data suggest that SARS-CoV-2 produces a wide range of impairments and disorders of the brain. However, a limited number of studies investigated the neuroinvasive potential of SARS-CoV-2. Although the main features and outcomes of COVID-19 are linked to severe acute respiratory illness. The possible damages on the brain should be considered, too.

14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068160

RESUMO

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a neuropsychiatric disorder occurring in susceptible individuals following a traumatic event. Understanding the mechanisms subserving trauma susceptibility/resilience is essential to develop new effective treatments. Increasing evidence suggests that non-coding RNAs, such as microRNAs (miRNAs), may play a prominent role in mediating trauma susceptibility/resilience. In this study, we evaluated the transcriptional expression of two key PTSD-related genes (FKBP5 and BDNF) and the relative targeting miRNAs (miR-15a-5p, miR-497a-5p, miR-511-5p, let-7d-5p) in brain areas of PTSD-related susceptible and resilient mice identified through our recently developed mouse model of PTSD (arousal-based individual screening (AIS) model). We observed lower transcript levels of miR-15a-5p, miR-497a-5p, and miR-511a-5p in the hippocampus and hypothalamus of susceptible mice compared to resilient mice, suggesting that the expression of these miRNAs could discriminate the two different phenotypes of stress-exposed mice. These miRNA variations could contribute, individually or synergically, to the inversely correlated transcript levels of FKBP5 and BDNF. Conversely, in the medial prefrontal cortex, downregulation of miR-15a-5p, miR-511-5p, and let-7d-5p was observed both in susceptible and resilient mice, and not accompanied by changes in their mRNA targets. Furthermore, miRNA expression in the different brain areas correlated to stress-induced behavioral scores (arousal score, avoidance-like score, social memory score and PTSD-like score), suggesting a linear connection between miRNA-based epigenetic modulation and stress-induced phenotypes. Pathway analysis of a miRNA network showed a statistically significant enrichment of molecular processes related to PTSD and stress. In conclusion, our results indicate that PTSD susceptibility/resilience might be shaped by brain-area-dependent modulation of miRNAs targeting FKBP5, BDNF, and other stress-related genes.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , Resiliência Psicológica , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/patologia , Proteínas de Ligação a Tacrolimo/metabolismo , Animais , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/genética , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a Tacrolimo/genética
15.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 684680, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34025440

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the high glucose damage on human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, the role of p38 MAPK signaling pathway and how dimethyl fumarate can regulate that. We carried out in vitro studies on ARPE-19 cells exposed to physiological and high glucose (HG) conditions, to evaluate the effects of DMF on cell viability, apoptosis, and expression of inflammatory and angiogenic biomarkers such as COX-2, iNOS, IL-1ß, and VEGF. Our data have demonstrated that DMF treatment attenuated HG-induced apoptosis, as confirmed by reduction of BAX/Bcl-2 ratio. Furthermore, in RPE cells exposed to HG we observed a significant increase of iNOS, COX-2, and IL-1ß expression, that was reverted by DMF treatment. Moreover, DMF reduced the VEGF levels elicited by HG, inhibiting p38 MAPK signaling pathway. The present study demonstrated that DMF provides a remarkable protection against high glucose-induced damage in RPE cells through p38 MAPK inhibition and the subsequent down-regulation of VEGF levels, suggesting that DMF is a small molecule that represents a good candidate for diabetic retinopathy treatment and warrants further in vivo and clinical evaluation.

16.
Front Oncol ; 11: 641450, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33796467

RESUMO

Fertility preservation represents one important goal of cancer patients' management due to the high impact on health and quality of life of survivors. The available preventive measures cannot be performed in all patients and are not feasible in all health-care facilities. Therefore, the pharmacological treatment with GnRHa has become a valuable non-invasive and well-tolerated alternative, especially in those who cannot access to cryopreservation options due to clinical and/or logistic issues. Supporting data demonstrate a significant advantage for the survivors who received GnRHa in the long-term maintenance of ovarian function and preservation of fertility. The prevention of the risk of ovarian failure with GnRHa is a typical off-label use, defined as the administration of a medicinal product not in accordance with the authorized product information. Italy has officially recognized the off-label use of GnRHa in adult women at risk of premature and permanent menopause following chemotherapy. However, fertility preservation still represents an unmet medical need in adolescents who cannot access to other treatment options.

17.
Psychiatry Investig ; 18(4): 277-283, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849246

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Current nosology redefined agoraphobia as an autonomous diagnosis distinct from panic disorder. We investigated the lifetime prevalence of agoraphobia, its association with other mental disorders, and its impact on the health-related quality of life (HR-QoL). METHODS: Community survey in 2,338 randomly selected adult subjects. Participants were interviewed with the Advanced Neuropsychiatric Tools and Assessment Schedule (ANTAS), administered by clinicians. The diagnoses were based on the ICD-10 criteria. The Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12) was used to quantify HR-QoL. RESULTS: In the sample, 35 subjects met the criteria for agoraphobia (1.5%), with greater prevalence among women (2.0%) than men (0.9%): odds ratio (OR) 2.23; 95% CI: 1.0-5-2. Agoraphobia was more often seen among those with (n=26; 1.1%) than without (n=9; 0.4%) panic disorder: OR=8.3; 2.9-24.4. Co-morbidity with other mental disorders was substantial. The mean score of SF-12 in people with agoraphobia was 35.2±7.8, with similar levels of HR-QoL in people with (35.3±7.9) or without (34.8±7.3) panic disorder: ANOVA: F(1;33)=0.0; p=1.00. CONCLUSION: One out of seventy people may suffer from agoraphobia in their lifetime. The attributable burden in terms of HR-QoL is substantial and comparable to the one observed for chronic mental disorders such as major depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, or obsessive-compulsive disorder.

18.
Biomolecules ; 11(3)2021 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799860

RESUMO

Dopamine receptors (DRs) are generally considered as mediators of vasomotor functions. However, when used in pharmacological studies, dopamine and/or DR agonists may not discriminate among different DR subtypes and may even stimulate alpha1 and beta-adrenoceptors. Here, we tested the hypothesis that D2R and/or D3R may specifically induce vasoconstriction in isolated mouse aorta. Aorta, isolated from wild-type (WT) and D3R-/- mice, was mounted in a wire myograph and challenged with cumulative concentrations of phenylephrine (PE), acetylcholine (ACh), and the D3R agonist 7-hydrxy-N,N-dipropyl-2-aminotetralin (7-OH-DPAT), with or without the D2R antagonist L741,626 and the D3R antagonist SB-277011-A. The vasoconstriction to PE and the vasodilatation to ACh were not different in WT and D3R-/-; in contrast, the contractile responses to 7-OH-DPAT were significantly weaker in D3R-/-, though not abolished. L741,626 did not change the contractile response induced by 7-OH-DPAT in WT or in D3R-/-, whereas SB-277011-A significantly reduced it in WT but did not in D3R-/-. D3R mRNA (assessed by qPCR) was about 5-fold more abundant than D2R mRNA in aorta from WT and undetectable in aorta from D3R-/-. Following transduction with lentivirus (72-h incubation) delivering synthetic microRNAs to specifically inactivate D2R (LV-miR-D2) or D3R (LV-miR-D3), the contractile response to 7-OH-DPAT was unaffected by LV-miR-D2, while it was significantly reduced by LV-miR-D3. These data indicate that, at least in mouse aorta, D3R stimulation induces vasoconstriction, while D2R stimulation does not. This is consistent with the higher expression level of D3R. The residual vasoconstriction elicited by high concentration D3R agonist in D3R-/- and/or in the presence of D3R antagonist is likely to be unrelated to DRs.


Assuntos
Aorta/fisiologia , Receptores de Dopamina D3/metabolismo , Vasoconstrição/genética , Animais , Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Indóis/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Nitrilas/farmacologia , Piperidinas/farmacologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Receptores de Dopamina D2/genética , Receptores de Dopamina D2/metabolismo , Receptores de Dopamina D3/agonistas , Receptores de Dopamina D3/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Dopamina D3/genética , Tetra-Hidroisoquinolinas/farmacologia , Tetra-Hidronaftalenos/farmacologia , Vasoconstrição/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Biomedicines ; 9(5)2021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33926064

RESUMO

Carnosine (ß-alanyl-L-histidine) is a naturally occurring endogenous peptide widely distributed in excitable tissues such as the brain. This dipeptide has well-known antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-aggregation activities, and it may be useful for treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this disease, peripheral infiltrating macrophages play a substantial role in the clearance of amyloid beta (Aß) peptides from the brain. Correspondingly, in patients suffering from AD, defects in the capacity of peripheral macrophages to engulf Aß have been reported. The effects of carnosine on macrophages and oxidative stress associated with AD are consequently of substantial interest for drug discovery in this field. In the present work, a model of stress induced by Aß1-42 oligomers was investigated using a combination of methods including trypan blue exclusion, microchip electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence, flow cytometry, fluorescence microscopy, and high-throughput quantitative real-time PCR. These assays were used to assess the ability of carnosine to protect macrophage cells, modulate oxidative stress, and profile the expression of genes related to inflammation and pro- and antioxidant systems. We found that pre-treatment of RAW 264.7 macrophages with carnosine counteracted cell death and apoptosis induced by Aß1-42 oligomers by decreasing oxidative stress as measured by levels of intracellular nitric oxide (NO)/reactive oxygen species (ROS) and production of peroxynitrite. This protective activity of carnosine was not mediated by modulation of the canonical inflammatory pathway but instead can be explained by the well-known antioxidant and free-radical scavenging activities of carnosine, enhanced macrophage phagocytic activity, and the rescue of fractalkine receptor CX3CR1. These new findings obtained with macrophages challenged with Aß1-42 oligomers, along with the well-known multimodal mechanism of action of carnosine in vitro and in vivo, substantiate the therapeutic potential of this dipeptide in the context of AD pathology.

20.
Pharmaceutics ; 13(3)2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802570

RESUMO

Essential oils are being studied for more than 60 years, but a growing interest has emerged in the recent decades due to a desire for a rediscovery of natural remedies. Essential oils are known for millennia and, already in prehistoric times, they were used for medicinal and ritual purposes due to their therapeutic properties. Using a variety of methods refined over the centuries, essential oils are extracted from plant raw materials: the choice of the extraction method is decisive, since it determines the type, quantity, and stereochemical structure of the essential oil molecules. To these components belong all properties that make essential oils so interesting for pharmaceutical uses; the most investigated ones are antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, wound-healing, and anxiolytic activities. However, the main limitations to their use are their hydrophobicity, instability, high volatility, and risk of toxicity. A successful strategy to overcome these limitations is the encapsulation within delivery systems, which enable the increase of essential oils bioavailability and improve their chemical stability, while reducing their volatility and toxicity. Among all the suitable platforms, our review focused on the lipid-based ones, in particular micro- and nanoemulsions, liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, and nanostructured lipid carriers.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...