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1.
PLoS Pathog ; 15(7): e1007907, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344124

RESUMO

HIV infection has a profound effect on "bystander" cells causing metabolic co-morbidities. This may be mediated by exosomes secreted by HIV-infected cells and containing viral factors. Here we show that exosomes containing HIV-1 protein Nef (exNef) are rapidly taken up by macrophages releasing Nef into the cell interior. This caused down-regulation of ABCA1, reduction of cholesterol efflux and sharp elevation of the abundance of lipid rafts through reduced activation of small GTPase Cdc42 and decreased actin polymerization. Changes in rafts led to re-localization of TLR4 and TREM-1 to rafts, phosphorylation of ERK1/2, activation of NLRP3 inflammasome, and increased secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The effects of exNef on lipid rafts and on inflammation were reversed by overexpression of a constitutively active mutant of Cdc42. Similar effects were observed in macrophages treated with exosomes produced by HIV-infected cells or isolated from plasma of HIV-infected subjects, but not with exosomes from cells and subjects infected with ΔNef-HIV or uninfected subjects. Mice injected with exNef exhibited monocytosis, reduced ABCA1 in macrophages, increased raft abundance in monocytes and augmented inflammation. Thus, Nef-containing exosomes potentiated pro-inflammatory response by inducing changes in cholesterol metabolism and reorganizing lipid rafts. These mechanisms may contribute to HIV-associated metabolic co-morbidities.

2.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 132(17): 1889-1899, 2018 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30185612

RESUMO

Cardiovascular (CV) diseases (CVD) are primarily caused by atherosclerotic vascular disease. Atherogenesis is mainly driven by recruitment of leucocytes to the arterial wall, where macrophages contribute to both lipid retention as well as the inflammatory milieu within the vessel wall. Consequently, diseases which present with an enhanced abundance of circulating leucocytes, particularly monocytes, have also been documented to accelerate CVD. A host of metabolic and inflammatory diseases, such as obesity, diabetes, hypercholesteraemia, and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), have been shown to alter myelopoiesis to exacerbate atherosclerosis. Genetic evidence has emerged in humans with the discovery of clonal haematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP), resulting in a disordered haematopoietic system linked to accelerated atherogenesis. CHIP, caused by somatic mutations in haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), consequently provide a proliferative advantage over native HSPCs and, in the case of Tet2 loss of function mutation, gives rise to inflammatory plaque macrophages (i.e. enhanced interleukin (IL)-1ß production). Together with the recent findings of the CANTOS (Canakinumab Anti-inflammatory Thrombosis Outcomes Study) trial that revealed blocking IL-1ß using Canakinumab reduced CV events, these studies collectively have highlighted a pivotal role of IL-1ß signalling in a population of people with atherosclerotic CVD. This review will explore how haematopoiesis is altered by risk-factors and inflammatory disorders that promote CVD. Further, we will discuss some of the recent genetic evidence of disordered haematopoiesis in relation to CVD though the association with CHIP and suggest that future studies should explore what initiates HSPC mutations, as well as how current anti-inflammatory agents affect CHIP-driven atherosclerosis.

3.
FASEB J ; : fj201701498RR, 2018 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30156911

RESUMO

Despite its well-known antithrombotic properties, the effect of aspirin on blood pressure (BP) and hypertension pathology is unclear. The hugely varying doses used clinically have contributed to this confusion, with high-dose aspirin still commonly used due to concerns about the efficacy of low-dose aspirin. Because prostaglandins have been shown to both promote and inhibit T-cell activation, we also explored the immunomodulatory properties of aspirin in hypertension. Although the common preclinical high dose of 100 mg/kg per day improved vascular dysfunction and cardiac hypertrophy, this effect was accompanied by indices of elevated adaptive immunity, renal T-cell infiltration, renal fibrosis, and BP elevation in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats and in angiotensin II-induced hypertensive mice. The cardioprotective effects of aspirin were conserved with a lower dose (10 mg/kg/d) while circumventing heightened adaptive immunity and elevated BP. We also show that low-dose aspirin improves renal fibrosis. Differential inhibition of the COX-2 isoform may underlie the disparate effects of the 2 doses. Our results demonstrate the efficacy of low-dose aspirin in treating a vast array of cardiovascular parameters and suggest modulation of adaptive immunity as a novel mechanism underlying adverse cardiovascular profiles associated with COX-2 inhibitors. Clinical studies should identify the dose of aspirin that achieves maximal cardioprotection with a new awareness that higher doses of aspirin could trigger undesired autoimmunity in hypertensive individuals. This work also warrants an evaluation of high-dose aspirin and COX-2 inhibitor therapy in sufferers of inflammatory conditions who are already at increased risk for cardiovascular disease.-Khan, S. I., Shihata, W. A., Andrews, K. L., Lee, M. K. S., Moore, X.-L., Jefferis, A.-M., Vinh, A., Gaspari, T., Dragoljevic, D., Jennings, G. L., Murphy, A. J., Chin-Dusting, J. P. F. Effects of high- and low-dose aspirin on adaptive immunity and hypertension in the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat.

4.
Eur Heart J ; 39(23): 2158-2167, 2018 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29905812

RESUMO

Aim: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with an approximately two-fold elevated risk of cardiovascular (CV)-related mortality. Patients with RA present with systemic inflammation including raised circulating myeloid cells, but fail to display traditional CV risk-factors, particularly dyslipidaemia. We aimed to explore if increased circulating myeloid cells is associated with impaired atherosclerotic lesion regression or altered progression in RA. Methods and results: Using flow cytometry, we noted prominent monocytosis, neutrophilia, and thrombocytosis in two mouse models of RA. This was due to enhanced proliferation of the haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) in the bone marrow and the spleen. HSPCs expansion was associated with an increase in the cholesterol content, due to a down-regulation of cholesterol efflux genes, Apoe, Abca1, and Abcg1. The HSPCs also had enhanced expression of key myeloid promoting growth factor receptors. Systemic inflammation was found to cause defective cellular cholesterol metabolism. Increased myeloid cells in mice with RA were associated with a significant impairment in lesion regression, even though cholesterol levels were equivalent to non-arthritic mice. Lesions from arthritic mice exhibited a less stable phenotype as demonstrated by increased immune cell infiltration, lipid accumulation, and decreased collagen formation. In a progression model, we noted monocytosis, enhanced monocytes recruitment to lesions, and increased plaque macrophages. This was reversed with administration of reconstituted high-density lipoprotein (rHDL). Furthermore, RA patients have expanded CD16+ monocyte subsets and a down-regulation of ABCA1 and ABCG1. Conclusion: Rheumatoid arthritis impairs atherosclerotic regression and alters progression, which is associated with an expansion of myeloid cells and disturbed cellular cholesterol handling, independent of plasma cholesterol levels. Infusion of rHDL prevented enhanced myelopoiesis and monocyte entry into lesions. Targeting cellular cholesterol defects in people with RA, even if plasma cholesterol is within the normal range, may limit vascular disease.

5.
Curr Opin Lipidol ; 29(3): 240-245, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29528857

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) reside in the bone marrow and are important in replenishing all cells in the blood through a process termed hematopoiesis. One of the defining characteristics of HSCs is that they must be able to balance their self-renewal capacity with their differentiation into committed blood cells in various blood lineages. For these events to occur, HSCs must be tightly regulated in the bone marrow by intrinsic and extrinsic factors to maintain steady hematopoiesis. RECENT FINDINGS: Recently, the effect on how metabolism regulates HSC function has received a great amount of attention. In particular, lipids have been found to participate in mitochondrial activity to maintain HSCs, a role previously overlooked due to HSCs being thought of as mostly glycolytic. Moreover, there has been a re-emergence of how adipocytes in the bone marrow can regulate HSCs. SUMMARY: As these areas evolve, more studies are required to determine the exact contribution of lipids toward HSC maintenance. These studies will allow newer therapeutic targets to help reduce abnormal hematopoiesis such as myelopoiesis, which contributes to many metabolic diseases.

6.
Haematologica ; 103(4): 597-606, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29371326

RESUMO

Obesity enhances the risk of developing myelodysplastic syndromes. However, the effect of obesity on survival is unclear. Obese people present with monocytosis due to inflammatory signals emanating from obese adipose tissue. We hypothesized that obesity-induced myelopoiesis would promote the transition of myelodysplastic syndrome to acute myeloid leukemia and accelerate mortality in obesity. Obese Ob/Ob mice or their lean littermate controls received a bone marrow transplant from NUP98-HOXD13 transgenic mice, a model of myelodysplastic syndrome. The metabolic parameters of the mice were examined throughout the course of the study, as were blood leukocytes. Myeloid cells were analyzed in the bone, spleen, liver and adipose tissue by flow cytometry halfway through the disease progression and at the endpoint. Survival curves were also calculated. Contrary to our hypothesis, transplantation of NUP98-HOXD13 bone marrow into obese recipient mice significantly increased survival time compared with lean recipient controls. While monocyte skewing was exacerbated in obese mice receiving NUP98-HOXD13 bone marrow, transformation to acute myeloid leukemia was not enhanced. Increased survival of obese mice was associated with a preservation of fat mass as well as increased myeloid cell deposition within the adipose tissue, and a concomitant reduction in detrimental myeloid cell accumulation within other organs. The study herein revealed that obesity increases survival in animals with myelodysplastic syndrome. This may be due to the greater fat mass of Ob/Ob mice, which acts as a sink for myeloid cells, preventing their accumulation in other key organs, such as the liver.

7.
J Clin Invest ; 127(6): 2133-2147, 2017 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28504650

RESUMO

Platelets play a critical role in atherogenesis and thrombosis-mediated myocardial ischemia, processes that are accelerated in diabetes. Whether hyperglycemia promotes platelet production and whether enhanced platelet production contributes to enhanced atherothrombosis remains unknown. Here we found that in response to hyperglycemia, neutrophil-derived S100 calcium-binding proteins A8/A9 (S100A8/A9) interact with the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) on hepatic Kupffer cells, resulting in increased production of IL-6, a pleiotropic cytokine that is implicated in inflammatory thrombocytosis. IL-6 acts on hepatocytes to enhance the production of thrombopoietin, which in turn interacts with its cognate receptor c-MPL on megakaryocytes and bone marrow progenitor cells to promote their expansion and proliferation, resulting in reticulated thrombocytosis. Lowering blood glucose using a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor (dapagliflozin), depleting neutrophils or Kupffer cells, or inhibiting S100A8/A9 binding to RAGE (using paquinimod), all reduced diabetes-induced thrombocytosis. Inhibiting S100A8/A9 also decreased atherogenesis in diabetic mice. Finally, we found that patients with type 2 diabetes have reticulated thrombocytosis that correlates with glycated hemoglobin as well as increased plasma S100A8/A9 levels. These studies provide insights into the mechanisms that regulate platelet production and may aid in the development of strategies to improve on current antiplatelet therapies and to reduce cardiovascular disease risk in diabetes.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/imunologia , Calgranulina A/fisiologia , Calgranulina B/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/imunologia , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Trombocitose/imunologia , Animais , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Plaquetas/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Obesos , Trombocitose/metabolismo
8.
Clin Transl Immunology ; 5(5): e84, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27350883

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Atherosclerosis is the most common form of CVD, which is complex and multifactorial with an elevated risk observed in people with either metabolic or inflammatory diseases. Accumulating evidence now links obesity with a state of chronic low-grade inflammation and has renewed our understanding of this condition and its associated comorbidities. An emerging theme linking disease states with atherosclerosis is the increased production of myeloid cells, which can initiate and exacerbate atherogenesis. Although anti-inflammatory drug treatments exist and have been successfully used to treat inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a commonly observed side effect is dyslipidemia, inadvertently, a major risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis. The mechanisms leading to dyslipidemia associated with anti-inflammatory drug use and whether CVD risk is actually increased by this dyslipidemia are of great therapeutic importance and currently remain poorly understood. Here we review recent data providing links between inflammation, hematopoiesis, dyslipidemia and CVD risk in the context of anti-inflammatory drug use.

9.
Cell Metab ; 23(1): 155-64, 2016 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26603191

RESUMO

Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is activated by Caspase-1 in inflammasome complexes and has anti-obesity effects; however, it is not known which inflammasome regulates this process. We found that mice lacking the NLRP1 inflammasome phenocopy mice lacking IL-18, with spontaneous obesity due to intrinsic lipid accumulation. This is exacerbated when the mice are fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or a high-protein diet, but not when mice are fed a HFD with low energy density (high fiber). Furthermore, mice with an activating mutation in NLRP1, and hence increased IL-18, have decreased adiposity and are resistant to diet-induced metabolic dysfunction. Feeding these mice a HFD further increased plasma IL-18 concentrations and strikingly resulted in loss of adipose tissue mass and fatal cachexia, which could be prevented by genetic deletion of IL-18. Thus, NLRP1 is an innate immune sensor that functions in the context of metabolic stress to produce IL-18, preventing obesity and metabolic syndrome.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Interleucina-18/biossíntese , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Animais , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Peso Corporal , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Interleucina-18/genética , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/prevenção & controle , Camundongos Knockout , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle
10.
Br J Pharmacol ; 173(4): 729-40, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25560767

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Angiotensin AT2 receptors are upregulated in disease states such as atherosclerosis and blockade of the AT2 receptors exacerbates plaque formation. Direct stimulation of these receptors is anti-atherogenic but the mechanisms and pathways involved remain unknown. We examined the effect of direct AT2 receptor stimulation with Compound 21 (C21) on the leukocyte adhesion cascade in vitro, right through to plaque formation in vivo. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Effects of C21 on TNFα-induced inflammation were assessed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), activation of monocytes, polarisation of monocyte-derived macrophages and in intact mouse aortae. KEY RESULTS: C21 attenuated TNFα-induced: monocyte adhesion to cultured HUVECs, adhesion molecule expression and abolished TNFα-induced ROS production. TNFα-induced NFκB translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, essential for cytokine production, was prevented by C21. C21 did not influence monocyte activation or macrophage polarisation but did reduce TNFα and IL-6 mRNA expression in M1 macrophages. The anti-inflammatory effects of C21 were abolished by an AT2 receptor antagonist confirming that the effects of C21 were AT2 receptor-mediated. Also, leukocyte adhesion and cytokine gene expression, induced by high-fat diet (HFD), was attenuated in ApoE(-/-) mice treated with C21. Plaque size and stability were improved with C21 treatment with increased smooth muscle cell composition and decreased lipid size, compared with HFD-saline treated mice. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: C21 prevented TNFα-induced and HFD-induced vascular inflammation in vitro and in vivo. Our data provide strong evidence that the anti-atherosclerotic actions of C21 were due to vascular anti-inflammatory effects, mediated by AT2 receptors.


Assuntos
Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Leucócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor Tipo 2 de Angiotensina/agonistas , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Tiofenos/farmacologia , Animais , Apolipoproteínas E/deficiência , Apolipoproteínas E/metabolismo , Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/patologia , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Leucócitos/citologia , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfonamidas/química , Tiofenos/química
11.
Br J Pharmacol ; 173(4): 741-51, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26332942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Monocyte-derived macrophages are critical in the development of atherosclerosis and can adopt a wide range of functional phenotypes depending on their surrounding milieu. High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) have many cardio-protective properties including potent anti-inflammatory effects. We investigated the effects of HDL on human macrophage phenotype and the mechanisms by which these occur. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Human blood monocytes were differentiated into macrophages in the presence or absence of HDL and were then induced to either an inflammatory macrophage (M1) or anti-inflammatory macrophage (M2) phenotype using LPS and IFN-γ or IL-4, respectively. KEY RESULTS: HDL inhibited the induction of macrophages to an M1-phenotype, as evidenced by a decrease in the expression of M1-specific cell surface markers CD192 and CD64, as well as M1-associated inflammatory genes TNF-α, IL-6 and MCP-1 (CCL2). HDL also inhibited M1 function by reducing the production of ROS. In contrast, HDL had no effect on macrophage induction to the M2-phenotype. Similarly, methyl-ß-cyclodextrin, a non-specific cholesterol acceptor also suppressed the induction of M1 suggesting that cholesterol efflux is important in this process. Furthermore, HDL decreased membrane caveolin-1 in M1 macrophages. We confirmed that caveolin-1 is required for HDL to inhibit M1 induction as bone marrow-derived macrophages from caveolin-1 knockout mice continued to polarize into M1-phenotype despite the presence of HDL. Moreover, HDL decreased ERK1/2 and STAT3 phosphorylation in M1 macrophages. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: We concluded that HDL reduces the induction of macrophages to the inflammatory M1-phenotype via redistribution of caveolin-1, preventing the activation of ERK1/2 and STAT3.


Assuntos
Caveolina 1/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas HDL/farmacologia , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Caveolina 1/deficiência , Humanos , Lipoproteínas HDL/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Fenótipo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
12.
Front Immunol ; 5: 490, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25352845

RESUMO

Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of the blood vessels that can lead to myocardial infarction or stroke. The major cell in the atherosclerotic lesion, the macrophage, is thought to be an important contributor to the production of inflammatory mediators that exacerbate this disease. Macrophages are generally derived from circulating monocytes, which are in turn produced by hematopoietic stem and multipotential progenitor cells (HSPCs) in the bone marrow and other medullary organs. Recent studies suggest that disruption in cholesterol homeostasis or prolonged exposure to a hypercholesterolemic environment can influence HSPCs to over-produce monocytes, resulting in monocytosis. These monocytes may carry a pre-programed ability to become M1-like macrophages once they enter the atherosclerotic lesion. Future studies may help to differentiate the role of such pre-programing versus responses to local environmental cues in determining M1, M2, or other macrophage phenotypes in atherosclerotic lesions.

13.
Cell Metab ; 19(5): 821-35, 2014 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24807222

RESUMO

Obesity is associated with infiltration of macrophages into adipose tissue (AT), contributing to insulin resistance and diabetes. However, relatively little is known regarding the origin of AT macrophages (ATMs). We discovered that murine models of obesity have prominent monocytosis and neutrophilia, associated with proliferation and expansion of bone marrow (BM) myeloid progenitors. AT transplantation conferred myeloid progenitor proliferation in lean recipients, while weight loss in both mice and humans (via gastric bypass) was associated with a reversal of monocytosis and neutrophilia. Adipose S100A8/A9 induced ATM TLR4/MyD88 and NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent IL-1ß production. IL-1ß interacted with the IL-1 receptor on BM myeloid progenitors to stimulate the production of monocytes and neutrophils. These studies uncover a positive feedback loop between ATMs and BM myeloid progenitors and suggest that inhibition of TLR4 ligands or the NLRP3-IL-1ß signaling axis could reduce AT inflammation and insulin resistance in obesity.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Monócitos/metabolismo , Mielopoese/fisiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Animais , Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Humanos , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Receptores de Interleucina-1/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
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