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1.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33819177

RESUMO

Haiti is targeting malaria elimination by 2025. The Grand'Anse department in southwestern Haiti experiences one-third to half of all nationally reported Plasmodium falciparum cases. Although there are historical reports of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium malariae, today, non-falciparum infections would remain undetected because of extensive use of falciparum-specific histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) at health facilities. A recent case-control study was conducted in Grand'Anse to identify risk factors for P. falciparum infection using HRP2-based RDTs (n = 1,107). Post hoc multiplex Plasmodium antigenemia and antibody (IgG) detection by multiplex bead assay revealed one blood sample positive for pan-Plasmodium aldolase, negative for P. falciparum HRP2, and positive for IgG antibodies to P. malariae. Based on this finding, we selected 52 samples with possible P. malariae infection using IgG and antigenemia data and confirmed infection status by species-specific PCR. We confirmed one P. malariae infection in a 6-month-old infant without travel history. Congenital P. malariae could not be excluded. However, our finding-in combination with historical reports of P. malariae-warrants further investigation into the presence and possible extent of non-falciparum malaria in Haiti. Furthermore, we showed the use of multiplex Plasmodium antigen and IgG detection in selecting samples of interest for subsequent PCR analysis, thereby reducing costs as opposed to testing all available samples by PCR. This is of specific use in low-transmission or eliminating settings where infections are rare.

2.
Malar J ; 20(1): 169, 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33771166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment of clinical Plasmodium falciparum malaria with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and amodiaquine (AQ) is associated with increased post-treatment gametocyte carriage. The effect of seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) with SP and AQ on gametocyte carriage was assessed in asymptomatic P. falciparum infected children. METHODS: The study was carried out in eastern Gambia. Asymptomatic P. falciparum malaria infected children aged 24-59 months old who were eligible to receive SMC (SMC group) and children 5-8 years that were not eligible to receive SMC (comparison group) were recruited. Gametocytaemia was determined by molecular methods before and after SMC administration. Gametocyte carriage between the groups was compared using the chi-squared test and within-person using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: During the 2017 and 2018 malaria transmission seasons, 65 and 75 children were recruited in the SMC and comparison groups, respectively. Before SMC administration, gametocyte prevalence was 10.7% (7/65) in the SMC group and 13.3% (10/75) in the comparison group (p = 0.64). At day 13 (IQR 12, 13) after SMC administration, this was 9.4% (5/53) in children who received at least the first dose of SMC treatment and 12.7% (9/71) for those in the comparison group (p = 0.57). Similarly, there was no difference in prevalence of gametocytes between children that adhered to all 3-day doses of SMC treatment 15.6% (5/32) and those in the comparison group (p = 0.68). In the SMC group, within-group gametocyte carriage was similar before and after SMC administration in children that received at least the first dose of SMC treatment (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.14-2.51; p = 0.48) and in those that adhered to all 3-day doses of SMC treatment (OR 1.0, 95% CI 0.20-4.95; p = 1.0). CONCLUSION: In this study with relative low gametocyte prevalence prior to SMC treatment, no evidence was observed that SMC treatment increased gametocyte carriage in asymptomatic P. falciparum malaria infected children.

3.
Front Immunol ; 12: 617951, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33737926

RESUMO

Human Plasmodium infection produces a robust adaptive immune response. Time courses for 104 children followed for 42 days after initiation of Plasmodium falciparum chemotherapy were assayed for antibody levels to the five isotypes of human immunoglobulins (Ig) and 4 subclasses of IgG for 32 P. falciparum antigens encompassing all 4 parasite stages of human infection. IgD and IgE against these antigens were undetectable at 1:100 serum concentration, but other Ig isotypes and IgG subclasses were consistently observed against all antigens. Five quantitative parameters were developed to directly compare Ig response among isotypes and antigens: Cmax, maximum antibody level; ΔC, difference between Cmax and the antibody level at Day 0; tmax, time in days to reach Cmax; t1/2, Ig signal half-life in days; tneg, estimated number of days until complete loss of Ig signal. Classical Ig patterns for a bloodborne pathogen were seen with IgM showing early tmax and IgG production highest among Ig isotypes. However, some unexpected trends were observed such as IgA showing a biphasic pattern for many antigens. Variability among these dynamics of Ig acquisition and loss was noted for different P. falciparum antigens and able to be compared both quantitatively and statistically. This parametrization methodology allows direct comparison of Ig isotypes produced against various Plasmodium antigens following malaria infection, and the same methodology could be applied to other longitudinal serologic studies from P. falciparum or different pathogens. Specifically for P. falciparum seroepidemiological studies, reliable and quantitative estimates regarding the IgG dynamics in human populations can better optimize modeling efforts for serological outputs.

4.
Lancet ; 397(10276): 816-827, 2021 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33640068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing insecticide costs and constrained malaria budgets could make universal vector control strategies, such as indoor residual spraying (IRS), unsustainable in low-transmission settings. We investigated the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a reactive, targeted IRS strategy. METHODS: This cluster-randomised, open-label, non-inferiority trial compared reactive, targeted IRS with standard IRS practice in northeastern South Africa over two malaria seasons (2015-17). In standard IRS clusters, programme managers conducted annual mass spray campaigns prioritising areas using historical data, expert opinion, and other factors. In targeted IRS clusters, only houses of index cases (identified through passive surveillance) and their immediate neighbours were sprayed. The non-inferiority margin was 1 case per 1000 person-years. Health service costs of real-world implementation were modelled from primary and secondary data. Incremental costs per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) were estimated and deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses conducted. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02556242. FINDINGS: Malaria incidence was 0·95 per 1000 person-years (95% CI 0·58 to 1·32) in the standard IRS group and 1·05 per 1000 person-years (0·72 to 1·38) in the targeted IRS group, corresponding to a rate difference of 0·10 per 1000 person-years (-0·38 to 0·59), demonstrating non-inferiority for targeted IRS (p<0·0001). Per additional DALY incurred, targeted IRS saved US$7845 (2902 to 64 907), giving a 94-98% probability that switching to targeted IRS would be cost-effective relative to plausible cost-effectiveness thresholds for South Africa ($2637 to $3557 per DALY averted). Depending on the threshold used, targeted IRS would remain cost-effective at incidences of less than 2·0-2·7 per 1000 person-years. Findings were robust to plausible variation in other parameters. INTERPRETATION: Targeted IRS was non-inferior, safe, less costly, and cost-effective compared with standard IRS in this very-low-transmission setting. Saved resources could be reallocated to other malaria control and elimination activities. FUNDING: Joint Global Health Trials.

5.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33534761

RESUMO

Following substantial progress in malaria control in the Philippines, new surveillance approaches are needed to identify and target residual malaria transmission. This study evaluated an enhanced surveillance approach using rolling cross-sectional surveys of all health facility attendees augmented with molecular diagnostics and geolocation. Facility surveys were carried out in three sites representing different transmission intensities: Morong, Bataan (pre-elimination), Abra de Ilog, Occidental Mindoro (stable medium risk), and Rizal, Palawan (high risk, control). Only one rapid diagnostic test (RDT)-positive infection and no PCR confirmed infections were found in Bataan and Occidental Mindoro, suggesting the absence of transmission. In Palawan, the inclusion of all health facility attendees, regardless of symptoms, and use of molecular diagnostics identified 313 infected individuals in addition to 300 cases identified by routine screening of febrile patients with the RDT or microscopy. Of these, the majority (313/613) were subpatent infections and only detected using molecular methods. Simultaneous collection of GPS coordinates on tablet-based applications allowed real-time mapping of malaria infections. Risk factor analysis showed higher risks in children and indigenous groups, with bed net use having a protective effect. Subpatent infections were more common in men and older age-groups. Overall, malaria risks were not associated with participants' classification, and some of the non-patient clinic attendees reported febrile illnesses (1.9%, 26/1,369), despite not seeking treatment, highlighting the widespread distribution of infection in communities. Together, these data illustrate the utility of health facility-based surveys to augment surveillance data to increase the probability of detecting infections in the wider community.

7.
Malar J ; 20(1): 69, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530995

RESUMO

Land use and land cover changes, such as deforestation, agricultural expansion and urbanization, are one of the largest anthropogenic environmental changes globally. Recent initiatives to evaluate the feasibility of malaria eradication have highlighted impacts of landscape changes on malaria transmission and the potential of these changes to undermine malaria control and elimination efforts. Multisectoral approaches are needed to detect and minimize negative impacts of land use and land cover changes on malaria transmission while supporting development aiding malaria control, elimination and ultimately eradication. Pathways through which land use and land cover changes disrupt social and ecological systems to increase or decrease malaria risks are outlined, identifying priorities and opportunities for a global malaria eradication campaign. The impacts of land use and land cover changes on malaria transmission are complex and highly context-specific, with effects changing over time and space. Landscape changes are only one element of a complex development process with wider economic and social dimensions affecting human health and wellbeing. While deforestation and other landscape changes threaten to undermine malaria control efforts and have driven the emergence of zoonotic malaria, most of the malaria elimination successes have been underpinned by agricultural development and land management. Malaria eradication is not feasible without addressing these changing risks while, conversely, consideration of malaria impacts in land management decisions has the potential to significantly accelerate progress towards eradication. Multisectoral cooperation and approaches to linking malaria control and environmental science, such as conducting locally relevant ecological monitoring, integrating landscape data into malaria surveillance systems and designing environmental management strategies to reduce malaria burdens, are essential to achieve malaria eradication.

8.
Malar J ; 20(1): 68, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33531029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evaluation of genetic relatedness of malaria parasites is a useful tool for understanding transmission patterns, but patterns are not easily detectable in areas with moderate to high malaria transmission. To evaluate the feasibility of detecting genetic relatedness in a moderate malaria transmission setting, relatedness of Plasmodium falciparum infections was measured in cohort participants from randomly selected households in the Kihihi sub-county of Uganda (annual entomological inoculation rate of 27 infectious bites per person). METHODS: All infections detected via microscopy or Plasmodium-specific loop mediated isothermal amplification from passive and active case detection during August 2011-March 2012 were genotyped at 26 microsatellite loci, providing data for 349 samples from 230 participants living in 80 households. Pairwise genetic relatedness was calculated using identity by state (IBS). RESULTS: As expected, genetic diversity was high (mean heterozygosity [He] = 0.73), and the majority (76.5 %) of samples were polyclonal. Despite the high genetic diversity, fine-scale population structure was detectable, with significant spatiotemporal clustering of highly related infections. Although the difference in malaria incidence between households at higher (mean 1127 metres) versus lower elevation (mean 1015 metres) was modest (1.4 malaria cases per person-year vs. 1.9 per person-year, respectively), there was a significant difference in multiplicity of infection (2.2 vs. 2.6, p = 0.008) and, more strikingly, a higher proportion of highly related infections within households (6.3 % vs. 0.9 %, p = 0.0005) at higher elevation compared to lower elevation. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic data from a relatively small number of diverse, multiallelic loci reflected fine scale patterns of malaria transmission. Given the increasing interest in applying genetic data to augment malaria surveillance, this study provides evidence that genetic data can be used to inform transmission patterns at local spatial scales even in moderate transmission areas.

9.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(2): 603-607, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33496217

RESUMO

Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes, efficient vectors in parts of Asia and Africa, were found in 75.3% of water sources surveyed and contributed to 80.9% of wild-caught Anopheles mosquitoes in Awash Sebat Kilo, Ethiopia. High susceptibility of these mosquitoes to Plasmodium falciparum and vivax infection presents a challenge for malaria control in the Horn of Africa.

10.
Malar J ; 20(1): 34, 2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa relies upon prompt case management with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). Ring-stage parasite mRNA, measured by sbp1 quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR), was previously reported to persist after ACT treatment and hypothesized to reflect temporary arrest of the growth of ring-stage parasites (dormancy) following exposure to artemisinins. Here, the persistence of ring-stage parasitaemia following ACT and non-ACT treatment was examined. METHODS: Samples were used from naturally infected Malian gametocyte carriers who received dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) or sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP-AQ) with or without gametocytocidal drugs. Gametocytes and ring-stage parasites were quantified by qRT-PCR during 42 days of follow-up. RESULTS: At baseline, 89% (64/73) of participants had measurable ring-stage parasite mRNA. Following treatment, the proportion of ring-stage parasite-positive individuals and estimated densities declined for all four treatment groups. Ring-stage parasite prevalence and density was generally lower in arms that received DP compared to SP-AQ. This finding was most apparent days 1, 2, and 42 of follow-up (p < 0.01). Gametocytocidal drugs did not influence ring-stage parasite persistence. Ring-stage parasite density estimates on days 14 and 28 after initiation of treatment were higher among individuals who subsequently experienced recurrent parasitaemia compared to those who remained free of parasites until day 42 after initiation of treatment (pday 14 = 0.011 and pday 28 = 0.068). No association of ring-stage persistence with gametocyte carriage was observed. CONCLUSIONS: The current findings of lower ring-stage persistence after ACT without an effect of gametocytocidal partner drugs affirms the use of sbp1 as ring-stage marker. Lower persistence of ring-stage mRNA after ACT treatment suggests the marker may not reflect dormant parasites whilst it was predictive of re-appearance of parasitaemia.

11.
Malar J ; 20(1): 59, 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As countries move to malaria elimination, detecting and targeting asymptomatic malaria infections might be needed. Here, the epidemiology and detectability of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections were investigated in different transmission settings in Ethiopia. METHOD: A total of 1093 dried blood spot (DBS) samples were collected from afebrile and apparently healthy individuals across ten study sites in Ethiopia from 2016 to 2020. Of these, 862 were from community and 231 from school based cross-sectional surveys. Malaria infection status was determined by microscopy or rapid diagnostics tests (RDT) and 18S rRNA-based nested PCR (nPCR). The annual parasite index (API) was used to classify endemicity as low (API > 0 and < 5), moderate (API ≥ 5 and < 100) and high transmission (API ≥ 100) and detectability of infections was assessed in these settings. RESULTS: In community surveys, the overall prevalence of asymptomatic Plasmodium infections by microscopy/RDT, nPCR and all methods combined was 12.2% (105/860), 21.6% (183/846) and 24.1% (208/862), respectively. The proportion of nPCR positive infections that was detectable by microscopy/RDT was 48.7% (73/150) for P. falciparum and 4.6% (2/44) for P. vivax. Compared to low transmission settings, the likelihood of detecting infections by microscopy/RDT was increased in moderate (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 3.4; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.6-7.2, P = 0.002) and high endemic settings (AOR = 5.1; 95% CI 2.6-9.9, P < 0.001). After adjustment for site and correlation between observations from the same survey, the likelihood of detecting asymptomatic infections by microscopy/RDT (AOR per year increase = 0.95, 95% CI 0.9-1.0, P = 0.013) declined with age. CONCLUSIONS: Conventional diagnostics missed nearly half of the asymptomatic Plasmodium reservoir detected by nPCR. The detectability of infections was particularly low in older age groups and low transmission settings. These findings highlight the need for sensitive diagnostic tools to detect the entire parasite reservoir and potential infection transmitters.

12.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243303, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33270743

RESUMO

Indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticide-treated bednets (LLINs) are common tools for reducing malaria transmission. We studied a cohort in Uganda with universal access to LLINs after 5 years of sustained IRS to explore LLIN adherence when malaria transmission has been greatly reduced. Eighty households and 526 individuals in Nagongera, Uganda were followed from October 2017 -October 2019. Every two weeks, mosquitoes were collected from sleeping rooms and LLIN adherence the prior night assessed. Episodes of malaria were diagnosed using passive surveillance. Risk factors for LLIN non-adherence were evaluated using multi-level mixed logistic regression. An age-matched case-control design was used to measure the association between LLIN non-adherence and malaria. Across all time periods, and particularly in the last 6 months, non-adherence was higher among both children <5 years (OR 3.31, 95% CI: 2.30-4.75; p<0.001) and school-aged children 5-17 years (OR 6.88, 95% CI: 5.01-9.45; p<0.001) compared to adults. In the first 18 months, collection of fewer mosquitoes was associated with non-adherence (OR 3.25, 95% CI: 2.92-3.63; p<0.001), and, in the last 6 months, residents of poorer households were less adherent (OR 5.1, 95% CI: 1.17-22.2; p = 0.03). Any reported non-adherence over the prior two months was associated with a 15-fold increase in the odds of having malaria (OR 15.0, 95% CI: 1.95 to 114.9; p = 0.009). Knowledge about LLIN use was high, and the most frequently reported barriers to use included heat and low perceived risk of malaria. Children, particularly school-aged, participants exposed to fewer mosquitoes, and those from poorer households, were less likely to use LLINs. Non-adherence to LLINs was associated with an increased risk of malaria. Strategies, such as behavior change communications, should be prioritized to ensure consistent LLIN use even when malaria transmission has been greatly reduced.

13.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 19975, 2020 11 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33203956

RESUMO

The distribution of malaria infections is heterogeneous in space and time, especially in low transmission settings. Understanding this clustering may allow identification and targeting of pockets of transmission. In Adama district, Ethiopia, Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax malaria patients and controls were examined, together with household members and immediate neighbors. Rapid diagnostic test and quantitative PCR (qPCR) were used for the detection of infections that were genetically characterized by a panel of microsatellite loci for P. falciparum (26) and P. vivax (11), respectively. Individuals living in households of clinical P. falciparum patients were more likely to have qPCR detected P. falciparum infections (22.0%, 9/41) compared to individuals in control households (8.7%, 37/426; odds ratio, 2.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-6.4; P = .007). Genetically related P. falciparum, but not P. vivax infections showed strong clustering within households. Genotyping revealed a marked temporal cluster of P. falciparum infections, almost exclusively comprised of clinical cases. These findings uncover previously unappreciated transmission dynamics and support a rational approach to reactive case detection strategies for P. falciparum in Ethiopia.

14.
Malar J ; 19(1): 405, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33176793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The burden of malaria in Uganda remains high, but has become increasingly heterogenous following intensified malaria control. Travel within Uganda is recognized as a risk factor for malaria, but behaviours associated with travel are not well-understood. To address this knowledge gap, malaria-relevant behaviours of cohort participants were assessed during travel and at home in Uganda. METHODS: Residents from 80 randomly selected households in Nagongera sub-county, Tororo district were enrolled into a cohort to study malaria in rural Uganda. All participants were given long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) at enrolment and were evaluated every 4 weeks at the study clinic. Participants were asked if they had travelled overnight from their home, and if so, a questionnaire was administered to capture information on travel details and behaviours. Behaviour while travelling was assessed within 4 weeks following travel during the study clinic visit. Behaviour while at home was assessed using a similar questionnaire during two-weekly home visits. Behaviours while travelling vs at home were compared using log binomial regression models with generalized estimating equations adjusting for repeated measures in the same individual. Analysis of factors associated with LLIN adherence, such as destination and duration of travel, time to bed during travel, gender and age at time of travel, were assessed using log binomial regression models with generalized estimating equations adjusting for repeated measures in the same individual. RESULTS: Between October 2017 and October 2019, 527 participants were enrolled and assessed for travel. Of these, 123 (23.2%) reported taking 211 overnight trips; 149 (70.6%) trips were within Tororo. Participants were less likely to use LLINs when travelling than when at home (41.0% vs. 56.2%, relative risk [RR] 0.73, 95% CI 0.60-0.89, p = 0.002); this difference was noted for women (38.8% vs 59.2%, RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.52-0.83, p = 0.001) but not men (48.3% vs 46.6%, RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.67-1.40, p = 0.85). In an adjusted analysis, factors associated with LLIN use when travelling included destination (travelling to districts not receiving indoor residual spraying [IRS] 65.8% vs Tororo district 32.2%, RR 1.80, 95% CI 1.31-2.46, p < 0.001) and duration of travel (> 7 nights 60.3% vs one night 24.4%, RR 1.97, 95% CI 1.07-3.64, p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Travellers, particularly women, were less likely to use LLINs when travelling than when at home. LLIN adherence was higher among those who travelled to non-IRS districts and for more than 1 week, suggesting that perceived malaria risk influences LLIN use. Strategies are needed to raise awareness of the importance of using LLINs while travelling.

15.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 9(11): e20904, 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33211022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With a decline in malaria burden, innovative interventions and tools are required to reduce malaria transmission further. Mass drug administration (MDA) of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has been identified as a potential tool to further reduce malaria transmission, where coverage of vector control interventions is already high. However, the impact is limited in time. Combining an ACT with an endectocide treatment that is able to reduce vector survival, such as ivermectin (IVM), could increase the impact of MDA and offer a new tool to reduce malaria transmission. OBJECTIVE: The study objective is to evaluate the impact of MDA with IVM plus dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) on malaria transmission in an area with high coverage of malaria control interventions. METHODS: The study is a cluster randomized trial in the Upper River Region of The Gambia and included 32 villages (16 control and 16 intervention). A buffer zone of ~2 km was created around all intervention clusters. MDA with IVM plus DP was implemented in all intervention villages and the buffer zones; control villages received standard malaria interventions according to the Gambian National Malaria Control Program plans. RESULTS: The MDA campaigns were carried out from August to October 2018 for the first year and from July to September 2019 for the second year. Statistical analysis will commence once the database is completed, cleaned, and locked. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first cluster randomized clinical trial of MDA with IVM plus DP. The results will provide evidence on the impact of MDA with IVM plus DP on malaria transmission. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03576313; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03576313. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/20904.

16.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 331, 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183292

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As The Gambia aims to achieve malaria elimination by 2030, serological assays are a useful surveillance tool to monitor trends in malaria incidence and evaluate community-based interventions. METHODS: Within a mass drug administration (MDA) study in The Gambia, where reduced malaria infection and clinical disease were observed after the intervention, a serological sub-study was conducted in four study villages. Spatio-temporal variation in transmission was measured with a panel of recombinant Pf antigens on a multiplexed bead-based assay. Village-level antibody levels were quantified as under-15 sero-prevalence, sero-conversion rates, and age-adjusted antibody acquisition rates. Antibody levels prior to MDA were assessed for association with persistent malaria infection after community chemoprophylaxis. RESULTS: Seasonal changes in antibodies to Etramp5.Ag1 were observed in children under 15 years in two transmission settings-the West Coast and Upper River Regions (4.32% and 31.30% Pf prevalence, respectively). At the end of the malaria season, short-lived antibody responses to Etramp5.Ag1, GEXP18, HSP40.Ag1, EBA175 RIII-V, and Rh2.2030 were lower amongst 1-15 year olds in the West Coast compared to the Upper River, reflecting known differences in transmission. Prior to MDA, individuals in the top 50th percentile of antibody levels had two-fold higher odds of clinical malaria during the transmission season, consistent with previous findings from the Malaria Transmission Dynamics Study, where individuals infected before the implementation of MDA had two-fold higher odds of re-infection post-MDA. CONCLUSIONS: Serological markers can serve dual functions as indicators of malaria exposure and incidence. By monitoring age-specific sero-prevalence, the magnitude of age-stratified antibody levels, or identifying groups of individuals with above-average antibody responses, these antigens have the potential to complement conventional malaria surveillance tools. Further studies, particularly cluster randomised trials, can help establish standardised serological protocols to reliably measure transmission across endemic settings.

17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16395, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009443

RESUMO

Chagas disease is considered the most important parasitic disease in Latin America. The protozoan agent, Trypanosoma cruzi, comprises six genetic lineages, TcI-TcVI. Genotyping to link lineage(s) to severity of cardiomyopathy and gastrointestinal pathology is impeded by the sequestration and replication of T. cruzi in host tissues. We describe serology specific for TcI, the predominant lineage north of the Amazon, based on expression of recombinant trypomastigote small surface antigen (gTSSA-I) in the eukaryote Leishmania tarentolae, to allow realistic glycosylation and structure of the antigen. Sera from TcI-endemic regions recognised gTSSA-I (74/146; 50.7%), with no cross reaction with common components of gTSSA-II/V/VI recombinant antigen. Antigenicity was abolished by chemical (periodate) oxidation of gTSSA-I glycosylation but retained after heat-denaturation of conformation. Conversely, non-specific recognition of gTSSA-I by non-endemic malaria sera was abolished by heat-denaturation. TcI-specific serology facilitates investigation between lineage and diverse clinical presentations. Glycosylation cannot be ignored in the search for immunogenic antigens.

18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 741, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cholera remains a major global health challenge. Uvira, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), has had endemic cholera since the 1970's and has been implicated as a possible point of origin for national outbreaks. A previous study among this population, reported a case confirmation rate of 40% by rapid diagnostic test (RDT) among patients at the Uvira Cholera Treatment Centre (CTC). This study considers the prevalence and diversity of 15 enteric pathogens in suspected cholera cases seeking treatment at the Uvira CTC. METHODS: We used the Luminex xTAG® multiplex PCR to test for 15 enteric pathogens, including toxigenic strains of V. cholerae in rectal swabs preserved on Whatman FTA Elute cards. Results were interpreted on MAGPIX® and analyzed on the xTAG® Data Analysis Software. Prevalence of enteric pathogens were calculated and pathogen diversity was modelled with a Poisson regression. RESULTS: Among 269 enrolled CTC patients, PCR detected the presence of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae in 38% (103/269) of the patients, which were considered to be cholera cases. These strains were detected as the sole pathogen in 36% (37/103) of these cases. Almost half (45%) of all study participants carried multiple enteric pathogens (two or more). Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (36%) and Cryptosporidium (28%) were the other most common pathogens identified amongst all participants. No pathogen was detected in 16.4% of study participants. Mean number of pathogens was highest amongst boys and girls aged 1-15 years and lowest in women aged 16-81 years. Ninety-three percent of toxigenic V. cholerae strains detected by PCR were found in patients having tested positive for V. cholerae O1 by RDT. CONCLUSIONS: Our study supports previous results from DRC and other cholera endemic areas in sub-Sahara Africa with less than half of CTC admissions positive for cholera by PCR. More research is required to determine the causes of severe acute diarrhea in these low-resource, endemic areas to optimize treatment measures. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study is part of the impact evaluation study entitled: "Impact Evaluation of Urban Water Supply Improvements on Cholera and Other Diarrheal Diseases in Uvira, Democratic Republic of Congo" registered on 10 October 2016 at clinicaltrials.gov Identification number: NCT02928341 .


Assuntos
Cólera/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Vibrio cholerae/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cólera/microbiologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Diarreia/microbiologia , Doenças Endêmicas , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Prevalência , Microbiologia da Água , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS Med ; 17(10): e1003359, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33075101

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delay in receiving treatment for uncomplicated malaria (UM) is often reported to increase the risk of developing severe malaria (SM), but access to treatment remains low in most high-burden areas. Understanding the contribution of treatment delay on progression to severe disease is critical to determine how quickly patients need to receive treatment and to quantify the impact of widely implemented treatment interventions, such as 'test-and-treat' policies administered by community health workers (CHWs). We conducted a pooled individual-participant meta-analysis to estimate the association between treatment delay and presenting with SM. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A search using Ovid MEDLINE and Embase was initially conducted to identify studies on severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria that included information on treatment delay, such as fever duration (inception to 22nd September 2017). Studies identified included 5 case-control and 8 other observational clinical studies of SM and UM cases. Risk of bias was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale, and all studies were ranked as 'Good', scoring ≥7/10. Individual-patient data (IPD) were pooled from 13 studies of 3,989 (94.1% aged <15 years) SM patients and 5,780 (79.6% aged <15 years) UM cases in Benin, Malaysia, Mozambique, Tanzania, The Gambia, Uganda, Yemen, and Zambia. Definitions of SM were standardised across studies to compare treatment delay in patients with UM and different SM phenotypes using age-adjusted mixed-effects regression. The odds of any SM phenotype were significantly higher in children with longer delays between initial symptoms and arrival at the health facility (odds ratio [OR] = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.07-1.64 for a delay of >24 hours versus ≤24 hours; p = 0.009). Reported illness duration was a strong predictor of presenting with severe malarial anaemia (SMA) in children, with an OR of 2.79 (95% CI:1.92-4.06; p < 0.001) for a delay of 2-3 days and 5.46 (95% CI: 3.49-8.53; p < 0.001) for a delay of >7 days, compared with receiving treatment within 24 hours from symptom onset. We estimate that 42.8% of childhood SMA cases and 48.5% of adult SMA cases in the study areas would have been averted if all individuals were able to access treatment within the first day of symptom onset, if the association is fully causal. In studies specifically recording onset of nonsevere symptoms, long treatment delay was moderately associated with other SM phenotypes (OR [95% CI] >3 to ≤4 days versus ≤24 hours: cerebral malaria [CM] = 2.42 [1.24-4.72], p = 0.01; respiratory distress syndrome [RDS] = 4.09 [1.70-9.82], p = 0.002). In addition to unmeasured confounding, which is commonly present in observational studies, a key limitation is that many severe cases and deaths occur outside healthcare facilities in endemic countries, where the effect of delayed or no treatment is difficult to quantify. CONCLUSIONS: Our results quantify the relationship between rapid access to treatment and reduced risk of severe disease, which was particularly strong for SMA. There was some evidence to suggest that progression to other severe phenotypes may also be prevented by prompt treatment, though the association was not as strong, which may be explained by potential selection bias, sample size issues, or a difference in underlying pathology. These findings may help assess the impact of interventions that improve access to treatment.

20.
Elife ; 92020 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107430

RESUMO

Multiple studies have reported a male bias in incidence and/or prevalence of malaria infection in males compared to females. To test the hypothesis that sex-based differences in host-parasite interactions affect the epidemiology of malaria, we intensively followed Plasmodium falciparum infections in a cohort in a malaria endemic area of eastern Uganda and estimated both force of infection (FOI) and rate of clearance using amplicon deep-sequencing. We found no evidence of differences in behavioral risk factors, incidence of malaria, or FOI by sex. In contrast, females cleared asymptomatic infections at a faster rate than males (hazard ratio [HR]=1.82, 95% CI 1.20 to 2.75 by clone and HR = 2.07, 95% CI 1.24 to 3.47 by infection event) in multivariate models adjusted for age, timing of infection onset, and parasite density. These findings implicate biological sex-based differences as an important factor in the host response to this globally important pathogen.

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