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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31956402

RESUMO

Background: The point prevalence survey of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and antimicrobial use organized by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC-PPS) and the Global Point Prevalence Survey of antimicrobial consumption (Global-PPS) were simultaneously performed in Belgian acute care hospitals in 2017. Methods: Belgian acute care hospitals were invited to participate in either the ECDC or Global-PPS. Hospital/ward/patient-level data were collected between September-December 2017. All patients present in the wards at 8 a.m. on the day of the PPS were included. The data of the ECDC and Global-PPS on antimicrobial consumption were pooled. Detailed data on HAIs were analysed for ECDC-PPS. Results: Overall, 110 Belgian acute care hospital sites participated in the ECDC and Global-PPS (countrywide participation rate: 81.4%, 28,007 patients). Overall, a crude prevalence of patients with at least one antimicrobial of 27.1% (95% confidence interval (CI) 26.5-27.6%) was found. The most frequently reported indications were pneumonia (23.2%), urinary tract infections (15.2%) and skin and soft tissue infections (11.9%). The reason for antimicrobial use was recorded for 81.9% of the prescriptions, a stop/review date for 40.8% and compliance with local antibiotic guidelines for 76.6%. In the ECDC-PPS, the crude prevalence of patients with at least one HAI was 7.3% (95%CI 6.8-7.7%). Most frequently reported HAIs were pneumonia (21.6%) and urinary tract infections (21.3%). Conclusions: HAI and antimicrobial use prevalence remained stable in comparison with the previous PPS (7.1% and 27.4% in 2011 and 2015, respectively). Belgian hospitals should be further stimulated to set local targets to improve antibiotic prescribing and reduce HAI.

2.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 8(2): 143-151, 2019 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29579259

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to assess the variation in prescription practices for systemic antimicrobial agents used for prophylaxis among pediatric patients hospitalized in 41 countries worldwide. METHODS: Using the standardized Antibiotic Resistance and Prescribing in European Children Point Prevalence Survey protocol, a cross-sectional point-prevalence survey was conducted at 226 pediatric hospitals in 41 countries from October 1 to November 30, 2012. RESULTS: Overall, 17693 pediatric patients were surveyed and 36.7% of them received antibiotics (n = 6499). Of 6818 inpatient children, 2242 (32.9%) received at least 1 antimicrobial for prophylactic use. Of 11899 prescriptions for antimicrobials, 3400 (28.6%) were provided for prophylactic use. Prophylaxis for medical diseases was the indication in 73.4% of cases (2495 of 3400), whereas 26.6% of prescriptions were for surgical diseases (905 of 3400). In approximately half the cases (48.7% [1656 of 3400]), a combination of 2 or more antimicrobials was prescribed. The use of broad-spectrum antibiotics (BSAs), which included tetracyclines, macrolides, lincosamides, and sulfonamides/trimethoprim, was high (51.8% [1761 of 3400]). Broad-spectrum antibiotic use for medical prophylaxis was more common in Asia (risk ratio [RR], 1.322; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.202-1.653) and more restricted in Australia (RR, 0.619; 95% CI, 0.521-0.736). Prescription of BSA for surgical prophylaxis also varied according to United Nations region. Finally, a high percentage of surgical patients (79.7% [721 of 905]) received their prophylaxis for longer than 1 day. CONCLUSIONS: A high proportion of hospitalized children received prophylactic BSAs. This represents a clear target for quality improvement. Collectively speaking, it is critical to reduce total prophylactic prescribing, BSA use, and prolonged prescription.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Antibioticoprofilaxia/estatística & dados numéricos , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Antibacterianos/classificação , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Infecciosos/classificação , Anti-Infecciosos/normas , Antibioticoprofilaxia/normas , Criança Hospitalizada , Estudos Transversais , Prescrições de Medicamentos/normas , Quimioterapia Combinada , Uso de Medicamentos , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Hospitalização , Hospitais Pediátricos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Prevalência
3.
Lancet Glob Health ; 6(6): e619-e629, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29681513

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Global Point Prevalence Survey (Global-PPS) established an international network of hospitals to measure antimicrobial prescribing and resistance worldwide. We aimed to assess antimicrobial prescribing and resistance in hospital inpatients. METHODS: We used a standardised surveillance method to collect detailed data about antimicrobial prescribing and resistance from hospitals worldwide, which were grouped by UN region. The internet-based survey included all inpatients (adults, children, and neonates) receiving an antimicrobial who were on the ward at 0800 h on one specific day between January and September, 2015. Hospitals were classified as primary, secondary, tertiary (including infectious diseases hospitals), and paediatric hospitals. Five main ward types were defined: medical wards, surgical wards, intensive-care units, haematology oncology wards, and medical transplantation (bone marrow or solid transplants) wards. Data recorded included patient characteristics, antimicrobials received, diagnosis, therapeutic indication according to predefined lists, and markers of prescribing quality (eg, whether a stop or review date were recorded, and whether local prescribing guidelines existed and were adhered to). We report findings for adult inpatients. FINDINGS: The Global-PPS for 2015 included adult data from 303 hospitals in 53 countries, including eight lower-middle-income and 17 upper-middle-income countries. 86 776 inpatients were admitted to 3315 adult wards, of whom 29 891 (34·4%) received at least one antimicrobial. 41 213 antimicrobial prescriptions were issued, of which 36 792 (89·3%) were antibacterial agents for systemic use. The top three antibiotics prescribed worldwide were penicillins with ß-lactamase inhibitors, third-generation cephalosporins, and fluoroquinolones. Carbapenems were most frequently prescribed in Latin America and west and central Asia. Of patients who received at least one antimicrobial, 5926 (19·8%) received a targeted antibacterial treatment for systemic use, and 1769 (5·9%) received a treatment targeting at least one multidrug-resistant organism. The frequency of health-care-associated infections was highest in Latin America (1518 [11·9%]) and east and south Asia (5363 [10·1%]). Overall, the reason for treatment was recorded in 31 694 (76·9%) of antimicrobial prescriptions, and a stop or review date in 15 778 (38·3%). Local antibiotic guidelines were missing for 7050 (19·2%) of the 36 792 antibiotic prescriptions, and guideline compliance was 77·4%. INTERPRETATION: The Global-PPS showed that worldwide surveillance can be accomplished with voluntary participation. It provided quantifiable measures to assess and compare the quantity and quality of antibiotic prescribing and resistance in hospital patients worldwide. These data will help to improve the quality of antibiotic prescribing through education and practice changes, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries that have no tools to monitor antibiotic prescribing in hospitals. FUNDING: bioMérieux.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Hospitalização , Hospitais , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Prevalência
4.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 71(4): 1106-17, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26747104

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Previously, web-based tools for cross-sectional antimicrobial point prevalence surveys (PPSs) have been used in adults to develop indicators of quality improvement. We aimed to determine the feasibility of developing similar quality indicators of improved antimicrobial prescribing focusing specifically on hospitalized neonates and children worldwide. METHODS: A standardized antimicrobial PPS method was employed. Included were all inpatient children and neonates receiving an antimicrobial at 8:00 am on the day of the PPS. Denominators included the total number of inpatients. A web-based application was used for data entry, validation and reporting. We analysed 2012 data from 226 hospitals (H) in 41 countries (C) from Europe (174H; 24C), Africa (6H; 4C), Asia (25H; 8C), Australia (6H), Latin America (11H; 3C) and North America (4H). RESULTS: Of 17,693 admissions, 6499 (36.7%) inpatients received at least one antimicrobial, but this varied considerably between wards and regions. Potential indicators included very high broad-spectrum antibiotic prescribing in children of mainly ceftriaxone (ranked first in Eastern Europe, 31.3%; Asia, 13.0%; Southern Europe, 9.8%), cefepime (ranked third in North America, 7.8%) and meropenem (ranked first in Latin America, 13.1%). The survey identified worryingly high use of critically important antibiotics for hospital-acquired infections in neonates (34.9%; range from 14.2% in Africa to 68.0% in Latin America) compared with children (28.3%; range from 14.5% in Africa to 48.9% in Latin America). Parenteral administration was very common among children in Asia (88%), Latin America (81%) and Europe (67%). Documentation of the reasons for antibiotic prescribing was lowest in Latin America (52%). Prolonged surgical prophylaxis rates ranged from 78% (Europe) to 84% (Latin America). CONCLUSIONS: Simple web-based PPS tools provide a feasible method to identify areas for improvement of antibiotic use, to set benchmarks and to monitor future interventions in hospitalized neonates and children. To our knowledge, this study has derived the first global quality indicators for antibiotic use in hospitalized neonates and children.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Prescrições de Medicamentos/normas , Uso de Medicamentos/normas , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Saúde Global , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Prevalência , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde
5.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 32(6): e242-53, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23838740

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The neonatal and pediatric antimicrobial point prevalence survey (PPS) of the Antibiotic Resistance and Prescribing in European Children project (http://www.arpecproject.eu/) aims to standardize a method for surveillance of antimicrobial use in children and neonates admitted to the hospital within Europe. This article describes the audit criteria used and reports overall country-specific proportions of antimicrobial use. An analytical review presents methodologies on antimicrobial use. METHODS: A 1-day PPS on antimicrobial use in hospitalized children was organized in September 2011, using a previously validated and standardized method. The survey included all inpatient pediatric and neonatal beds and identified all children receiving an antimicrobial treatment on the day of survey. Mandatory data were age, gender, (birth) weight, underlying diagnosis, antimicrobial agent, dose and indication for treatment. Data were entered through a web-based system for data-entry and reporting, based on the WebPPS program developed for the European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption project. RESULTS: There were 2760 and 1565 pediatric versus 1154 and 589 neonatal inpatients reported among 50 European (n = 14 countries) and 23 non-European hospitals (n = 9 countries), respectively. Overall, antibiotic pediatric and neonatal use was significantly higher in non-European (43.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 41.3-46.3% and 39.4%; 95% CI: 35.5-43.4%) compared with that in European hospitals (35.4; 95% CI: 33.6-37.2% and 21.8%; 95% CI: 19.4-24.2%). Proportions of antibiotic use were highest in hematology/oncology wards (61.3%; 95% CI: 56.2-66.4%) and pediatric intensive care units (55.8%; 95% CI: 50.3-61.3%). CONCLUSIONS: An Antibiotic Resistance and Prescribing in European Children standardized web-based method for a 1-day PPS was successfully developed and conducted in 73 hospitals worldwide. It offers a simple, feasible and sustainable way of data collection that can be used globally.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/normas , Administração em Saúde Pública/métodos , Administração em Saúde Pública/normas , Criança , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Processamento Eletrônico de Dados , Europa (Continente) , Hospitais , Humanos , Internet
6.
Drugs Aging ; 29(1): 53-62, 2012 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22191723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Geriatric infectious diseases are a major health care issue. Infections in the elderly occur more frequently than in younger adults, are often associated with higher morbidity and mortality, and may present atypically. Elderly patients are also often taking multiple medications, which increases the likelihood of drug-drug interactions. Dosing decisions should take into consideration the reduced lean body mass and declining renal function in this age group. OBJECTIVE: Antimicrobial prescribing in three age groups (65-74, 75-84 and ≥85 years) was compared with a reference age group (18-64 years), with the aim of identifying quality of care indicators specific to the elderly. METHODOLOGY: The ESAC (European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption) final phase performed two hospital point-prevalence surveys in 2008 and 2009, respectively, using the defined daily dose (DDD) and Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification system. The prescribed daily dose (PDD) was compared with the DDD. Differences in prescribing were assessed using multivariate logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: The majority of patients (19,549 [64% of 30,836]) were from Northern Europe and 13,830 (48%) belonged to the reference group. The largest proportion of patients was admitted through the hospital's medical specialty (55% of patients) [range: 49% in the reference group to 72% in the ≥85 years age group]. Penicillins were the most frequently used antimicrobials in all age groups (range: 32% in the reference group to 41% in the ≥85 years age group). Multivariate analyses showed three significant variations between the 65-74 years age group and the reference group (quinolones: odds ratio [OR] 1.17 [95% CI 1.05, 1.29]; tetracyclines: OR 1.58 [95% CI 1.26, 1.98]; aminoglycosides: OR 0.81 [95% CI 0.70, 0.93]). The number of significant variations increased to seven and eight in the 75-84 and ≥85 years age groups, respectively. A lower likelihood for PDD > DDD was observed in the 65-74 years age group for three parenteral antimicrobials (amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, gentamicin and vancomycin). This was reiterated in the older age groups (75-84 and ≥85 years), where piperacillin/tazobactam, meropenem and oral ciprofloxacin also showed a lower likelihood for PDD > DDD. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the methodology not being dedicated to elderly patients, the study identified elevated use of antimicrobial agents that are associated with serious adverse effects or a narrow therapeutic index as a target for quality of care improvement in elderly patients.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Coleta de Dados , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 66(2): 443-9, 2011 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21084362

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Since electronic prescribing is limited to few hospitals, point prevalence surveys, such as the standardized European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption point prevalence survey (ESAC PPS), are an alternative tool for monitoring prescribing and helping to identify performance indicators and prescribing trends. The main objective of this study was to identify and assess targets for quality improvement. METHODS: Each hospital had to carry out the survey within 2 weeks. Each department had to be surveyed in 1 day. Data collected, for all inpatients, included age and gender. For patients on systemic antimicrobial treatment, the antimicrobial/s, infection/prophylaxis site, reason in medical notes and guideline compliance were also collected. A central database using a web-based tool (WebPPS) developed in-house was used for data entry. RESULTS: Combination of two or more antimicrobials accounted for 30% of use. Surgical prophylaxis was prolonged (>1 day) in 53% of cases. 'Intensive care' had higher proportions of treated patients (53% versus 29%), combination therapy (49% versus 31%), hospital-acquired infections (49% versus 31%) and parenteral administration (91% versus 61%). 'Reason in notes' was documented in 76%, and 'guideline compliance' occurred in 62% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: The ESAC PPS provided useful information on the quality of prescribing, which identified a number of targets for quality improvement. These could apply to specific departments or whole hospitals. Intensive care, which has different characteristics, should not be compared with general wards with respect to combination therapy, hospital-acquired infections or parenteral proportion. The study confirmed that the ESAC PPS methodology can be used on a large number of hospitals at regional, national, continental or global level.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Coleta de Dados , Prescrição Eletrônica , Europa (Continente) , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/tendências , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Internet , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 65(10): 2247-52, 2010 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20713405

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobials are the most common medicines prescribed to children, but very little is known about patterns of hospital paediatric antimicrobial prescribing. This study aimed at describing paediatric antimicrobial prescribing in European hospitals to identify targets for quality improvement. METHODS: The European Surveillance of Antibiotic Consumption (ESAC) project (www.esac.ua.ac.be) collected data during 2 calendar weeks between May and June 2008 in 32 hospitals of 21 European countries with paediatric departments, using a standardized method. The ESAC point prevalence survey included all inpatient beds and identified all patients who were receiving systemic antimicrobials on the day of the survey or had received antimicrobial surgical prophylaxis on the previous day. RESULTS: Of 1799 children, 583 (32%) received one or more antimicrobials (range 17%-100%). The indications were therapeutic in 71%, prophylactic in 26% and both indications in 3% of patients. The parenteral route was used in 82% of therapeutic indications and in 63% of prophylactic indications. Third-generation cephalosporins were the most prescribed antimicrobials for therapeutic indications (18%). A high proportion of treated children received antimicrobial combinations (37%). The most commonly treated diagnosis site was the respiratory tract for both therapeutic use (30%) and prophylaxis (25%). The duration of surgical prophylaxis was >1 day in 67%. CONCLUSIONS: Targets identified for quality improvement of antimicrobial use in children included excessive use of antimicrobial combinations and a high proportion of parenteral antimicrobials, both of which require further investigation. Surgical prophylaxis for >1 day should also be curbed in order to achieve quality improvement.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Antibioticoprofilaxia/métodos , Antibioticoprofilaxia/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Prescrições de Medicamentos/normas , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Quimioterapia Combinada/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Medicamentos/normas , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Infusões Parenterais/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino
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