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1.
Cladistics ; 2022 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35358338

RESUMO

The northern temperate genus Dracocephalum consists of approximately 70 species mainly distributed in the steppe-desert biomes of Central and West Asia and the alpine region of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). Previous work has shown that Dracocephalum is not monophyletic and might include Hyssopus and Lallemantia. This study attempts to clarify the phylogenetic relationships, diversification patterns, and the biogeographical history of the three genera (defined as Dracocephalum s.l.). Based on a sampling of 66 taxa comprising more than 80% from extant species of Dracocephalum s.l., morphological, phylogenetic (maximum parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian inference based on nuclear ITS and ETS, plastid rpl32-trnL, trnL-trnF, ycf1, and ycf1-rps15, and two low-copy nuclear markers AT3G09060 and AT1G09680), molecular dating, diversification, and ancestral range estimation analyses were carried out. Our results demonstrate that both Hyssopus and Lallemantia are embedded within Dracocephalum and nine well-supported clades can be recognized within Dracocephalum s.l. Analyses of divergence times suggest that the genus experienced an early rapid radiation during the middle to late Miocene with major lineages diversifying within a relatively narrow timescale. Ancestral area reconstruction analyses indicate that Dracocephalum s.l. originated in Central and West Asia and southern Siberia, and dispersed from Central and West Asia into the QTP and adjacent areas twice independently during the Pliocene. The aridification of the Asian interior possibly promoted the rapid radiation of Dracocephalum within this region, and the uplift of the QTP appears to have triggered the dispersal and recent rapid diversification of the genus in the QTP and adjacent regions. Combining molecular phylogenetic and morphological evidence, a revised infrageneric classification of Dracocephalum s.l. is proposed, which recognizes nine sections within the genus.

2.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 767478, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34899789

RESUMO

Next-generation sequencing technologies have facilitated new phylogenomic approaches to help clarify previously intractable relationships while simultaneously highlighting the pervasive nature of incongruence within and among genomes that can complicate definitive taxonomic conclusions. Salvia L., with ∼1,000 species, makes up nearly 15% of the species diversity in the mint family and has attracted great interest from biologists across subdisciplines. Despite the great progress that has been achieved in discerning the placement of Salvia within Lamiaceae and in clarifying its infrageneric relationships through plastid, nuclear ribosomal, and nuclear single-copy genes, the incomplete resolution has left open major questions regarding the phylogenetic relationships among and within the subgenera, as well as to what extent the infrageneric relationships differ across genomes. We expanded a previously published anchored hybrid enrichment dataset of 35 exemplars of Salvia to 179 terminals. We also reconstructed nearly complete plastomes for these samples from off-target reads. We used these data to examine the concordance and discordance among the nuclear loci and between the nuclear and plastid genomes in detail, elucidating both broad-scale and species-level relationships within Salvia. We found that despite the widespread gene tree discordance, nuclear phylogenies reconstructed using concatenated, coalescent, and network-based approaches recover a common backbone topology. Moreover, all subgenera, except for Audibertia, are strongly supported as monophyletic in all analyses. The plastome genealogy is largely resolved and is congruent with the nuclear backbone. However, multiple analyses suggest that incomplete lineage sorting does not fully explain the gene tree discordance. Instead, horizontal gene flow has been important in both the deep and more recent history of Salvia. Our results provide a robust species tree of Salvia across phylogenetic scales and genomes. Future comparative analyses in the genus will need to account for the impacts of hybridization/introgression and incomplete lineage sorting in topology and divergence time estimation.

3.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 646133, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33936133

RESUMO

Paralamium (Lamiaceae) is a monotypic genus within the subfamily Lamioideae and has a sporadic distribution in subtropical mountains of southeast Asia. Although recent studies have greatly improved our understanding of generic relationships within Lamioideae, the second most species-rich subfamily of Lamiaceae, the systematic position of Paralamium within the subfamily remains unclear. In this study, we investigate the phylogenetic placement of the genus using three datasets: (1) a 69,276 bp plastome alignment of Lamiaceae; (2) a five chloroplast DNA region dataset of tribe Pogostemoneae, and (3) a nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region dataset of Pogostemoneae. These analyses demonstrate that Paralamium is a member of Pogostemoneae and sister to the monotypic genus Craniotome. In addition, generic-level phylogenetic relationships within Pogostemoneae are also discussed, and a dichotomous key for genera within Pogostemoneae is provided.

4.
BMC Biol ; 19(1): 2, 2021 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419433

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A robust molecular phylogeny is fundamental for developing a stable classification and providing a solid framework to understand patterns of diversification, historical biogeography, and character evolution. As the sixth largest angiosperm family, Lamiaceae, or the mint family, consitutes a major source of aromatic oil, wood, ornamentals, and culinary and medicinal herbs, making it an exceptionally important group ecologically, ethnobotanically, and floristically. The lack of a reliable phylogenetic framework for this family has thus far hindered broad-scale biogeographic studies and our comprehension of diversification. Although significant progress has been made towards clarifying Lamiaceae relationships during the past three decades, the resolution of a phylogenetic backbone at the tribal level has remained one of the greatest challenges due to limited availability of genetic data. RESULTS: We performed phylogenetic analyses of Lamiaceae to infer relationships at the tribal level using 79 protein-coding plastid genes from 175 accessions representing 170 taxa, 79 genera, and all 12 subfamilies. Both maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses yielded a more robust phylogenetic hypothesis relative to previous studies and supported the monophyly of all 12 subfamilies, and a classification for 22 tribes, three of which are newly recognized in this study. As a consequence, we propose an updated phylogenetically informed tribal classification for Lamiaceae that is supplemented with a detailed summary of taxonomic history, generic and species diversity, morphology, synapomorphies, and distribution for each subfamily and tribe. CONCLUSIONS: Increased taxon sampling conjoined with phylogenetic analyses based on plastome sequences has provided robust support at both deep and shallow nodes and offers new insights into the phylogenetic relationships among tribes and subfamilies of Lamiaceae. This robust phylogenetic backbone of Lamiaceae will serve as a framework for future studies on mint classification, biogeography, character evolution, and diversification.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Genes de Plantas , Lamiaceae/classificação , Filogenia , Plastídeos/genética , Lamiaceae/genética
5.
Evolution ; 74(7): 1335-1355, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484910

RESUMO

Switches in pollinators have been argued to be key drivers of floral evolution in angiosperms. However, few studies have tested the relationship between floral shape evolution and switches in pollination in large clades. In concert with a dated phylogeny, we present a morphometric analysis of corolla, anther connective, and style shape across 44% of nearly 1000 species of Salvia (Lamiaceae) and test four hypotheses of floral evolution. We demonstrate that floral morphospace of New World (NW) Salvia is largely distinct from that of Old World (OW) Salvia and that these differences are pollinator driven; shifts in floral morphology sometimes mirror shifts in pollinators; anther connectives (key constituents of the Salvia staminal lever) and styles co-evolved from curved to linear shapes following shifts from bee to bird pollination; and morphological differences between NW and OW bee flowers are partly the legacy of constraints imposed by an earlier shift to bird pollination in the NW. The distinctive staminal lever in Salvia is a morphologically diverse structure that has evolved in concert with both the corolla and style, under different pollinator pressures, and in contingent fashion.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Flores/anatomia & histologia , Polinização , Salvia/genética , Animais , Abelhas , Aves , Salvia/anatomia & histologia
6.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232602, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379799

RESUMO

Scutellaria, or skullcaps, are medicinally important herbs in China, India, Japan, and elsewhere. Though Scutellaria is the second largest and one of the more taxonomically challenging genera within Lamiaceae, few molecular systematic studies have been undertaken within the genus; in part due to a paucity of available informative markers. The lack of informative molecular markers for Scutellaria hinders our ability to accurately and robustly reconstruct phylogenetic relationships, which hampers our understanding of the diversity, phylogeny, and evolutionary history of this cosmopolitan genus. Comparative analyses of 15 plastomes, representing 14 species of subfamily Scutellarioideae, indicate that plastomes within Scutellarioideae contain about 151,000 nucleotides, and possess a typical quadripartite structure. In total, 590 simple sequence repeats, 489 longer repeats, and 16 hyper-variable regions were identified from the 15 plastomes. Phylogenetic relationships among the 14 species representing four of the five genera of Scutellarioideae were resolved with high support values, but the current infrageneric classification of Scutellaria was not supported in all analyses. Complete plastome sequences provide better resolution at an interspecific level than using few to several plastid markers in phylogenetic reconstruction. The data presented here will serve as a foundation to facilitate DNA barcoding, species identification, and systematic research within Scutellaria, which is an important medicinal plant resource worldwide.


Assuntos
Genomas de Plastídeos/genética , Plastídeos/genética , Scutellaria/classificação , Evolução Molecular , Filogenia
7.
Am J Bot ; 106(4): 573-597, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30986330

RESUMO

PREMISE OF THE STUDY: A key question in evolutionary biology is why some clades are more successful by being widespread geographically, biome diverse, or species-rich. To extend understanding of how shifts in area, biomes, and pollinators impact diversification in plants, we examined the relationships of these shifts to diversification across the mega-genus Salvia. METHODS: A chronogram was developed from a supermatrix of anchored hybrid enrichment genomic data and targeted sequence data for over 500 of the nearly 1000 Salvia species. Ancestral areas and biomes were reconstructed using BioGeoBEARS. Pollinator guilds were scored, ancestral pollinators determined, shifts in pollinator guilds identified, and rates of pollinator switches compared. KEY RESULTS: A well-resolved phylogenetic backbone of Salvia and updated subgeneric designations are presented. Salvia originated in Southwest Asia in the Oligocene and subsequently dispersed worldwide. Biome shifts are frequent from a likely ancestral lineage utilizing broadleaf and/or coniferous forests and/or arid shrublands. None of the four species diversification shifts are correlated to shifts in biomes. Shifts in pollination system are not correlated to species diversification shifts, except for one hummingbird shift that precedes a major shift in diversification near the crown of New World subgen. Calosphace. Multiple reversals back to bee pollination occurred within this hummingbird clade. CONCLUSIONS: Salvia diversified extensively in different continents, biomes, and with both bee and bird pollinators. The lack of tight correlation of area, biome, and most pollinator shifts to the four documented species diversification shifts points to other important drivers of speciation in Salvia.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Especiação Genética , Filogenia , Polinização , Salvia , Animais , Abelhas , Aves , Filogeografia
8.
Syst Biol ; 68(3): 460-481, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30365031

RESUMO

Phylogenies recurrently demonstrate that oceanic island systems have been home to rapid clade diversification and adaptive radiations. The existence of adaptive radiations posits a central role of natural selection causing ecological divergence and speciation, and some plant radiations have been highlighted as paradigmatic examples of such radiations. However, neutral processes may also drive speciation during clade radiations, with ecological divergence occurring following speciation. Here, we document an exceptionally rapid and unique radiation of Lamiaceae within the New Caledonian biodiversity hotspot. Specifically, we investigated various biological, ecological, and geographical drivers of species diversification within the genus Oxera. We found that Oxera underwent an initial process of rapid cladogenesis likely triggered by a dramatic period of aridity during the early Pliocene. This early diversification of Oxera was associated with an important phase of ecological diversification triggered by significant shifts of pollination syndromes, dispersal modes, and life forms. Finally, recent diversification of Oxera appears to have been further driven by the interplay of allopatry and habitat shifts likely related to climatic oscillations. This suggests that Oxera could be regarded as an adaptive radiation at an early evolutionary stage that has been obscured by more recent joint habitat diversification and neutral geographical processes. Diversification within Oxera has perhaps been triggered by varied ecological and biological drivers acting in a leapfrog pattern, but geographic processes may have been an equally important driver. We suspect that strictly adaptive radiations may be rare in plants and that most events of rapid clade diversification may have involved a mixture of geographical and ecological divergence.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Especiação Genética , Lamiaceae/classificação , Lamiaceae/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Biodiversidade , Filogenia
9.
Am J Bot ; 105(11): 1938-1950, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30408151

RESUMO

PREMISE OF THE STUDY: We used spatial phylogenetics to analyze the assembly of the Wisconsin flora, linking processes of dispersal and niche evolution to spatial patterns of floristic and phylogenetic diversity and testing whether phylogenetic niche conservatism can account for these patterns. METHODS: We used digitized records and a new molecular phylogeny for 93% of vascular plants in Wisconsin to estimate spatial variation in species richness and phylogenetic α and ß diversity in a native flora shaped mainly by postglacial dispersal and response to environmental gradients. We developed distribution models for all species and used these to infer fine-scale variation in potential diversity, phylogenetic distance, and interspecific range overlaps. We identified 11 bioregions based on floristic composition, mapped areas of neo- and paleo-endemism to establish new conservation priorities and predict how community-assembly patterns should shift with climatic change. KEY RESULTS: Spatial phylogenetic turnover most strongly reflects differences in temperature and spatial distance. For all vascular plants, assemblages shift from phylogenetically clustered to overdispersed northward, contrary to most other studies. This pattern is lost for angiosperms alone, illustrating the importance of phylogenetic scale. CONCLUSIONS: Species ranges and assemblage composition appear driven primarily by phylogenetic niche conservatism. Closely related species are ecologically similar and occupy similar territories. The average level and geographic structure of plant phylogenetic diversity within Wisconsin are expected to greatly decline over the next half century, while potential species richness will increase throughout the state. Our methods can be applied to allochthonous communities throughout the world.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Ecossistema , Traqueófitas/genética , Mudança Climática , Previsões , Filogeografia , Wisconsin
10.
Ann Bot ; 122(4): 649-668, 2018 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29945172

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Salvia is the largest genus within Lamiaceae, with about 980 species currently recognized. East Asia, with approx. 100 species, is one of the three major biodiversity centres of Salvia. However, relationships within this lineage remain unclear, and the staminal lever mechanism, which may represent a key innovation within the genus, has been understudied. By using six genetic markers and nearly comprehensive taxon sampling, this study attempts to elucidate relationships and examine evolutionary trends of staminal development within the East Asia (EA) Salvia clade. Methods: Ninety-one taxa of EA Salvia were sampled and 34 taxa representing all other major lineages of Salvia were included for analysis. Two nuclear [internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and external transcribed spacer (ETS)] and four chloroplast (psbA-trnH, ycf1-rps15, trnL-trnF and rbcL) DNA markers were used for phylogenetic analysis employing maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and BEAST, with the latter also used to estimate divergence times. Key Results: All Salvia species native to East Asia form a clade, and eight major subclades (A-G) were recognized. Subclade A, comprising two limestone endemics (S. sonchifolia and S. petrophila), is sister to the remainder of EA Salvia. Six distinct stamen types were observed within the EA clade. Stamen type A, with two fully fertile posterior thecae, only occurs in S. sonchifolia and may represent the ancestral stamen type within EA Salvia. Divergence time estimates showed that the crown of EA Salvia began to diversify approx. 17.4 million years ago. Conclusions: This study supports the adoption of a broadly defined Salvia and treats EA Salvia as a subgenus, Glutinaria, recognizing eight sections within this subgenus. Stamen type A is ostensibly plesiomorphic within EA Salvia, and the other five types may have been derived from it. Staminal morphology has evolved in parallel within the EA Salvia, and staminal structure alone is inadequate to delimit infrageneric categories.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Evolução Biológica , Salvia/genética , Extremo Oriente , Flores/anatomia & histologia , Flores/genética , Filogenia , Salvia/anatomia & histologia
11.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 122: 59-79, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29410353

RESUMO

Inferring interfamilial relationships within the eudicot order Ericales has remained one of the more recalcitrant problems in angiosperm phylogenetics, likely due to a rapid, ancient radiation. As a result, no comprehensive time-calibrated tree or biogeographical analysis of the order has been published. Here, we elucidate phylogenetic relationships within the order and then conduct time-dependent biogeographical and diversification analyses by using a taxon and locus-rich supermatrix approach on one-third of the extant species diversity calibrated with 23 macrofossils and two secondary calibration points. Our results corroborate previous studies and also suggest several new but poorly supported relationships. Newly suggested relationships are: (1) holoparasitic Mitrastemonaceae is sister to Lecythidaceae, (2) the clade formed by Mitrastemonaceae + Lecythidaceae is sister to Ericales excluding balsaminoids, (3) Theaceae is sister to the styracoids + sarracenioids + ericoids, and (4) subfamilial relationships with Ericaceae suggest that Arbutoideae is sister to Monotropoideae and Pyroloideae is sister to all subfamilies excluding Arbutoideae, Enkianthoideae, and Monotropoideae. Our results indicate Ericales began to diversify 110 Mya, within Indo-Malaysia and the Neotropics, with exchange between the two areas and expansion out of Indo-Malaysia becoming an important area in shaping the extant diversity of many families. Rapid cladogenesis occurred along the backbone of the order between 104 and 106 Mya. Jump dispersal is important within the order in the last 30 My, but vicariance is the most important cladogenetic driver of disjunctions at deeper levels of the phylogeny. We detect between 69 and 81 shifts in speciation rate throughout the order, the vast majority of which occurred within the last 30 My. We propose that range shifting may be responsible for older shifts in speciation rate, but more recent shifts may be better explained by morphological innovation.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Magnoliopsida/classificação , Filogenia , Animais , Cloroplastos/genética , Extremo Oriente , Fósseis/história , Especiação Genética , História Antiga , Magnoliopsida/genética , Mitocôndrias/genética , Filogeografia/história , Ribossomos/genética
12.
Am J Bot ; 104(11): 1695-1707, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29158343

RESUMO

PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The subtribe Menthinae (Lamiaceae), with 35 genera and 750 species, is among the largest and most economically important subtribes within the mint family. Most genera of Menthinae are found exclusively in the New World, where the group has a virtually continuous distribution ranging from temperate North America to southern South America. In this study, we explored the presence, timing, and origin of amphitropical disjuncts within Menthinae. METHODS: Our analyses were based on a data set consisting of 89 taxa and the nuclear ribosomal DNA markers ITS and ETS. Phylogenetic relationships were determined under maximum likelihood and Bayesian criteria, divergence times were estimated with the program BEAST, and ancestral range estimated with BioGeoBEARS. KEY RESULTS: A North Atlantic Land Bridge migration event at about 10.6 Ma is inferred from western Eurasia to North America. New World Menthinae spread rapidly across North America, and then into Central and South America. Several of the large speciose genera are not monophyletic with nuclear rDNA, a finding mirrored with previous chloroplast DNA results. Three amphitropical disjunctions involving North and southern South America clades, one including a southeastern South American clade with several genera, were inferred to have occurred within the past 5 Myr. CONCLUSIONS: Although three New World Menthinae genera occur in both North and South America, none exhibit an amphitropical disjunction. However, three clades exhibit amphitropical disjunctions, all dating to the early Pliocene, and all involve jump dispersals to either southeastern or southwestern South America from southeastern North America.


Assuntos
Lamiaceae/fisiologia , Dispersão Vegetal , Teorema de Bayes , DNA de Plantas/química , DNA de Plantas/genética , Lamiaceae/genética , América do Norte , Filogeografia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , América do Sul
13.
Bioessays ; 39(11)2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28980328

RESUMO

Phylogenetic trees are a crucial backbone for a wide breadth of biological research spanning systematics, organismal biology, ecology, and medicine. In 2015, the Open Tree of Life project published a first draft of a comprehensive tree of life, summarizing digitally available taxonomic and phylogenetic knowledge. This paper reviews, investigates, and addresses the following questions as a follow-up to that paper, from the perspective of researchers involved in building this summary of the tree of life: Is there a tree of life and should we reconstruct it? Is available data sufficient to reconstruct the tree of life? Do we have access to phylogenetic inferences in usable form? Can we combine different phylogenetic estimates across the tree of life? And finally, what is the future of understanding the tree of life?


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Genômica/métodos , Filogenia , Archaea/genética , Bactérias/genética , Eucariotos/genética , Transferência Genética Horizontal
14.
PLoS One ; 12(6): e0178026, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28575004

RESUMO

Schima is an ecologically and economically important woody genus in tea family (Theaceae). Unresolved species delimitations and phylogenetic relationships within Schima limit our understanding of the genus and hinder utilization of the genus for economic purposes. In the present study, we conducted comparative analysis among the complete chloroplast (cp) genomes of 11 Schima species. Our results indicate that Schima cp genomes possess a typical quadripartite structure, with conserved genomic structure and gene order. The size of the Schima cp genome is about 157 kilo base pairs (kb). They consistently encode 114 unique genes, including 80 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNAs, and 4 rRNAs, with 17 duplicated in the inverted repeat (IR). These cp genomes are highly conserved and do not show obvious expansion or contraction of the IR region. The percent variability of the 68 coding and 93 noncoding (>150 bp) fragments is consistently less than 3%. The seven most widely touted DNA barcode regions as well as one promising barcode candidate showed low sequence divergence. Eight mutational hotspots were identified from the 11 cp genomes. These hotspots may potentially be useful as specific DNA barcodes for species identification of Schima. The 58 cpSSR loci reported here are complementary to the microsatellite markers identified from the nuclear genome, and will be leveraged for further population-level studies. Phylogenetic relationships among the 11 Schima species were resolved with strong support based on the cp genome data set, which corresponds well with the species distribution pattern. The data presented here will serve as a foundation to facilitate species identification, DNA barcoding and phylogenetic reconstructions for future exploration of Schima.


Assuntos
Cloroplastos/genética , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Genoma de Planta , Theaceae/genética , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie
15.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 98: 184-200, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26923493

RESUMO

Pogostemon (Lamiaceae; Lamioideae) sensu lato is a large genus consisting of about 80 species with a disjunct African/Asian distribution. The infrageneric taxonomy of the genus has historically been troublesome due to morphological variability and putative convergent evolution within the genus. Notably, some species of Pogostemon are obligately aquatic, perhaps the only Lamiaceae taxa which exhibit this trait. Phylogenetic analyses using the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and five plastid regions (matK, rbcL, rps16, trnH-psbA, trnL-F), confirmed the monophyly of Pogostemon and its sister relationship with the genus Anisomeles. Pogostemon was resolved into two major clades, and none of the three morphologically defined subgenera of Pogostemon were supported as monophyletic. Inflorescence type (spikes with more than two lateral branches vs. a single terminal spike, or rarely with two lateral branches) is phylogenetically informative and consistent with the two main clades we recovered. Accordingly, a new infrageneric classification of Pogostemon consisting of two subgenera is proposed. Molecular dating and biogeographic diversification analyses suggest that Pogostemon split from its sister genus in southern and southeast Asia in the early Miocene. The early strengthening of the Asia monsoon system that was triggered by the uplifting of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau may have played an important role in the subsequent diversification of the genus. In addition, our results suggest that transoceanic long-distance dispersal of Pogostemon from Asia to Africa occurred at least twice, once in the late Miocene and again during the late-Miocene/early-Pliocene.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Filogenia , Pogostemon/classificação , Pogostemon/genética , África , Ásia , Fenótipo , Plastídeos/genética
16.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 95: 183-95, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26702956

RESUMO

The role of geography and ecology in speciation are often discussed in the context of phylogenetic niche conservatism (PNC), the propensity of lineages to retain ancestral niche related traits. However, a recent paradigm shift focuses instead on measuring divergence of these traits in conjunction with patterns of speciation. Under this framework, we analyzed the diversification of North America's third most diverse family, Cyperaceae ("sedges"), using a modified Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity approach to identify floristic regions and ordination statistics to quantify species distribution in a continuous manner. Utilizing over 200,000 georeferenced specimens, we characterized the geographical distribution and climatic and edaphic niche space occupied by each species. We constructed a supermatrix phylogeny of the North American sedge flora, aided in part by the sequencing of all sedges of Wisconsin, and employed a multifaceted approach to assess the role of geographical and ecological divergence on lineage diversification. In addition to measuring phylogenetic signal for these traits, we also measured pairwise phylogenetic distance of species within floristic regions, calculated rates of speciation, and tested for correlations of speciation rate to tempo of geographical and ecological evolution. Our analyses consistently show that evolutionarily related species tend to be geographically unrelated. Rates of geographical and ecological diversification are closely linked to tempo of speciation, and exploration of geographical place coincides with divergence in ecological niche space. We highlight the benefits of treating geography in a continuous manner, and stress the importance of employing a diverse suite of analytical approaches in testing hypotheses regarding the evolution of range and niche.


Assuntos
Carex (Planta)/classificação , Carex (Planta)/genética , Evolução Molecular , Especiação Genética , Cyperaceae/classificação , Cyperaceae/genética , Ecossistema , Geografia , América do Norte , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Estados Unidos
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 112(41): 12764-9, 2015 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26385966

RESUMO

Reconstructing the phylogenetic relationships that unite all lineages (the tree of life) is a grand challenge. The paucity of homologous character data across disparately related lineages currently renders direct phylogenetic inference untenable. To reconstruct a comprehensive tree of life, we therefore synthesized published phylogenies, together with taxonomic classifications for taxa never incorporated into a phylogeny. We present a draft tree containing 2.3 million tips-the Open Tree of Life. Realization of this tree required the assembly of two additional community resources: (i) a comprehensive global reference taxonomy and (ii) a database of published phylogenetic trees mapped to this taxonomy. Our open source framework facilitates community comment and contribution, enabling the tree to be continuously updated when new phylogenetic and taxonomic data become digitally available. Although data coverage and phylogenetic conflict across the Open Tree of Life illuminate gaps in both the underlying data available for phylogenetic reconstruction and the publication of trees as digital objects, the tree provides a compelling starting point for community contribution. This comprehensive tree will fuel fundamental research on the nature of biological diversity, ultimately providing up-to-date phylogenies for downstream applications in comparative biology, ecology, conservation biology, climate change, agriculture, and genomics.


Assuntos
Classificação/métodos , Filogenia , Animais , Humanos
18.
PLoS One ; 10(2): e0117171, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25658699

RESUMO

Despite considerable progress, many details regarding the evolution of the Arcto-Tertiary flora, including the timing, direction, and relative importance of migration routes in the evolution of woody and herbaceous taxa of the Northern Hemisphere, remain poorly understood. Meehania (Lamiaceae) comprises seven species and five subspecies of annual or perennial herbs, and is one of the few Lamiaceae genera known to have an exclusively disjunct distribution between eastern Asia and eastern North America. We analyzed the phylogeny and biogeographical history of Meehania to explore how the Arcto-Tertiary biogeographic hypothesis and two possible migration routes explain the disjunct distribution of Northern Hemisphere herbaceous plants. Parsimony and Bayesian inference were used for phylogenetic analyses based on five plastid sequences (rbcL, rps16, rpl32-trnH, psbA-trnH, and trnL-F) and two nuclear (ITS and ETS) gene regions. Divergence times and biogeographic inferences were performed using Bayesian methods as implemented in BEAST and S-DIVA, respectively. Analyses including 11 of the 12 known Meehania taxa revealed incongruence between the chloroplast and nuclear trees, particularly in the positions of Glechoma and Meehania cordata, possibly indicating allopolyploidy with chloroplast capture in the late Miocene. Based on nrDNA, Meehania is monophyletic, and the North American species M. cordata is sister to a clade containing the eastern Asian species. The divergence time between the North American M. cordata and the eastern Asian species occurred about 9.81 Mya according to the Bayesian relaxed clock methods applied to the combined nuclear data. Biogeographic analyses suggest a primary role of the Arcto-Tertiary flora in the study taxa distribution, with a northeast Asian origin of Meehania. Our results suggest an Arcto-Tertiary origin of Meehania, with its present distribution most probably being a result of vicariance and southward migrations of populations during climatic oscillations in the middle Miocene with subsequent migration into eastern North America via the Bering land bridge in the late Miocene.


Assuntos
Lamiaceae/classificação , Sequência de Bases , Teorema de Bayes , DNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Lamiaceae/genética , Filogenia , Plastídeos/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de DNA
19.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 83: 86-98, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25479063

RESUMO

Saxifragaceae (Saxifragales) contain approximately 640 species and 33 genera, about half of which are monotypic. Due to factors such as morphological stasis, convergent morphological evolution, and disjunct distributions, relationships within Saxifragaceae have historically been troublesome. The family occurs primarily in mountainous regions of the Northern Hemisphere, with the highest generic and species diversity in western North America, but disjunct taxa are known from southern South America. Here, we integrate broad gene (56 loci) and taxon (223 species) sampling strategies, both the most comprehensive to date within Saxifragaceae, with fossil calibrations and geographical distribution data to address relationships, divergence times, and historical biogeography among major lineages of Saxifragaceae. Two previously recognized main clades, the heucheroids (eight groups+Saniculiphyllum) and saxifragoids (Saxifraga s.s.), were re-affirmed by our phylogenetic analyses. Relationships among the eight heucheroid groups, as well as the phylogenetic position of Saniculiphyllum within the heucheroids, were resolved with mostly high support. Divergence time estimates indicate that Saxifragaceae began to diversify ca. 38.37 million years ago (Mya; 95% HPD=30.99-46.11Mya) in the Mid-Late Eocene, and that the two major lineages, the heucheroids and saxifragoids, began to diversify approximately 30.04Mya (95% HPD=23.87-37.15Mya) and 30.85 Mya (95% HPD=23.47-39.33Mya), respectively. We reconstructed ancestral geographic areas using statistical dispersal-vicariance (S-DIVA). These analyses indicate several radiations within Saxifragaceae: one in eastern Asia and multiple radiations in western North America. Our results also demonstrate that large amounts of sequence data coupled with broad taxon sampling can help resolve clade relationships that have thus far seemed intractable.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Filogenia , Saxifragaceae/classificação , Teorema de Bayes , DNA de Cloroplastos/genética , DNA de Plantas/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Extremo Oriente , Fósseis , Geografia , Funções Verossimilhança , Modelos Genéticos , América do Norte , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de DNA
20.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 77: 183-94, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24792085

RESUMO

Rapid organismal radiations occurring on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) and the mechanisms underlying Asia-Africa intercontinental disjunctions have both attracted much attention from evolutionary biologists. Here we use the genus Isodon (Lamiaceae), a primarily East Asian lineage with disjunct species in central and southern Africa, as a case study to shed light upon these processes. The molecular phylogeny and biogeographic history of Isodon were reconstructed using sequences of three plastid markers, the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (nrITS), and a low-copy nuclear gene (LEAFY intron II). The evolution of chromosome numbers in this genus was also investigated using probabilistic models. Our results support a monophyletic Isodon that includes the two disjunct African species, both of which likely formed through allopolyploidy. An overland migration from Asia to Africa through Arabia during the early Miocene is proposed as the most likely explanation for the present disjunct distribution of Isodon. The opening of the Red Sea in the middle Miocene may appear to have had a major role in disrupting floristic exchange between Asia and Africa. In addition, a rapid radiation of Isodon was suggested to occur in the late Miocene. It corresponds with one of the major uplifts of the QTP and subsequent aridification events. Our results support the hypothesis that geological and climatic events play important roles in driving biological diversification of organisms distributed in the QTP area.


Assuntos
Isodon/genética , Filogenia , África , China , Cromossomos de Plantas , Isodon/classificação , Filogeografia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
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