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1.
Children (Basel) ; 8(10)2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682142

RESUMO

Scholastic factors (academic achievement) are hypothesized to be important determinants of health-related behaviors in adolescents, but there is a lack of knowledge on their influence on physical activity levels (PAL), especially considering the COVID-19 pandemic and the imposed lockdown. This study aimed to investigate the associations between scholastic factors and PAL before and during the pandemic lockdown. The participants were adolescents form Bosnia and Herzegovina (n = 525, 46% females), who were observed prospectively at the baseline (before the pandemic lockdown) and during the lockdown in 2020 (follow-up). The scholastic factors (grade point average, behavioral grade, school absences, unexcused absences) were evidenced at the baseline (predictors). The outcome (PAL) was evaluated using the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents at the baseline and the follow-up. Gender, age, parental/familial conflict, and sport participation were observed as confounders. No significant influence of the predictors on PAL were evidenced at the baseline or at the follow-up. The scholastic variables were significantly associated with the changes of PAL which occurred due to pandemic lockdown, with a lower risk for negative changes in PAL among adolescents who were better in school (OR = 0.56, 95%CI: 0.34-0.81, and OR = 0.66, 95%CI: 0.34-0.97, for the grade point average and behavioral grade, respectively). Students who do well in school are probably more aware of the health benefits of proper PAL, and therefore are devoted to the maintenance of their PAL even during the home-confinement of lockdown. Public health authorities should focus more on helping adolescents to understand the importance and benefits of proper PAL throughout the school system.

2.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 704647, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34589054

RESUMO

There is growing recognition of the role of diet and physical activity in modulating bone mineral density, bone mineral content, and remodeling, which in turn can impact bone health later in life. Adequate nutrient composition could influence bone health and help to maximize peak bone mass. Therefore, children's nutrition may have lifelong consequences. Also, physical activity, adequate in volume or intensity, may have positive consequences on bone mineral content and density and may preserve bone loss in adulthood. Most of the literature that exists for children, about diet and physical activity on bone health, has been translated from studies conducted in adults. Thus, there are still many unanswered questions about what type of diet and physical activity may positively influence skeletal development. This review focuses on bone requirements in terms of nutrients and physical activity in childhood and adolescence to promote bone health. It explores the contemporary scientific literature that analyzes the impact of diet together with the typology and timing of physical activity that could be more appropriate depending on whether they are children and adolescents to assure an optimal skeleton formation. A description of the role of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and gut hormones (gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1, and GLP-2) as potential candidates in this interaction to promote bone health is also presented.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574374

RESUMO

The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the effects of combined resistance and aerobic exercise on arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women. Two databases, PubMed and Google Scholar were searched to identify relevant studies. The methodological quality was assessed with the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. Only seven studies met the eligibility criteria, and their outcomes were presented. Four studies demonstrated the effects of combined resistance and aerobic training, while three showed the effectiveness of exercise with both training components, aerobic and resistance. In all studies, arterial stiffness was measured by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). Participants were middle-aged or older postmenopausal women of various health statuses (hypertensive, with comorbidities or healthy). The results unequivocally show that combined training reduces arterial stiffness. The most important finding of this review paper is that the applied type of exercise decreased baPWV in the range of 0.6-2.1 m/s. Moreover, combined resistance and aerobic exercise for 12 weeks, performed three times a week for about 60 min per training session, at a moderate intensity (40-60% HRR or HRmax), may be clinically meaningful to the cardiovascular system. In conclusion, we can say that combined resistance and aerobic training, or exercise with resistance and aerobic components, have important health implications for the prevention of cardiovascular disease and the maintenance or improvement of health in middle-aged and older postmenopausal women with different health conditions.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444126

RESUMO

Although absolute jump heights should be considered an important factor in judging the performance requirements of volleyball players, limited data is available on age-appropriate categories. The purpose of this study is to determine the differences in specific anthropometric characteristics and jumping performance variables in under-19 female volleyball players in relation to playing position and performance level. The sample of subjects consisted of 354 players who prepared for the U19 Women's Volleyball European Championship 2020 (17.4 ± 0.8 years, 1.81 ± 0.07 m, 67.5 ± 7.1 kg). Playing positions analyzed were setters (n = 55), opposites (n = 37), middle blockers (n = 82), outside hitters (n = 137), and liberos (n = 43). The results showed player position differences in every performance level group in variables of body height, spike, and block jump. Observed differences are a consequence of highly specific tasks of different positions in the composition of the team. Players of different performance levels are significantly different, with athletes of higher-ranked teams achieving better results. The acquired data could be useful for the selection and profiling of young volleyball players.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Voleibol , Antropometria , Atletas , Estatura , Feminino , Humanos
5.
Eur J Pharm Sci ; 166: 105966, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389487

RESUMO

The present work focuses on modifying a local anaesthetic drug procaine into an ionic liquid and evaluating the resulting thermal behaviour and structural changes. Counter ions, salicylate, ibuprofenate, and docusate, were chosen due to different hydrogen-bonding abilities, molecular size, charge distribution, and functional groups. After synthesis of procaine salicylate, procaine ibuprofenate, and procaine docusate, spectroscopic investigations were performed using infrared (IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to confirm proton transfer. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis were used to determine the obtained ionic liquids' thermal behaviour. Experimental measurements of density, viscosity, and electrical conductivity were performed to get insight into the interactions occurring in the obtained ionic liquids. The viscosity and electrical conductivity data were analysed using the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann (VFT) equation, while thermal expansion coefficients were calculated from measured density data. The obtained results found that the synthesised procaine salicylate and procaine docusate an ionic liquid's behaviours, including weak intermolecular forces, while procaine ibuprofenate showed more liquid co-crystal behaviour due to the absence of proton transfer for ibuprofen. In a theoretical phase of the investigation, the density functional theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics (MD) calculations were conducted. The obtained descriptors and radial distribution functions were used to analyse the interactions between ions of synthesised ionic liquids. In addition, solubility determination results proved that procaine transformation into procaine salicylate and procaine ibuprofenate ionic liquids enhanced its solubility in water, while procaine docusate reduces procaine solubility.


Assuntos
Líquidos Iônicos , Ânions , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Íons , Procaína
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210088

RESUMO

Elite judo athletes undergo vigorous training to achieve outstanding results. In pursuit of achieving competitive success, the occurrence of injuries amongst judo athletes is not rare. The study aimed to perform a knee flexors and extensors isokinetic torque analysis in elite female judo athletes. Fifty-eight elite female judo athletes of the Serbian national team (21.02 ± 3.11 years; 62.36 ± 11.91 kg, 165.04 ± 10.24 cm, training experience 12.72 ± 2.98 years) volunteered to participate in this study. The range of motion (ROM) was set at 90°. Testing was performed in a concentric-concentric mode for the testing speed of 60 °/s. Five maximal voluntary contractions of knee extensors and knee flexors muscle groups were measured for both legs. The obtained data showed a statistically significant difference in absolute torque values among different categories as heavier athletes demonstrated higher values. Post hoc analysis showed a significant difference between weight categories, as heavier athletes demonstrated higher values, while no significant differences in normalized torque values for different weight categories were observed. The implementation of new elements and training modalities may improve performance and prevent lateral asymmetry, thus reducing the risk of injury.


Assuntos
Força Muscular , Músculo Esquelético , Atletas , Feminino , Humanos , Joelho , Torque
7.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(6)2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072641

RESUMO

Even though scientific literature shows numerous heath complications and performance decrements associated with rapid weight loss (RWL), its prevalence remains exceedingly high across various combat sports. The aim of this study was to thoroughly search the existing literature to explore the influence of RWL on kidney function in Olympic and non-Olympic combat sport athletes. PubMed and Web of Science were searched for the relevant studies. Only original articles published from 2005 onwards, written in English, that included healthy males and females who prompted ~5% weight loss within a week or less, were included in the study. Retrieved studies showed that creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and urine specific gravity values were significantly increased after RWL in the majority of the included studies. This observation indicates that RWL caused dehydration and subsequent acute kidney damage despite various degrees of weight lost during the RWL phase, which can lead to adverse events in other body systems. Alternative methods of weight reduction that prioritize athletes' health should be considered.


Assuntos
Artes Marciais , Perda de Peso , Atletas , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Rim , Masculino
8.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 683534, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34136550

RESUMO

Background: Papillary fibroelastomas are rare benign heart tumors, and is most likely to involve the cardiac valves. We will present an extremely rare localization of a large Valsalva sinus fibroelastoma, with occasional left coronary artery ostial obstruction presented as an acute coronary syndrome. The tumor was removed surgically and histologically confirmed as papillary fibroelastoma. This review points to the crucial importance of multidisciplinary team decision and multimodality imaging methods for diagnosing the fibroelastoma, determination of size, and localization, which avoided complications of fatal embolization during an invasive procedure. Case Summary: A healthy 55-year-old male with vigorous physical daily training and exercise was admitted to the acute coronary syndrome emergency department. Shortly after admission, expert transthoracic echocardiography was performed. Computed tomography of the chest observed a large irregular hypodense tumor-like lesion in the bulbar aorta that was occasionally prolapsing into the left main coronary artery ostium and which corresponded to fibroelastoma. A few hours after admission, an emergency cardiac surgery was performed with the excision of a Valsalva sinus tumor (size 2 × 2 cm) located between the right and left coronary cusp of the aortic valve. Conclusions: Focus cardiac ultrasound should be performed for any acute coronary syndrome because of the possible Valsalva sinus fibroelastoma etiology. Its localization next to the left main coronary artery ostium is rare, and dangerous. The timely diagnosis can be made by the multimodality imaging method, however, the final diagnosis will be made pathohistologically. Early cardiac surgery may be a necessitated recourse for these patients in order to prevent a fatal outcome.

9.
Front Psychol ; 12: 657652, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34122241

RESUMO

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has changed the way we conduct daily life, as well as sports training and sports competitions. Given the stress produced by COVID-19, and the "bubble" safety measures for the World Sambo Championship, held in Novi Sad, from the 6th to the 8th of November, 2020, athletes might have experienced more stress than athletes normally would in non-pandemic conditions. Therefore, the current study aimed to create a psychological profile of sambo athletes participating in the Sambo World Championship and living in this condition. Methods: One-hundred-fifteen participants took part in the study, completing the Profile of Mood Scale (POMS), the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and the Fear of COVID-19 Scale. A mediation model with Fear of COVID-19 predicting both stress level directly and stress level through mood disturbance was hypothesized. Gender differences were evaluated through t-test. Results: The results showed that the sample presented higher levels of stress but no problems in sleeping. In particular, data analysis confirmed an indirect effect of Fear of COVID on Perceived stress through mood disturbance (ß = 0.14, Z = 2.80, and p = 0.005), but did not have a significant impact on the direct effect (ß = -0.04, Z = -0.48, and p = 0.63). Gender differences emerged in the perceived stress level (t = -2.86, df = 114, and p = 0.005) and daytime dysfunction (t = -2.52, df = 114, and p = 0.01) where females scored higher than males for both aspects. Conclusion: The athletes participating to the World Sambo Championship experienced stress levels determined by the mood disturbance produced by the fear of the COVID-19 pandemic. Female athletes were more stressed and showed higher daytime dysfunction. The findings of the current study are useful to understand the psychological profile of the athletes competing in the "bubble" conditions during COVID-19 pandemic.

10.
BMC Neurosci ; 22(1): 34, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33975543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Grooved Pegboard Test (GPT) is widely adopted to evaluate manual dexterity, it presents normative data but the test is influenced by different factors. The influence of time spent on smartphones has not been considered before, for this reason, the objective of this study was to evaluate if smartphone use influences the time to complete the GPT. A total of 38 (21 women; 17 men) young adults 20.7 (1.5) years participated in the study. The time spent on the smartphones during the last seven days was recorded through the device itself and the GPT performance was measured. A correlation analysis between the time spent on the smartphone and GPT was performed while the t-test was adopted to evaluate gender differences. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences were detected between men and women in the time to complete the GPT (p = 0.20) and in the time spent on the smartphone (p = 0.87). The GPT and the time spent using the smartphone were not correlated (r = 0.044, p = 0.78). CONCLUSION: The time spent on the smartphone by young adults does not influence the time to complete the GPT, indicating that smartphone use does not influence measures of manual dexterity.

11.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33880736

RESUMO

Aging and menopause are associated with morphological and functional changes which may lead to loss of muscle mass and therefore quality of life. Resistance training (RT) is an effective training mode to increase muscle mass. We reviewed the existing literature to identify studies implementing RT protocols and evaluating muscle hypertrophy exclusively in healthy, postmenopausal and elderly women. Participants' age range was comprised between 50 and 80 years. The primary outcome observed was muscle hypertrophy. Fat mass was also evaluated, if available. PubMed and Web of Science were the screened database, and original articles written in English and published from 2000 up to 2020 were included. 26 articles were considered eligible and included. Quality assessment revealed a "moderate quality" of the included studies, however the majority of studies was able to reach level 4 of evidence and on overall grade of recommendation C. In total, data from 745 female participants subjected to different forms of resistance training were considered. Heterogeneity across studies was present regarding study design, intervention length (mean 16 weeks), training frequency (3 d/w), no. of exercises (n = 7.4) and participants' age (65.8 ± 4.9 years). Small-to-moderate significant increases (k = 43; SMD = 0.44; 95% CI 0.28; 0.60; p < 0.0001) of lean body mass were observed in post-menopausal and elderly women, regardless of age, intervention period, weekly training frequency and no. of exercises. No effects were noted for fat mass (k = 17; SMD = 0.27; 95% CI - 0.02; 0.55; p = 0.07). Studies need to concentrate on providing information regarding training parameters to more effectively counteract the effects of aging and menopause on skeletal muscle mass.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33921458

RESUMO

Athletes' lifestyles have been dramatically affected by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Since COVID-19 primarily affects the respiratory system and to a lesser degree the cardiovascular system, the goal of this study was to examine the effects of COVID-19-caused detraining on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) of recently recovered volleyball athletes. Sixteen experienced volleyball athletes (age 24 ± 4.5 years) who were recently diagnosed and recovered from a COVID-19 infection volunteered to participate in this study and were tested for CRF and spirometry. Given that participants had only mild symptoms of infection, the primary focus of this study was on the effects of detraining on CRF. On average, the time to exhaustion was 9.4 ± 1.4 min. VE, VCO2, RER and oxygen pulse increased, heart rate exceeded 90% of predicted values, and peak VO2 values were typical for this level of athlete (44.1 ± 3.4 mL/kg). Pulmonary function reflected in FVC, FEV1/FVC and MVV values were well above 80% of predicted values for each of the participants while electrocardiography revealed no ischemia, arrythmias or conduction and repolarization abnormalities were found in the tested subjects. Therefore, it can be concluded that participants experienced typical consequences of detraining. Due to a lack of CRF data prior to COVID-19 infection, we were unable to estimate the magnitude detraining had on CRF. Complete CRF assessment after COVID-19 infection in athletes can be useful for screening of residual myocardial and/or respiratory system damage for safe return-to-play decisions.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Voleibol , Adulto , Atletas , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMC Sports Sci Med Rehabil ; 13(1): 39, 2021 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33853685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rapid weight loss (RWL) is commonly practiced in combat sports. Both magnitude and methods used to induce RWL are largely similar among combat sports, but currently, there is no data on RWL methodology used by sambo athletes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine RWL procedures sambo athletes apply to lose weight rapidly. METHODS: The sample consisted of 199 participants, of which 132 males and 67 females who participated in the World Sambo Championship 2020 held in Novi Sad, Serbia. Each participant received RWL questionnaire that was available in multiple languages, and every participant was instructed how to fill it out. RESULTS: Almost 87% of sambo participants declared to have intentionally cut their weight prior to the competition, whereby 5.27 kg (SD: ±7.57) was lost. Gradual dieting, sauna use and skipping meals were the most dominant methods used to reduce weight prior to competition while more extreme methods of RWL such as the use of laxatives, diuretics, diet pills and vomiting were also implemented but by much smaller fragment of the participants involved. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from our study largely match with previously conducted RWL studies in terms of prevalence, magnitude and methods used by combat sport athletes, especially in judo and wrestling. Knowing the hazardous consequences of RWL, alternative methods of sustainable weight loss should be considered.

14.
J Int Med Res ; 49(4): 3000605211012380, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33906526

RESUMO

In this open-label case series trial, we evaluated the effects of a nitrate-based nutritional formula on oxygen saturation (SpO2) and patient-reported outcomes in individuals with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Five adult patients (three men and two women, age 39.6 ± 6.9 years) with a positive COVID-19 test result, breathing difficulties, and SpO2 ≤95%, who were free from other pulmonary and cardiovascular conditions, were recruited for this study. Participants were assigned to receive a multi-component nutritional formula (containing 1200 mg of potassium nitrate, 200 mg of magnesium, 50 mg of zinc, and 1000 mg of citric acid) every 4 hours during the 48-hour monitoring period. In all participants, SpO2 improved immediately after administration of the nutritional formula, from 1 to 7 percentage points (mean increase 3.6 ± 2.7 points; 95% confidence interval 0.3 to 7.0). SpO2 remained above baseline values throughout the monitoring interval, with values persisting over threshold values (>92%) for all patients and at each time point during the 48 hours. No patients reported any side effects of the intervention. These promising and rather unexpected results call for immediate, well-sampled, mechanistic randomized controlled trials to validate our findings.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Nitratos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxigênio , SARS-CoV-2 , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Front Psychol ; 12: 635651, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33815222

RESUMO

One of the main goals of sport psychology is to identify those psychological factors that are relevant for sport performance as well as possibilities of their development. The aim of the study was to determine whether the set of specific psychological characteristics [generalized self-efficacy, time perspective, emotional intelligence (EI), general achievement motivation, and personality dimensions] makes the distinction between athletes based on their (non)-participation in the senior national team, that is, their belonging to the subsample of elite or non-elite athletes depending on this criterion. According to the group centroids it can be said that elite athletes are characterized by a positive high score in self-efficacy, emotionality, present fatalistic time perspective, past positive time perspective, and openness to experience. They are also characterized by low past negative time perspective, emotional competence, and future time perspective. Non-elite athletes have the opposite traits. The results have been discussed in the context of their application in the process of talent selection and development in sport as well as the development of life skills in athletes.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807549

RESUMO

The aim of the current study is to examine gender, age. and cross-country differences in fear of COVID-19 and sense of loneliness during the lockdown, by comparing people from those countries with a high rate of infections and deaths (e.g., Spain and Italy) and from countries with a mild spread of infection (e.g., Croatia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina). A total of 3876 participants (63% female) completed an online survey on "Everyday life practices in COVID-19 time" in April 2020, including measures of fear of COVID-19 and loneliness. Males and females of all age groups in countries suffering from the powerful impact of the COVID-19 pandemic reported greater fear of COVID-19 and sense of loneliness. In less endangered countries, females and the elderly reported more symptoms than males and the young; in Spanish and Italian samples, the pattern of differences is considerably more complex. Future research should thoroughly examine different age and gender groups. The analysis of emotional well-being in groups at risk of mental health issues may help to lessen the long term social and economic costs due to the COVID-19 outbreak.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Solidão , Idoso , Bósnia e Herzegóvina , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Croácia , Surtos de Doenças , Medo , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Sérvia , Eslováquia , Eslovênia , Espanha/epidemiologia
17.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Like other combat sports, sambo has competition rules that divide athletes into categories based on gender, age and weight. Athletes in combat sports often resort to rapid weight loss (RWL) methods to be more competitive in lower weight categories and gain an advantage against lighter, smaller and weaker competitors. The aim of this study was to examine the methodology implemented by two different sambo age categories, junior and senior athletes, in order to attain RWL. METHODS: The sample consisted of 103 male sambo elite athletes (seniors/juniors: age 28.5 ± 4.3/18.9 ± 0.8; height (m): 1.7 ± 0.1/1.8 ± 0.1; weight (kg): 76.3 ± 17.8/74.4 ± 16.3; BMI (kg/m2): 25.0 ± 3.8/23.7 ± 3.9) who completed a survey on RWL. RESULTS: Athletes reported losing a mean of 5 kg starting approximately 12 days before a competition. The most common methodology reported by senior and junior sambo athletes was gradually increasing dieting, followed by sauna and plastic suit training. Less common methods adopted were laxatives, diuretics, the use of diet pills and vomiting. There were significant group differences for sauna and diet pill ingestion. Coaches and parents are influential people in the lives of athletes concerning the weight loss strategy to be adopted. CONCLUSIONS: This study's results unequivocally confirm the prevalent practice of RWL in both senior and junior sambo athletes. Although athletes prevalently chose "less harmful" methods, there is a need to inform parents and coaches of the risks and benefits of RWL.


Assuntos
Atletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Artes Marciais/estatística & dados numéricos , Perda de Peso , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Diuréticos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Laxantes/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Banho a Vapor/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tempo , Vômito
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33572738

RESUMO

The main aim of the present study was to compare the effects of flywheel strength training and traditional strength training on fitness attributes. Thirty-six well trained junior basketball players (n = 36; 17.58 ± 0.50 years) were recruited and randomly allocated into: Flywheel group (FST; n = 12), traditional strength training group (TST; n = 12) and control group (CON; n = 12). All groups attended 5 basketball practices and one official match a week during the study period. Experimental groups additionally participated in the eight-week, 1-2 d/w equivolume intervention conducted using a flywheel device (inertia = 0.075 kg·m-2) for FST or free weights (80%1 RM) for TST. Pre-to post changes in lower limb isometric strength (ISOMET), 5 and 20 m sprint time (SPR5m and SPR20m), countermovement jump height (CMJ) and change of direction ability (t-test) were assessed with analyses of variance (3 × 2 ANOVA). Significant group-by-time interaction was found for ISOMET (F = 6.40; p = 0.000), CMJ (F = 7.45; p = 0.001), SPR5m (F = 7.45; p = 0.010) and T test (F = 10.46; p = 0.000). The results showed a significantly higher improvement in CMJ (p = 0.006; 11.7% vs. 6.8%), SPR5m (p = 0.001; 10.3% vs. 5.9%) and t-test (p = 0.045; 2.4% vs. 1.5%) for FST compared to the TST group. Simultaneously, th FST group had higher improvement in ISOMET (p = 0.014; 18.7% vs. 2.9%), CMJ (p = 0.000; 11.7% vs. 0.3%), SPR5m (p = 0.000; 10.3% vs. 3.4%) and t-test (p = 0.000; 2.4% vs. 0.6%) compared to the CON group. Players from the TST group showed better results in CMJ (p = 0.006; 6.8% vs. 0.3%) and t-test (p = 0.018; 1.5% vs. 0.6%) compared to players from the CON group. No significant group-by-time interaction was found for sprint 20 m (F = 2.52; p = 0.088). Eight weeks of flywheel training (1-2 sessions per week) performed at maximum concentric intensity induces superior improvements in CMJ, 5 m sprint time and change of direction ability than equivolumed traditional weight training in well trained junior basketball players. Accordingly, coaches and trainers could be advised to use flywheel training for developing power related performance attributes in young basketball players.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Basquetebol , Treinamento de Força , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Força Muscular
20.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1244-1249, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134432

RESUMO

SUMMARY: The objective of this research was to establish the anthropometric characteristics and somatotype profiles of Montenegrin male and female judokas, divided by weight categories. The sample was composed of 170 Montenegrin judokas, 92 male judo athletes (21.8 ± 3.9 years) and 78 female judo athletes (20.5 ± 3.1 years). All athletes were of national level, divided by official weight categories. This study provides normative data of anthropometric and somatotype profiles in relation to gender and weight categories of Montenegrin judo athletes. The anthropometric profiles changed according to weight category, whereas, anthropometric parameters were highest in the heaviest category as compared to other weight categories. In the domain of male somatotype profiles, three different types of somatotype in relation to weight category were obtained. The three weight categories were endomorphic mesomorphs (-90 kg, -100 kg, >100 kg), ectomorphic mesomorphs (-60 kg, -73 kg, -81 kg) and judo athletes of -66 kg were mesomorphic ectomorphs. All the female athletes were endomorphic mesomorphs, except for category 52. Representatives from the -52 kg were mesomorphic endomorphs. This study highlights how somatotype profiles of national judo athletes differ between weight categories. It is likely that some changes could be used in applying proper training methods with a focus on the athletes' physical abilities, which could result in a decrease in somatotype diversity among weight categories.


RESUMEN: El objetivo de esta investigación fue establecer las características antropométricas y los perfiles somatotípicos de judokas Montenegrinos de ambos sexos, divididos por categorías de peso. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 170 judokas montenegrinos, 92 hombres (21,8 ± 3,9 años) y 78 mujeres (20,5 ± 3,1 años). Todos los atletas eran de nivel nacional, divididos por categorías de peso oficiales. Este estudio proporcionó datos normativos de perfiles antropométricos y somatotipos en relación con las categorías de sexo y peso de los atletas de judo Montenegrinos. Los perfiles antropométricos cambiaron según la categoría de peso, mientras que los parámetros antropométricos fueron más altos en la categoría más pesadas en comparación con otras categorías. En el dominio de los perfiles de somatotipo masculino, se obtuvieron tres tipos diferentes en relación con la categoría de peso. Las tres categorías fueron mesomorfos endomórficos (-90 kg, -100 kg, > 100 kg), mesomorfos ectomórficos (-60 kg, -73 kg, -81 kg) y ectomorfos mesomórficos (-66 kg). Todas las atletas femeninas fueron mesomorfas endomórficas, excepto la categoría 52. Los representantes de los -52 kg eran endomorfos mesomórficos. Este estudio destaca cómo los perfiles de somatotipo de los atletas nacionales de judo difieren entre las categorías de peso. Es probable que puedan aplicarse algunos cambios en los métodos de entrenamiento, con un enfoque en las habilidades físicas de los atletas, lo que podría resultar en una disminución en la diversidad de somatotipos entre las categorías de peso.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Somatotipos , Antropometria , Artes Marciais , Pregas Cutâneas , Peso Corporal , Montenegro
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