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1.
J Thorac Oncol ; 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31988000

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Novel RET-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) such as selpercatinib (LOXO-292) have shown unprecedented efficacy in tumors positive for RET fusions or mutations, notably RET fusion-positive non-small lung cancer (NSCLC) and RET-mutated medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). However, the mechanisms of resistance to these agents have not yet been described. METHODS: Analysis was performed of circulating tumor DNA and tissue in patients with RET fusion-positive NSCLC and RET-mutation positive MTC who developed disease progression following an initial response to selpercatinib. Acquired resistance was modeled preclinically using a CCDC6-RET fusion positive NSCLC patient derived xenograft (PDX). The inhibitory activity of anti-RET multikinase inhibitors (MKIs) and selective RET TKIs was evaluated in enzyme and cell-based assays. RESULTS: Following a dramatic initial response to selpercatinib in a patient with KIF5B-RET NSCLC, analysis of circulating tumor DNA (CtDNA) demonstrated emergence of RET G810R, S and C mutations in the RET solvent front prior to the emergence of clinical resistance. Post-mortem biopsy studies demonstrated intratumor and intertumor heterogeneity with distinct disease subclones containing G810S, G810R and G810C mutations in multiple disease sites indicative of convergent evolution upon the G810 residue resulting in a common mechanism of resistance. Acquired mutations in RET G810 were identified in progressing tissue from a second patient with CCDC6-RET fusion-positive NSCLC and in plasma from additional RET fusion-positive NSCLC and RET-mutant MTC patients progressing on an ongoing phase 1/2 trial of selpercatinib. Preclinical studies demonstrated the presence of RET G810R mutations in a CCDC6-RET PDX model of acquired resistance to selpercatinib. Structural modeling predicted that these mutations sterically hinder binding of selpercatinib, and in vitro assays confirmed loss of activity for both anti-RET MKIs and selective RET TKIs. CONCLUSION: RET G810 solvent front mutations represent the first described recurrent mechanism of resistance to selective RET inhibition with selpercatinib. Development of potent inhibitor of these mutations, while maintaining activity against RET gatekeeper mutations, could be an effective strategy to target resistance to selective RET inhibitors.

2.
Nat Med ; 26(1): 47-51, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932802

RESUMO

MET exon 14 alterations are oncogenic drivers of non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs)1. These alterations are associated with increased MET activity and preclinical sensitivity to MET inhibition2. Crizotinib is a multikinase inhibitor with potent activity against MET3. The antitumor activity and safety of crizotinib were assessed in 69 patients with advanced NSCLCs harboring MET exon 14 alterations. Objective response rate was 32% (95% confidence interval (CI), 21-45) among 65 response-evaluable patients. Objective responses were observed independent of the molecular heterogeneity that characterizes these cancers and did not vary by splice-site region and mutation type of the MET exon 14 alteration, concurrent increased MET copy number or the detection of a MET exon 14 alteration in circulating tumor DNA. The median duration of response was 9.1 months (95% CI, 6.4-12.7). The median progression-free survival was 7.3 months (95% CI, 5.4-9.1). MET exon 14 alteration defines a molecular subgroup of NSCLCs for which MET inhibition with crizotinib is active. These results address an unmet need for targeted therapy in people with lung cancers with MET exon 14 alterations and adds to an expanding list of genomically driven therapies for oncogenic subsets of NSCLC.

4.
Mod Pathol ; 33(1): 38-46, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375766

RESUMO

With the FDA approval of larotrectinib, NTRK fusion assessment has recently become a standard part of management for patients with locally advanced or metastatic cancers. Unlike somatic mutation assessment, the detection of NTRK fusions is not straightforward, and various assays exist at the DNA, RNA, and protein level. Here, we investigate the performance of immunohistochemistry and DNA-based next-generation sequencing to indirectly or directly detect NTRK fusions relative to an RNA-based next-generation sequencing approach in the largest cohort of NTRK fusion positive solid tumors to date. A retrospective analysis of 38,095 samples from 33,997 patients sequenced by a targeted DNA-based next-generation sequencing panel (MSK-IMPACT), 2189 of which were also examined by an RNA-based sequencing assay (MSK-Fusion), identified 87 patients with oncogenic NTRK1-3 fusions. All available institutional NTRK fusion positive cases were assessed by pan-Trk immunohistochemistry along with a cohort of control cases negative for NTRK fusions by next-generation sequencing. DNA-based sequencing showed an overall sensitivity and specificity of 81.1% and 99.9%, respectively, for the detection of NTRK fusions when compared to RNA-based sequencing. False negatives occurred when fusions involved breakpoints not covered by the assay. Immunohistochemistry showed overall sensitivity of 87.9% and specificity of 81.1%, with high sensitivity for NTRK1 (96%) and NTRK2 (100%) fusions and lower sensitivity for NTRK3 fusions (79%). Specificity was 100% for carcinomas of the colon, lung, thyroid, pancreas, and biliary tract. Decreased specificity was seen in breast and salivary gland carcinomas (82% and 52%, respectively), and positive staining was often seen in tumors with neural differentiation. Both sensitivity and specificity were poor in sarcomas. Selection of the appropriate assay for NTRK fusion detection therefore depends on tumor type and genes involved, as well as consideration of other factors such as available material, accessibility of various clinical assays, and whether comprehensive genomic testing is needed concurrently.

5.
Lancet Oncol ; 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Entrectinib is a potent inhibitor of tropomyosin receptor kinase (TRK) A, B, and C, which has been shown to have anti-tumour activity against NTRK gene fusion-positive solid tumours, including CNS activity due to its ability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier. We present an integrated efficacy and safety analysis of patients with metastatic or locally advanced solid tumours harbouring oncogenic NTRK1, NTRK2, and NTRK3 gene fusions treated in three ongoing, early-phase trials. METHODS: An integrated database comprised the pivotal datasets of three, ongoing phase 1 or 2 clinical trials (ALKA-372-001, STARTRK-1, and STARTRK-2), which enrolled patients aged 18 years or older with metastatic or locally advanced NTRK fusion-positive solid tumours who received entrectinib orally at a dose of at least 600 mg once per day in a capsule. All patients had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2 and could have received previous anti-cancer therapy (except previous TRK inhibitors). The primary endpoints, the proportion of patients with an objective response and median duration of response, were evaluated by blinded independent central review in the efficacy-evaluable population (ie, patients with NTRK fusion-positive solid tumours who were TRK inhibitor-naive and had received at least one dose of entrectinib). Overall safety evaluable population included patients from STARTRK-1, STARTRK-2, ALKA-372-001, and STARTRK-NG (NCT02650401; treating young adult and paediatric patients [aged ≤21 years]), who received at least one dose of entrectinib, regardless of tumour type or gene rearrangement. NTRK fusion-positive safety evaluable population comprised all patients who have received at least one dose of entrectinib regardless of dose or follow-up. These ongoing studies are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02097810 (STARTRK-1) and NCT02568267 (STARTRK-2), and EudraCT, 2012-000148-88 (ALKA-372-001). FINDINGS: Patients were enrolled in ALKA-372-001 from Oct 26, 2012, to March 27, 2018; in STARTRK-1 from Aug 7, 2014, to May 10, 2018; and in STARTRK-2 from Nov 19, 2015 (enrolment is ongoing). At the data cutoff date for this analysis (May 31, 2018) the efficacy-evaluable population comprised 54 adults with advanced or metastatic NTRK fusion-positive solid tumours comprising ten different tumour types and 19 different histologies. Median follow-up was 12.9 months (IQR 8·77-18·76). 31 (57%; 95% CI 43·2-70·8) of 54 patients had an objective response, of which four (7%) were complete responses and 27 (50%) partial reponses. Median duration of response was 10 months (95% CI 7·1 to not estimable). The most common grade 3 or 4 treatment-related adverse events in both safety populations were increased weight (seven [10%] of 68 patients in the NTRK fusion-positive safety population and in 18 [5%] of 355 patients in the overall safety-evaluable population) and anaemia (8 [12%] and 16 [5%]). The most common serious treatment-related adverse events were nervous system disorders (three [4%] of 68 patients and ten [3%] of 355 patients). No treatment-related deaths occurred. INTERPRETATION: Entrectinib induced durable and clinically meaningful responses in patients with NTRK fusion-positive solid tumours, and was well tolerated with a manageable safety profile. These results show that entrectinib is a safe and active treatment option for patients with NTRK fusion-positive solid tumours. These data highlight the need to routinely test for NTRK fusions to broaden the therapeutic options available for patients with NTRK fusion-positive solid tumours. FUNDING: Ignyta/F Hoffmann-La Roche.

6.
Lancet Oncol ; 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recurrent gene fusions, such as ROS1 fusions, are oncogenic drivers of various cancers, including non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Up to 36% of patients with ROS1 fusion-positive NSCLC have brain metastases at the diagnosis of advanced disease. Entrectinib is a ROS1 inhibitor that has been designed to effectively penetrate and remain in the CNS. We explored the use of entrectinib in patients with locally advanced or metastatic ROS1 fusion-positive NSCLC. METHODS: We did an integrated analysis of three ongoing phase 1 or 2 trials of entrectinib (ALKA-372-001, STARTRK-1, and STARTRK-2). The efficacy-evaluable population included adult patients (aged ≥18 years) with locally advanced or metastatic ROS1 fusion-positive NSCLC who received entrectinib at a dose of at least 600 mg orally once per day, with at least 12 months' follow-up. All patients had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2, and previous cancer treatment (except for ROS1 inhibitors) was allowed. The primary endpoints were the proportion of patients with an objective response (complete or partial response according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1) and duration of response, and were evaluated by blinded independent central review. The safety-evaluable population for the safety analysis included all patients with ROS1 fusion-positive NSCLC in the three trials who received at least one dose of entrectinib (irrespective of dose or duration of follow-up). These ongoing studies are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02097810 (STARTRK-1) and NCT02568267 (STARTRK-2), and EudraCT, 2012-000148-88 (ALKA-372-001). FINDINGS: Patients were enrolled in ALKA-372-001 from Oct 26, 2012, to March 27, 2018; in STARTRK-1 from Aug 7, 2014, to May 10, 2018; and in STARTRK-2 from Nov 19, 2015 (enrolment is ongoing). At the data cutoff date for this analysis (May 31, 2018), 41 (77%; 95% CI 64-88) of 53 patients in the efficacy-evaluable population had an objective response. Median follow-up was 15·5 monhts (IQR 13·4-20·2). Median duration of response was 24·6 months (95% CI 11·4-34·8). In the safety-evaluable population, 79 (59%) of 134 patients had grade 1 or 2 treatment-related adverse events. 46 (34%) of 134 patients had grade 3 or 4 treatment-related adverse events, with the most common being weight increase (ten [8%]) and neutropenia (five [4%]). 15 (11%) patients had serious treatment-related adverse events, the most common of which were nervous system disorders (four [3%]) and cardiac disorders (three [2%]). No treatment-related deaths occurred. INTERPRETATION: Entrectinib is active with durable disease control in patients with ROS1 fusion-positive NSCLC, and is well tolerated with a manageable safety profile, making it amenable to long-term dosing in these patients. These data highlight the need to routinely test for ROS1 fusions to broaden therapeutic options for patients with ROS1 fusion-positive NSCLC. FUNDING: Ignyta/F Hoffmann-La Roche.

7.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2019 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31871300

RESUMO

PURPOSE: TRK inhibitors achieve marked tumor-agnostic efficacy in TRK fusion-positive cancers and consequently are now an established standard of care. Little is known, however, about the demographics, outcomes, response to alternative standard therapies, or genomic characteristics of TRK fusion-positive cancers. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Utilizing a center-wide screening program involving more than 26,000 prospectively sequenced patients, genomic and clinical data from all cases with TRK fusions were extracted. An integrated analysis was performed of genomic, therapeutic, and phenomic outcomes. RESULTS: We identified 76 cases with confirmed TRK fusions (0.28% overall prevalence) involving 48 unique rearrangements and 17 cancer types. The presence of a TRK fusion was associated with depletion of concurrent oncogenic drivers (p<0.001) and lower TMB (p<0.001), with the exception of colorectal cancer where TRK fusions co-occur with microsatellite instability (MSI-H). Longitudinal profiling in a subset of patients indicated that TRK fusions were present in all sampled timepoints in 82% (14/17) of cases. PFS on first-line therapy, excluding TRK inhibitors, administered for advanced disease was 9.6 months (95% CI: 4.8-13.2). The best ORR achieved with chemotherapy containing-regimens across all lines of therapy was 63% (95% CI: 41-81). Among 12 patients treated with checkpoint inhibitors, an MSI-H colorectal patient had the only observed response. CONCLUSIONS: TRK fusion-positive cancers can respond to alternative standards of care, although efficacy of immunotherapy in the absence of other predictive biomarkers (MSI-H) appears limited. TRK fusions are present in tumors with simple genomes lacking in concurrent drivers that may partially explain the tumor-agnostic efficacy of TRK inhibitors.

8.
Nat Med ; 25(12): 1839-1842, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31768065

RESUMO

Histiocytoses are clonal hematopoietic disorders frequently driven by mutations mapping to the BRAF and MEK1 and MEK2 kinases. Currently, however, the developmental origins of histiocytoses in patients are not well understood, and clinically meaningful therapeutic targets outside of BRAF and MEK are undefined. In this study, we uncovered activating mutations in CSF1R and rearrangements in RET and ALK that conferred dramatic responses to selective inhibition of RET (selpercatinib) and crizotinib, respectively, in patients with histiocytosis.


Assuntos
Quinase do Linfoma Anaplásico/genética , Histiocitose/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-ret/genética , Receptores de Fator Estimulador das Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Aminopiridinas/farmacologia , Benzotiazóis/farmacologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Genoma Humano , Neoplasias Hematológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hematológicas/genética , Neoplasias Hematológicas/patologia , Histiocitose/tratamento farmacológico , Histiocitose/patologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mutação , Ácidos Picolínicos/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Pirróis/farmacologia , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/genética , Gêmeos Monozigóticos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adulto Jovem
9.
Lung Cancer ; 137: 113-122, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568888

RESUMO

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer, accounting for 80-85% of cases. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations are observed in approximately 40% and 20% of patients with NSCLC in Asian and non-Asian populations, respectively. First-generation (gefitinib, erlotinib) and second-generation (afatinib, dacomitinib) EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been standard-of-care (SoC) first-line treatment for patients with sensitizing EGFR mutation positive advanced NSCLC following Phase III trials versus platinum-based doublet chemotherapy. However, most patients treated with first-line first- or second-generation EGFR-TKIs develop resistance. Osimertinib, a third-generation, central nervous system active EGFR-TKI which potently and selectively inhibits both EGFR-TKI sensitizing (EGFRm) and the most common EGFR T790 M resistance mutations, has shown superior efficacy versus first-generation EGFR-TKIs (gefitinib / erlotinib). Osimertinib is now a treatment option for patients with advanced NSCLC harboring EGFRm in the first-line setting, and treatment of choice for patients with T790 M positive NSCLC following disease progression on first-line EGFR-TKIs. The second-generation EGFR-TKI dacomitinib has also recently been approved for the first-line treatment of EGFRm positive metastatic NSCLC. There remains a need to determine appropriate sequencing of EGFR-TKIs in this setting, including EGFR-TKIs as monotherapy or in combination with other TKIs / signaling pathway inhibitors. This review considers the evolving role of sequencing treatments to maximize benefits for patients with EGFRm positive advanced NSCLC.

11.
Nat Med ; 25(9): 1422-1427, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406350

RESUMO

TRK fusions are found in a variety of cancer types, lead to oncogenic addiction, and strongly predict tumor-agnostic efficacy of TRK inhibition1-8. With the recent approval of the first selective TRK inhibitor, larotrectinib, for patients with any TRK-fusion-positive adult or pediatric solid tumor, to identify mechanisms of treatment failure after initial response has become of immediate therapeutic relevance. So far, the only known resistance mechanism is the acquisition of on-target TRK kinase domain mutations, which interfere with drug binding and can potentially be addressable through second-generation TRK inhibitors9-11. Here, we report off-target resistance in patients treated with TRK inhibitors and in patient-derived models, mediated by genomic alterations that converge to activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. MAPK pathway-directed targeted therapy, administered alone or in combination with TRK inhibition, re-established disease control. Experimental modeling further suggests that upfront dual inhibition of TRK and MEK may delay time to progression in cancer types prone to the genomic acquisition of MAPK pathway-activating alterations. Collectively, these data suggest that a subset of patients will develop off-target mechanisms of resistance to TRK inhibition with potential implications for clinical management and future clinical trial design.


Assuntos
Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Receptor trkA/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Benzamidas/administração & dosagem , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/genética , Criança , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Feminino , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Imidazóis/administração & dosagem , Indazóis/administração & dosagem , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , Oximas/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinas/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinonas/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
12.
Lancet Oncol ; 20(10): 1395-1408, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422028

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phase 3 clinical data has shown higher proportions of patients with objective response, longer response duration, and longer overall survival with nivolumab versus docetaxel in patients with previously treated advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We aimed to evaluate the long-term benefit of nivolumab and the effect of response and disease control on subsequent survival. METHODS: We pooled data from four clinical studies of nivolumab in patients with previously treated NSCLC (CheckMate 017, 057, 063, and 003) to evaluate survival outcomes. Trials of nivolumab in the second-line or later setting with at least 4 years follow-up were included. Comparisons of nivolumab versus docetaxel included all randomised patients from the phase 3 CheckMate 017 and 057 studies. We did landmark analyses by response status at 6 months to determine post-landmark survival outcomes. We excluded patients who did not have a radiographic tumour assessment at 6 months. Safety analyses included all patients who received at least one dose of nivolumab. FINDINGS: Across all four studies, 4-year overall survival with nivolumab was 14% (95% CI 11-17) for all patients (n=664), 19% (15-24) for those with at least 1% PD-L1 expression, and 11% (7-16) for those with less than 1% PD-L1 expression. In CheckMate 017 and 057, 4-year overall survival was 14% (95% CI 11-18) in patients treated with nivolumab, compared with 5% (3-7) in patients treated with docetaxel. Survival subsequent to response at 6 months on nivolumab or docetaxel was longer than after progressive disease at 6 months, with hazard ratios for overall survival of 0·18 (95% 0·12-0·27) for nivolumab and 0·43 (0·29-0·65) for docetaxel; for stable disease versus progressive disease, hazard ratios were 0·52 (0·37-0·71) for nivolumab and 0·80 (0·61-1·04) for docetaxel. Long-term data did not show any new safety signals. INTERPRETATION: Patients with advanced NSCLC treated with nivolumab achieved a greater duration of response compared with patients treated with docetaxel, which was associated with a long-term survival advantage. FUNDING: Bristol-Myers Squibb.

13.
Cancer ; 125(24): 4380-4387, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469421

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2; also known as ERBB2) are found in approximately 2% of lung adenocarcinomas. The frequency and clinical course of brain metastases in this oncogenic subset are ill defined. METHODS: Baseline and subsequent development of brain metastases was evaluated in consecutive patients with HER2-mutant (n = 98), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutant (n = 200), and KRAS-mutant lung cancers (n = 200). RESULTS: At metastatic diagnosis, the odds ratio (ORs) for brain metastases was similar for patients whose tumors harbored HER2 mutations (19%) in comparison with patients with KRAS mutations (24%; OR for HER2 vs KRAS, 0.7; P = .33) but lower compared to patients with EGFR mutations (31%; OR for HER2 vs EGFR, 0.5; P = .03). Patients with lung cancer and HER2 mutations developed more brain metastases on treatment than patients with KRAS mutations (28% vs 8%; hazard ratio [HR], 5.2; P < .001) and trended more than patients with EGFR mutations (28% vs 16%; HR, 1.7; P = .06). Patients with HER2 YVMA mutations also developed more brain metastases on treatment than patients with KRAS mutations (HR, 5.9; P < .001). The median overall survival (OS) was shorter for patients with HER2-mutant (1.6 years; P < .001) or KRAS-mutant lung cancers (1.1 years; P < .001) than patients with EGFR-mutant lung cancers (3.0 years). Brain metastases occurred in 47% of patients with HER2-mutant lung cancers, which imparted shorter OS (HR, 2.7; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: These data provide a framework for brain imaging surveillance in patients with HER2-mutant lung cancers and underpin the need to develop HER2-targeted agents with central nervous system activity.

14.
JAMA Oncol ; 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343665

RESUMO

Importance: Nivolumab, a monoclonal antibody that inhibits programmed cell death 1, is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for treating advanced melanoma, renal cell carcinoma (RCC), non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and other malignancies. Data on long-term survival among patients receiving nivolumab are limited. Objectives: To analyze long-term overall survival (OS) among patients receiving nivolumab and identify clinical and laboratory measures associated with tumor regression and OS. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a secondary analysis of the phase 1 CA209-003 trial (with expansion cohorts), which was conducted at 13 US medical centers and included 270 patients with advanced melanoma, RCC, or NSCLC who received nivolumab and were enrolled between October 30, 2008, and December 28, 2011. The analyses were either specified in the original protocol or included in subsequent protocol amendments that were implemented between 2008 and 2012. Statistical analysis was performed from October 30, 2008, to November 11, 2016. Intervention: In the CA209-003 trial, patients received nivolumab (0.1-10.0 mg/kg) every 2 weeks in 8-week cycles for up to 96 weeks, unless they developed progressive disease, achieved a complete response, experienced unacceptable toxic effects, or withdrew consent. Main Outcomes and Measures: Safety and activity of nivolumab; OS was a post hoc end point with a minimum follow-up of 58.3 months. Results: Of 270 patients included in this analysis, 107 (39.6%) had melanoma (72 [67.3%] male; median age, 61 [range, 29-85] years), 34 (12.6%) had RCC (26 [76.5%] male; median age, 58 [range, 35-74] years), and 129 (47.8%) had NSCLC (79 [61.2%] male; median age, 65 [range, 38-85] years). Overall survival curves showed estimated 5-year rates of 34.2% among patients with melanoma, 27.7% among patients with RCC, and 15.6% among patients with NSCLC. In a multivariable analysis, the presence of liver (odds ratio [OR], 0.31; 95% CI, 0.12-0.83; P = .02) or bone metastases (OR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.10-0.93; P = .04) was independently associated with reduced likelihood of survival at 5 years, whereas an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 (OR, 2.74; 95% CI, 1.43-5.27; P = .003) was independently associated with an increased likelihood of 5-year survival. Overall survival was significantly longer among patients with treatment-related AEs of any grade (median, 19.8 months; 95% CI, 13.8-26.9 months) or grade 3 or more (median, 20.3 months; 95% CI, 12.5-44.9 months) compared with those without treatment-related AEs (median, 5.8 months; 95% CI, 4.6-7.8 months) (P < .001 for both comparisons based on hazard ratios). Conclusions and Relevance: Nivolumab treatment was associated with long-term survival in a subset of heavily pretreated patients with advanced melanoma, RCC, or NSCLC. Characterizing factors associated with long-term survival may inform treatment approaches and strategies for future clinical trial development. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00730639.

15.
Lung Cancer ; 133: 96-102, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200835

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Although dramatic responses to MET inhibitors have been reported in patients with MET exon 14 (METex14) mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the impact of these treatments on overall survival in this population is unknown. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter retrospective analysis of patients with METex14 NSCLC to determine if treatment with MET inhibitors impacts median overall survival (mOS). Event-time distributions were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared with the log-rank test. Multivariable Cox models were fitted to estimate hazard ratios. RESULTS: We identified 148 patients with METex14 NSCLC; the median age was 72; 57% were women and 39% were never smokers. Of the 34 metastatic patients who never received a MET inhibitor, the mOS was 8.1 months; those in this group with concurrent MET amplification had a trend toward worse survival compared to cancers without MET amplification (5.2 months vs 10.5 months, P = 0.06). Of the 27 metastatic patients who received at least one MET inhibitor the mOS was 24.6 months. A model adjusting for receipt of a MET inhibitor as first- or second-line therapy as a time-dependent covariate demonstrated that treatment with a MET inhibitor was associated with a significant prolongation in survival (HR 0.11, 95% CI 0.01-0.92, P = 0.04) compared to patients who did not receive any MET inhibitor. Among 22 patients treated with crizotinib, the median progression-free survival was 7.4 months. DISCUSSION: For patients with METex14 NSCLC, treatment with a MET inhibitor is associated with an improvement in overall survival.

18.
J Thorac Oncol ; 14(9): 1666-1671, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228623

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: MNNG HOS Transforming gene (MET) amplification and MET exon 14 (METex14) alterations in lung cancers affect sensitivity to MET proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase (MET [also known by the alias hepatocyte growth factor receptor]) inhibitors. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), next-generation sequencing (NGS), and immunohistochemistry (IHC) have been used to evaluate MET dependency. Here, we have determined the association of MET IHC with METex14 mutations and MET amplification. METHODS: We collected data on a tri-institutional cohort from the Lung Cancer Mutation Consortium. All patients had metastatic lung adenocarcinomas and no prior targeted therapies. MET IHC positivity was defined by an H-score of 200 or higher using SP44 antibody. MET amplification was defined by copy number fold change of 1.8x or more with use of NGS or a MET-to-centromere of chromosome 7 ratio greater than 2.2 with use of FISH. RESULTS: We tested tissue from 181 patients for MET IHC, MET amplification, and METex14 mutations. Overall, 71 of 181 patients (39%) were MET IHC-positive, three of 181 (2%) were MET-amplified, and two of 181 (1%) harbored METex14 mutations. Of the MET-amplified cases, two were FISH positive with MET-to-centromere of chromosome 7 ratios of 3.1 and 3.3, one case was NGS positive with a fold change of 4.4x, and one of the three cases was MET IHC-positive. Of the 71 IHC-positive cases, one (1%) was MET-amplified and two (3%) were METex14-mutated. Of the MET IHC-negative cases, two of 110 (2%) were MET-amplified. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, nearly all MET IHC-positive cases were negative for MET amplification or METex14 mutations. MET IHC can also miss patients with MET amplification. The limited number of MET-amplified cases in this cohort makes it challenging to demonstrate an association between MET IHC and MET amplification. Nevertheless, IHC appears to be an inefficient screen for these genomic changes. MET amplification or METex14 mutations can best be detected by FISH and a multiplex NGS panel.

19.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(17): 5202-5211, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142504

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Inhibition of the VEGFR-2 blocks angiogenesis and attenuates tumor growth, but cancers may evade this effect through activation of the hepatocyte growth factor receptor MET. Here we report results of the phase Ib/II study of ramucirumab, a monoclonal anti-VEGFR-2 antibody, plus the anti-MET mAb emibetuzumab. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A 3+3 dose escalation of emibetuzumab plus ramucirumab (phase Ib) was followed by tumor-specific expansion cohorts. Primary objectives were to determine the recommended phase II dose and to evaluate antitumor activity. Secondary objectives included safety, pharmacokinetics, and immunogenicity. Tumoral MET expression was explored by immunohistochemistry (IHC). RESULTS: A total of 97 patients with solid tumor [6 phase Ib, 16 gastric or gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma, 45 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), 15 renal cell carcinoma, and 15 non-small lung cancer] received emibetuzumab at 750 or 2,000 mg flat dosing plus ramucirumab at 8 mg/kg every 2 weeks. No dose-limiting toxicities were observed. Common adverse events were primarily mild or moderate and included fatigue (36.1%), peripheral edema (28.9%), and nausea (14.4%). Emibetuzumab exposures were similar as in previous studies with no apparent drug-drug interactions. Five partial responses (5.2%) were observed across all tumor types. The greatest antitumor activity was noted in HCC with a 6.7% overall response rate, 60% disease control rate, and 5.42 months (95% confidence interval, 1.64-8.12) progression-free survival (PFS). HCC with high MET expression showed improved PFS with approximately 3-fold increase in PFS (8.1 vs. 2.8 months) relative to low MET expression. CONCLUSIONS: Ramucirumab plus emibetuzumab was safe and exhibited cytostatic antitumor activity. MET expression may help to select patients benefitting most from this combination treatment in select tumor types.

20.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(15): 4712-4722, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028088

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Targeted next-generation sequencing of DNA has become more widely used in the management of patients with lung adenocarcinoma; however, no clear mitogenic driver alteration is found in some cases. We evaluated the incremental benefit of targeted RNA sequencing (RNAseq) in the identification of gene fusions and MET exon 14 (METex14) alterations in DNA sequencing (DNAseq) driver-negative lung cancers. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Lung cancers driver negative by MSK-IMPACT underwent further analysis using a custom RNAseq panel (MSK-Fusion). Tumor mutation burden (TMB) was assessed as a potential prioritization criterion for targeted RNAseq. RESULTS: As part of prospective clinical genomic testing, we profiled 2,522 lung adenocarcinomas using MSK-IMPACT, which identified 195 (7.7%) fusions and 119 (4.7%) METex14 alterations. Among 275 driver-negative cases with available tissue, 254 (92%) had sufficient material for RNAseq. A previously undetected alteration was identified in 14% (36/254) of cases, 33 of which were actionable (27 in-frame fusions, 6 METex14). Of these 33 patients, 10 then received matched targeted therapy, which achieved clinical benefit in 8 (80%). In the 32% (81/254) of DNAseq driver-negative cases with low TMB [0-5 mutations/Megabase (mut/Mb)], 25 (31%) were positive for previously undetected gene fusions on RNAseq, whereas, in 151 cases with TMB >5 mut/Mb, only 7% were positive for fusions (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Targeted RNAseq assays should be used in all cases that appear driver negative by DNAseq assays to ensure comprehensive detection of actionable gene rearrangements. Furthermore, we observed a significant enrichment for fusions in DNAseq driver-negative samples with low TMB, supporting the prioritization of such cases for additional RNAseq.See related commentary by Davies and Aisner, p. 4586.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Humanos , Mitógenos , Mutação , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Análise de Sequência de RNA
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