Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 20
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382947

RESUMO

The electrochemical CO2 reduction reaction (CO2RR) using Cu-based catalysts holds great potential for producing valuable multi-carbon products from renewable energy. However, the chemical and structural state of Cu catalyst surfaces during the CO2RR remains a matter of debate. Here, we show the structural evolution of the near-surface region of polycrystalline Cu electrodes under in situ conditions through a combination of grazing incidence X-ray absorption spectroscopy (GIXAS) and X-ray diffraction (GIXRD). The in situ GIXAS reveals that the surface oxide layer is fully reduced to metallic Cu before the onset potential for CO2RR, and the catalyst maintains the metallic state across the potentials relevant to the CO2RR. We also find a preferential surface reconstruction of the polycrystalline Cu surface toward (100) facets in the presence of CO2. Quantitative analysis of the reconstruction profiles reveals that the degree of reconstruction increases with increasingly negative applied potentials, and it persists when the applied potential returns to more positive values. These findings show that the surface of Cu electrocatalysts is dynamic during the CO2RR, and emphasize the importance of in situ characterization to understand the surface structure and its role in electrocatalysis.

2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(24): 11630-11639, 2019 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142656

RESUMO

A major challenge to the implementation of artificial photosynthesis (AP), in which fuels are produced from abundant materials (water and carbon dioxide) in an electrochemical cell through the action of sunlight, is the discovery of active, inexpensive, safe, and stable catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Multimetallic molecular catalysts, inspired by the natural photosynthetic enzyme, can provide important guidance for catalyst design, but the necessary mechanistic understanding has been elusive. In particular, fundamental transformations for reactive intermediates are difficult to observe, and well-defined molecular models of such species are highly prone to decomposition by intermolecular aggregation. Here, we present a general strategy for stabilization of the molecular cobalt-oxo cubane core (Co4O4) by immobilizing it as part of metal-organic frameworks, thus preventing intermolecular pathways of catalyst decomposition. These materials retain the OER activity and mechanism of the molecular Co4O4 analog yet demonstrate unprecedented long-term stability at pH 14. The organic linkers of the framework allow for chemical fine-tuning of activity and stability and, perhaps most importantly, provide "matrix isolation" that allows for observation and stabilization of intermediates in the water-splitting pathway.

3.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(10): 5402-5408, 2019 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30785434

RESUMO

The rational improvement of current and developing electrochemical technologies requires atomistic understanding of electrode-electrolyte interfaces. However, examining these interfaces under operando conditions, where performance is typically evaluated and benchmarked, remains challenging, as it necessitates incorporating an operando probe during full electrochemical operation. In this study, we describe a custom electrochemical flow cell that enables near-surface-sensitive operando investigation of planar thin-film catalysts at significant hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) rates (in excess of -100 mA cm-2) using grazing incidence X-ray methods. Grazing-incidence X-ray spectroscopy and diffraction were implemented on the same sample under identical HER conditions, demonstrating how the combined measurements track changing redox chemistry and structure of Cu thin-film catalyst surfaces as a function of electrochemical conditions. The coupling of these methods with improved mass transport and hydrodynamic control establishes a new paradigm for operando measurement design, enabling unique insights into the key fundamental processes occurring at the catalyst-electrolyte interface.

4.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 5133, 2018 12 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30510262

RESUMO

Over one million tons of CS2 are produced annually, and emissions of this volatile and toxic liquid, known to generate acid rain, remain poorly controlled. As such, materials capable of reversibly capturing this commodity chemical in an energy-efficient manner are of interest. Recently, we detailed diamine-appended metal-organic frameworks capable of selectively capturing CO2 through a cooperative insertion mechanism that promotes efficient adsorption-desorption cycling. We therefore sought to explore the ability of these materials to capture CS2 through a similar mechanism. Employing crystallography, spectroscopy, and gas adsorption analysis, we demonstrate that CS2 is indeed cooperatively adsorbed in N,N-dimethylethylenediamine-appended M2(dobpdc) (M = Mg, Mn, Zn; dobpdc4- = 4,4'-dioxidobiphenyl-3,3'-dicarboxylate), via the formation of electrostatically paired ammonium dithiocarbamate chains. In the weakly thiophilic Mg congener, chemisorption is cleanly reversible with mild thermal input. This work demonstrates that the cooperative insertion mechanism can be generalized to other high-impact target molecules.


Assuntos
Dissulfeto de Carbono/química , Diaminas/química , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/síntese química , Adsorção , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Magnésio/química , Modelos Químicos , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/química , Temperatura , Tiocarbamatos/química
5.
Nano Lett ; 18(6): 3473-3480, 2018 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29709191

RESUMO

Mixed cation metal halide perovskites with increased power conversion efficiency, negligible hysteresis, and improved long-term stability under illumination, moisture, and thermal stressing have emerged as promising compounds for photovoltaic and optoelectronic applications. Here, we shed light on photoinduced halide demixing using in situ photoluminescence spectroscopy and in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) to directly compare the evolution of composition and phase changes in CH(NH2)2CsPb-halide (FACsPb-) and CH3NH3Pb-halide (MAPb-) perovskites upon illumination, thereby providing insights into why FACs-perovskites are less prone to halide demixing than MA-perovskites. We find that halide demixing occurs in both materials. However, the I-rich domains formed during demixing accumulate strain in FACsPb-perovskites but readily relax in MA-perovskites. The accumulated strain energy is expected to act as a stabilizing force against halide demixing and may explain the higher Br composition threshold for demixing to occur in FACsPb-halides. In addition, we find that while halide demixing leads to a quenching of the high-energy photoluminescence emission from MA-perovskites, the emission is enhanced from FACs-perovskites. This behavior points to a reduction of nonradiative recombination centers in FACs-perovskites arising from the demixing process and buildup of strain. FACsPb-halide perovskites exhibit excellent intrinsic material properties with photoluminescence quantum yields that are comparable to MA-perovskites. Because improved stability is achieved without sacrificing electronic properties, these compositions are better candidates for photovoltaic applications, especially as wide bandgap absorbers in tandem cells.

6.
ACS Comb Sci ; 20(1): 26-34, 2018 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29178778

RESUMO

Oxynitrides with the photoelectrochemical stability of oxides and desirable band energetics of nitrides comprise a promising class of materials for solar photochemistry. Challenges in synthesizing a wide variety of oxynitride materials has limited exploration of this class of functional materials, which we address using a reactive cosputtering combined with rapid thermal processing method to synthesize multi-cation-multi-anion libraries. We demonstrate the synthesis of a LaxTa1-xOyNz thin film composition spread library and its characterization by both traditional thin film materials characterization and custom combinatorial optical spectroscopy and X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) techniques, ultimately establishing structure-chemistry-property relationships. We observe that over a substantial La-Ta composition range the thin films crystallize in the same perovskite LaTaON2 structure with significant variation of anion chemistry. The relative invariance in optical band gap demonstrates a remarkable decoupling of composition and band energetics so that the composition can be optimized while retaining the desirable 2 eV band gap energy. We also demonstrate the intercalation of diatomic nitrogen into the La3TaO7 structure, which gives rise to a direct-allowed optical transition at 2.2 eV, less than half the value of the oxide's band gap. These findings motivate further exploration of the visible light response of this material that is predicted to be stable over a wide range of electrochemical potential.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Química Combinatória/métodos , Lantânio/química , Nitrogênio/química , Energia Solar , Tantálio/química , Compostos de Cálcio/química , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Luz , Óxidos/química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas , Termodinâmica , Titânio/química
7.
J Am Chem Soc ; 139(37): 12927-12930, 2017 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28846421

RESUMO

Transition metal phosphides exhibit high catalytic activity toward the electrochemical hydrogen-evolution reaction (HER) and resist chemical corrosion in acidic solutions. For example, an electrodeposited CoP catalyst exhibited an overpotential, η, of -η < 100 mV at a current density of -10 mA cm-2 in 0.500 M H2SO4(aq). To obtain a chemical description of the material as-prepared and also while effecting the HER in acidic media, such electrocatalyst films were investigated using Raman spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy both ex situ as well as under in situ and operando conditions in 0.500 M H2SO4(aq). Ex situ analysis using the tandem spectroscopies indicated the presence of multiple ordered and disordered phases that contained both near-zerovalent and oxidized Co species, in addition to reduced and oxygenated P species. Operando analysis indicated that the active electrocatalyst was primarily amorphous and predominantly consisted of near-zerovalent Co as well as reduced P.


Assuntos
Cobalto/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Hidrogênio/química , Fósforo/química , Catálise , Espectroscopia por Absorção de Raios X
8.
Phys Rev Lett ; 118(9): 096402, 2017 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28306298

RESUMO

Constrained-occupancy delta-self-consistent-field (ΔSCF) methods and many-body perturbation theories (MBPT) are two strategies for obtaining electronic excitations from first principles. Using the two distinct approaches, we study the O 1s core excitations that have become increasingly important for characterizing transition-metal oxides and understanding strong electronic correlation. The ΔSCF approach, in its current single-particle form, systematically underestimates the pre-edge intensity for chosen oxides, despite its success in weakly correlated systems. By contrast, the Bethe-Salpeter equation within MBPT predicts much better line shapes. This motivates one to reexamine the many-electron dynamics of x-ray excitations. We find that the single-particle ΔSCF approach can be rectified by explicitly calculating many-electron transition amplitudes, producing x-ray spectra in excellent agreement with experiments. This study paves the way to accurately predict x-ray near-edge spectral fingerprints for physics and materials science beyond the Bethe-Salpether equation.

9.
Adv Mater ; 27(42): 6733-40, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26414483

RESUMO

The challenge of fine compositional tuning and microstructure control in complex oxides is overcome by developing a general two-step synthetic approach. Antimony-alloyed bismuth vanadate, which is identified as a novel light absorber for solar fuel applications, is prepared in a wide compositional range. The bandgap of this quaternary oxide linearly decreases with the Sb content, in agreement with first-principles calculations.


Assuntos
Antimônio/química , Antimônio/efeitos da radiação , Bismuto/química , Bismuto/efeitos da radiação , Luz , Vanadatos/química , Vanadatos/efeitos da radiação , Ligas/química , Ligas/efeitos da radiação , Modelos Químicos , Oxirredução , Processos Fotoquímicos , Energia Solar , Análise Espectral , Difração de Raios X
10.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 17(33): 21448-57, 2015 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26219236

RESUMO

Diamine-appended metal-organic frameworks display great promise for carbon capture applications, due to unusual step-shaped adsorption behavior that was recently attributed to a cooperative mechanism in which the adsorbed CO2 molecules insert into the metal-nitrogen bonds to form ordered ammonium carbamate chains [McDonald et al., Nature, 2015, 519, 303]. We present a detailed study of this mechanism by in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. Distinct spectral changes at the N and O K-edges are apparent upon CO2 adsorption in both mmen-Mg2(dobpdc) and mmen-Mn2(dobpdc), and these are evaluated based upon computed spectra from three potential adsorption structures. The computations reveal that the observed spectral changes arise from specific electronic states that are signatures of a quasi-trigonal planar carbamate species that is hydrogen bonded to an ammonium cation. This eliminates two of the three structures studied, and confirms the insertion mechanism. We note the particular sensitivity of X-ray absorption spectra to the insertion step of this mechanism, underpinning the strength of the technique for examining subtle chemical changes upon gas adsorption.

11.
Nature ; 519(7543): 303-8, 2015 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25762144

RESUMO

The process of carbon capture and sequestration has been proposed as a method of mitigating the build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. If implemented, the cost of electricity generated by a fossil fuel-burning power plant would rise substantially, owing to the expense of removing CO2 from the effluent stream. There is therefore an urgent need for more efficient gas separation technologies, such as those potentially offered by advanced solid adsorbents. Here we show that diamine-appended metal-organic frameworks can behave as 'phase-change' adsorbents, with unusual step-shaped CO2 adsorption isotherms that shift markedly with temperature. Results from spectroscopic, diffraction and computational studies show that the origin of the sharp adsorption step is an unprecedented cooperative process in which, above a metal-dependent threshold pressure, CO2 molecules insert into metal-amine bonds, inducing a reorganization of the amines into well-ordered chains of ammonium carbamate. As a consequence, large CO2 separation capacities can be achieved with small temperature swings, and regeneration energies appreciably lower than achievable with state-of-the-art aqueous amine solutions become feasible. The results provide a mechanistic framework for designing highly efficient adsorbents for removing CO2 from various gas mixtures, and yield insights into the conservation of Mg(2+) within the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase family of enzymes.


Assuntos
Aminas/química , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Dióxido de Carbono/isolamento & purificação , Sequestro de Carbono , Adsorção , Efeito Estufa/prevenção & controle , Magnésio/metabolismo , Ribulose-Bifosfato Carboxilase/química , Ribulose-Bifosfato Carboxilase/metabolismo , Temperatura , Difração de Raios X
12.
Chemistry ; 21(12): 4646-54, 2015 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25676196

RESUMO

[Mn4O4{O2P(OtBu)2}6] (1), an Mn4O4 cubane complex combining the structural inspiration of the photosystem II oxygen-evolving complex with thermolytic precursor ligands, was synthesized and fully characterized. Core oxygen atoms within complex 1 are transferred upon reaction with an oxygen-atom acceptor (PEt3), to give the butterfly complex [Mn4O2{O2P(OtBu)2}6(OPEt3)2]. The cubane structure is restored by reaction of the latter complex with the O-atom donor PhIO. Complex 1 was investigated as a precursor to inorganic Mn metaphosphate/pyrophosphate materials, which were studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy to determine the fate of the Mn4O4 unit. Under the conditions employed, thermolyses of 1 result in reduction of the manganese to Mn(II) species. Finally, the related butterfly complex [Mn4O2{O2P(pin)}6(bpy)2] (pin = pinacolate) is described.


Assuntos
Complexos de Coordenação/química , Organofosfatos/química , Oxigênio/química , Complexos de Coordenação/síntese química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Ligantes , Manganês/química , Conformação Molecular , Oxirredução , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/química , Termodinâmica , Água/química , Espectroscopia por Absorção de Raios X
13.
J Am Chem Soc ; 135(48): 18183-90, 2013 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24224556

RESUMO

We explore the local electronic signatures of molecular adsorption at coordinatively unsaturated binding sites in the metal-organic framework Mg-MOF-74 using X-ray spectroscopy and first-principles calculations. In situ measurements at the Mg K-edge reveal distinct pre-edge absorption features associated with the unique, open coordination of the Mg sites which are suppressed upon adsorption of CO2 and N,N'-dimethylformamide. Density functional theory shows that these spectral changes arise from modifications of local symmetry around the Mg sites upon gas uptake and are strongly dependent on the metal-adsorbate binding strength. The expanded MOF Mg2(dobpdc) displays the same behavior upon adsorption of CO2 and N,N'-dimethylethylenediamine. Similar sensitivity to local symmetry is expected for any open metal site, making X-ray spectroscopy an ideal tool for examining adsorption in such MOFs. Qualitative agreement between ambient-temperature experimental and 0 K theoretical spectra is good, with minor discrepancies thought to result from framework vibrational motion.

14.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 15(28): 11634-9, 2013 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23677455

RESUMO

The presence of organic surfactants in atmospheric aerosol may lead to a depression of cloud droplet growth and evaporation rates affecting the radiative properties and lifetime of clouds. Both the magnitude and mechanism of this effect, however, remain poorly constrained. We have used Raman thermometry measurements of freely evaporating micro-droplets to determine evaporation coefficients for several concentrations of acetic acid, which is ubiquitous in atmospheric aerosol and has been shown to adsorb strongly to the air-water interface. We find no suppression of the evaporation kinetics over the concentration range studied (1-5 M). The evaporation coefficient determined for 2 M acetic acid is 0.53 ± 0.12, indistinguishable from that of pure water (0.62 ± 0.09).

15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 106(45): 18897-901, 2009 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19861551

RESUMO

Aqueous evaporation and condensation kinetics are poorly understood, and uncertainties in their rates affect predictions of cloud behavior and therefore climate. We measured the cooling rate of 3 M ammonium sulfate droplets undergoing free evaporation via Raman thermometry. Analysis of the measurements yields a value of 0.58 +/- 0.05 for the evaporation coefficient, identical to that previously determined for pure water. These results imply that subsaturated aqueous ammonium sulfate, which is the most abundant inorganic component of atmospheric aerosol, does not affect the vapor-liquid exchange mechanism for cloud droplets, despite reducing the saturation vapor pressure of water significantly.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/química , Sulfato de Amônio/química , Transição de Fase , Atmosfera/química , Clima , Cinética , Modelos Químicos , Temperatura
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 105(19): 6809-12, 2008 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18463292

RESUMO

We describe an approach for characterizing selective binding between oppositely charged ionic functional groups under biologically relevant conditions. Relative shifts in K-shell x-ray absorption spectra of aqueous cations and carboxylate anions indicate the corresponding binding strengths via perturbations of carbonyl antibonding orbitals. XAS spectra measured for aqueous formate and acetate solutions containing lithium, sodium, and potassium cations reveal monotonically stronger binding of the lighter metals, supporting recent results from simulations and other experiments. The carbon K-edge spectra of the acetate carbonyl feature centered near 290 eV clearly indicate a preferential interaction of sodium versus potassium, which was less apparent with formate. These results are in accord with the Law of Matching Water Affinities, relating relative hydration strengths of ions to their respective tendencies to form contact ion pairs. Density functional theory calculations of K-shell spectra support the experimental findings.

17.
Appl Opt ; 45(36): 9221-9, 2006 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17151763

RESUMO

A robust absorption spectrometer using the off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS) technique in a passive cavity is presented. The observed sensitivity, conceptually the detection threshold for the absorption cross section (cm2) multiplied by the concentration (cm(-3)) and normalized by the averaging time, is measured to be 1.9 x 10(-12) (1/cm square root of Hz). This high sensitivity arises from using the optical cavity to amplify the observed path length in the spectrometer while avoiding cavity resonances by careful design of the spot pattern within the cavity. The instrument is ideally suited for routine monitoring of trace gases in the near-infrared region. A spectrum showing ambient carbon monoxide at 1.57 microm is presented.

18.
J Phys Chem B ; 110(40): 20038-45, 2006 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17020392

RESUMO

It was recently suggested that liquid water primarily comprises hydrogen-bonded rings and chains, as opposed to the traditionally accepted locally tetrahedral structure (Wernet et al. Science 2004, 304, 995). This controversial conclusion was primarily based on comparison between experimental and calculated X-ray absorption spectra (XAS) using computer-generated ice-like 11-molecule clusters. Here we present calculations which conclusively show that when hydrogen-bonding configurations are chosen randomly, the calculated XAS does not reproduce the experimental XAS regardless of the bonding model employed (i.e., rings and chains vs tetrahedral). Furthermore, we also present an analysis of a recently introduced asymmetric water potential (Soper, A. K. J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 2005, 17, S3273), which is representative of the rings and chains structure, and make comparisons with the standard SPC/E potential, which represents the locally tetrahedral structure. We find that the calculated XAS from both potentials is inconsistent with the experimental XAS. However, we also show the calculated electric field distribution from the rings and chains structure is strongly bimodal and highly inconsistent with the experimental Raman spectrum, thus casting serious doubt on the validity of the rings and chains model for liquid water.

19.
J Am Chem Soc ; 128(39): 12892-8, 2006 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17002384

RESUMO

Recent theoretical and experimental studies of evaporation have suggested that on average, molecules in the higher-energy tail of the Boltzmann distribution are more readily transferred into the vapor during evaporation. To test these conclusions, the evaporative cooling rates of a droplet train of liquid water injected into vacuum have been studied via Raman thermometry. The resulting cooling rates are fit to an evaporative cooling model based on Knudsen's maximum rate of evaporation, in which we explicitly account for surface cooling. We have determined that the value of the evaporation coefficient (gamma(e)) of liquid water is 0.62 +/- 0.09, confirming that a rate-limiting barrier impedes the evaporation rate. Such insight will facilitate the formulation of a microscopic mechanism for the evaporation of liquid water.


Assuntos
Água/química , Análise Espectral Raman/instrumentação , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos , Termodinâmica , Volatilização
20.
J Phys Chem B ; 109(51): 24391-400, 2005 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16375440

RESUMO

The microscopic events engendering liquid water evaporation have received much attention over the last century, but remain incompletely understood. We present measurements of isotope fractionation occurring during free molecular evaporation from liquid microjets and show that the isotope ratios of evaporating molecules exhibit dramatic differences from equilibrium vapor values, strong variations with the solution deuterium mole fraction, and a clear temperature dependence. These results indicate the existence of an energetic barrier to evaporation and that the evaporation coefficient of water is less than unity. These new insights into water evaporation promise to advance our understanding of the processes that control the formation and lifetime of clouds in the atmosphere.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA