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Int Urogynecol J ; 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414159


INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Cheerleaders perform high-impact maneuvers that can be associated with pelvic floor dysfunction. We hypothesized that female cheerleaders would report more symptoms of pelvic floor dysfunction and fewer symptoms of premenstrual syndrome than nonathletic women. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included high-performance female cheerleaders and young nonathletic, nulliparous, and normal-weight females. Demographics, sports practices, and pelvic floor dysfunction data were collected through an electronic questionnaire. Urinary symptoms were collected through the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form (ICIQ-SF) and King's Health Questionnaire. Intestinal symptoms were collected through the use of Criterion F of item C3, referring to functional constipation of Rome III and Fecal Incontinence Severity Index. Data on sexual function were collected through the Female Sexual Function Index. Data on pelvic organ prolapse were obtained through the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Vaginal Symptoms (ICIQ-VS). In addition, questions about premenstrual syndrome-dysmenorrhea, irritability, headache, tiredness, fluid retention, and constipation-were collected through the Menstrual Symptom Questionnaire. The comparison between groups of the quantitative variables was performed using the Mann-Whitney U test. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated for comparison between groups on the occurrence of pelvic floor muscle dysfunction symptoms. A significance level of 5% was adopted. RESULTS: A total of 156 women (78 cheerleaders and 76 nonathletes) completed the electronic questionnaire. Anal incontinence was the most prevalent symptom of pelvic floor muscle dysfunction. Cheerleaders were 2.3 times more likely to report symptoms regarding anal incontinence than nonathletic women. For the other symptoms of pelvic floor dysfunction, no statistical differences between the groups were found. Cheerleaders reported fewer symptoms of tiredness and constipation during the premenstrual period than did nonathletic women. CONCLUSION: Pelvic floor dysfunction, particularly anal incontinence, appears to be more prevalent among cheerleaders than among nonathletic women. In addition, cheerleaders demonstrated fewer symptoms of tiredness and constipation during the premenstrual period.

Int Urogynecol J ; 2019 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309246


INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The purpose of the present study was to test the intra- and inter-rater reliability of the measurement of post-void residual bladder volume using ultrasound. METHODS: Two evaluators performed three measurements of the height, width, and length of the empty bladder using ultrasound. The voiding residual volume was calculated using the equation: volume = length × width × height × 0.52. Intraclass correlations (ICC) were calculated considering: ICC ≥ 0.75 excellent, 0.40 ≤ ICC < 0.75 satisfactory, and ICC <0.40 poor, with a significance level of 5% and analysis of confidence intervals (95% CI). RESULTS: Twenty women participated, with an average age of 27.95 ± 3.15 years. The inter-rater ICCs for height, width, and length were 0.96 (CI 0.89-0.98), 0.88 (CI 0.71-0.95), and 0.84 (CI0.60-0.94) respectively. For the intra-rater ICCs, the values were 0.97 (CI 0.95-0.99), 0.98 (CI 0.96-0.99), and 0.97 (CI 0.94-0.99) for evaluator 1 and 0.99 (CI 0.97-0.99), 0.97 (CI 0.94-0.99), and 0.95 (CI 0.90-0.98) for evaluator 2, for height, width, and length, respectively. The residual inter-test volume was 0.96 (CI 0.90-0.99) and the intra-test volume was 0.99 (CI 0.97-0.99). All analyses presented p < 0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: The intra- and inter-rater reliability for both the post-void residual volume and measurement of the bladder dimensions showed excellent agreement.

PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216063, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31086378


PURPOSE: The aim is to evaluate and characterize cardiovascular autonomic control and baroreflex function and their response to an orthostatic stressor in the second trimester of pregnancy via time, frequency, information and symbolic analyses. METHODS: We evaluated 22 women at 18 weeks of pregnancy, labeled as pregnant group (PG) (30.8±4.4 years), and 22 non-pregnant women (29.8±5.4 years), labeled as control group (CG). Electrocardiogram, non-invasive photoplethysmographic arterial pressure (AP) and respiratory signals were recorded at rest at left lateral decubitus (REST) and during active standing (STAND) for 10 minutes. The heart period (HP) variability and systolic AP (SAP) variability were assessed in the frequency domain. High frequency (HF) and low frequency (LF) spectral indexes were computed. Nonlinear indexes such as symbolic markers (0V%, 1V%, 2LV% and 2UV% indexes), Shannon entropy (SE) and normalized complexity index (NCI) were calculated as well. Baroreflex control was assessed by cross-spectral HP-SAP analysis. We computed baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), HP-SAP squared coherence (K2) and phase in LF and HF bands. RESULTS: At REST, the PG had lower mean, variance and HF power of HP series and lower K2(LF), BRS(LF) and BRS(HF) than the CG. During STAND, CG and PG decreased the mean, CI, NCI and 2UV% and increased 0V% of the HP series and augmented the SAP variance. LFabs of SAP series increased during STAND solely in CG. BRS(HF) was reduced during in both PG and CG, while HFabs of HP series did not diminish during STAND either in PG or CG. Complexity of the autonomic control was similar in PG and CG regardless of the experimental condition. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the second trimester of pregnancy was characterized by a lower parasympathetic modulation and reduced BRS at REST, preserved complexity of cardiac and vascular controls, limited sympathetic response to STAND and general conservation of the baroreflex responses to posture changes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Begistro Brasileiro de Ensaios clínicos, Number: RBR-9s8t88.

Med Biol Eng Comput ; 57(7): 1405-1415, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30843124


Both deterioration of the mechanical vascular properties of barosensitive vessels and autonomic derangement lead to modification of baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) in coronary artery disease (CAD) individuals. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) reduces BRS as well even in absence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy. The aim of the study is to clarify whether, assigned the degree of mechanical vascular impairment and without cardiac autonomic neuropathy, the additional autonomic dysfunction imposed in CAD patients by T2D (CAD-T2D) decreases BRS further. We considered CAD (n = 18) and CAD-T2D (n = 19) males featuring similar increases of average carotid intima media thickness (ACIMT) and we compared them to age- and gender-matched healthy (H, n = 19) subjects. BRS was computed from spontaneous beat-to-beat variability of heart period (HP) and systolic arterial pressure (SAP) at supine resting (REST) and during active standing (STAND). BRS was estimated via methods including time domain, spectral, cross-spectral, and model-based techniques. We found that (i) at REST BRS was lower in CAD and CAD-T2D groups than in H subjects but no difference was detected between CAD and CAD-T2D individuals; (ii) STAND induced an additional decrease of BRS visible in all the groups but again BRS estimates of CAD and CAD-T2D patients were alike; (iii) even though with different statistical power, BRS markers reached similar conclusions with the notable exception of the BRS computed via model-based approach that did not detect the BRS decrease during STAND. In presence of a mechanical vascular impairment, indexes estimating BRS from spontaneous HP and SAP fluctuations might be useless to detect the additional derangement of the autonomic control in CAD-T2D without cardiac autonomic neuropathy compared to CAD, thus limiting the applications of cardiovascular variability analysis to typify CAD-T2D individuals. Graphical abstract Graphical representation of the baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) estimated from spontaneous fluctuations of heart period and systolic arterial pressure via transfer function (TF) in low frequency (LF) band (from 0.04 to 0.15 Hz). BRS was reported as a function of the group (i.e., healthy (H), coronary artery disease (CAD) and CAD with type 2 diabetes (CAD-T2D) groups) at REST (black bars) and during STAND (white bars). Values are shown as mean plus standard deviation. The symbol "*" indicates a significant difference between conditions within the same group (i.e., H, CAD, or CAD-T2D) and the symbol "§" indicates a significant difference between groups within the same experimental condition (i.e., REST or STAND). BRS cannot distinguish CAD and CAD-T2D groups both at REST and during STAND, while it is useful to distinguish experimental conditions and separate pathological groups from H subjects.

J Electromyogr Kinesiol ; 44: 31-35, 2018 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30481699


BACKGROUND: Physical therapy is recommended as first-line treatment to urinary incontinence (UI), and pelvic floor muscles (PFM) training is one of the most used resources for this purpose, no ideal PFM training protocol has been established. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present study was to verify whether more daily sessions of PFM training lead to better PFM function. METHODS: Twenty-five young continent women volunteered and were randomly assigned to 2 different groups; group 1, in which they performed one PFM training session daily, and group 2, in which they performed 3 daily PFM training sessions. All volunteers were evaluated regarding PFM function, based on the Modified Oxford Scale, maximum voluntary contraction, with a manometer, and PFM activation, with electromyography. Both groups trained during 8 consecutive weeks and were evaluated before and after treatment. All evaluations had the reproducibility tested by intraclass correlation coefficients. Statistical analyzes included data normality (Shapiro-Wilks), intragroup (Wilcoxon) and intergroup (Mann-Whitney U) comparisons. Effect sizes were calculated to all variables analyzed. Significance level was set al p < 0.05. RESULTS: Even though an increase in PFM strength, pressure and muscle activation was achieved by both groups (p < 0.05, effect sizes from 0.24 to 0.81), no differences between groups for any variables were detected (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The number of daily training sessions does not interfere in the improvement of PFM function in young women without PFM dysfunction.

Int Urogynecol J ; 29(12): 1747-1755, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30143853


Electrical stimulation is widely used for pelvic floor muscle dysfunctions (PFMDs), but studies are not always clear about the parameters used, jeopardizing their reproduction. As such, this study aimed to be a reference for researchers and clinicians when using electrical stimulation for PFMD. This report was designed by experts on electrophysical agents and PFMD who determined all basic parameters that should be described. The terms were selected from the Medical Subject Headings database of controlled vocabulary. An extensive process of systematic searching of databases was performed, after which experts met and discussed on the main findings, and a consensus was achieved. Electrical stimulation parameters were described, including the physiological meaning and clinical relevance of each parameter. Also, a description of patient and electrode positioning was added. A consensus-based guideline on how to report electrical stimulation parameters for PFMD treatment was developed to help both clinicians and researchers.

J Physiother ; 64(2): 91-96, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29574170


QUESTION: Does an educational program with instructions for performing 'the Knack' improve voluntary contraction of the pelvic floor muscles, reduce reports of urinary incontinence, improve sexual function, and promote women's knowledge of the pelvic floor muscles? DESIGN: Randomised, controlled trial with concealed allocation, intention-to-treat analysis and blinded assessors. PARTICIPANTS: Ninety-nine women from the local community. INTERVENTION: The experimental group (n=50) received one lecture per week for 4 weeks, and instructions for performing 'the Knack'. The control group (n=49) received no intervention. OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was maximum voluntary contraction of the pelvic floor muscles measured using manometry. Secondary outcomes were: ability to contract the pelvic floor muscles measured using vaginal palpation; severity of urinary incontinence measured by the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form (ICIQ-SF) scored from 0 to 21; self-reported sexual function; and knowledge related to the pelvic floor. Outcomes were measured at baseline and after 4 weeks. RESULTS: The intervention did not significantly improve: maximum voluntary contraction (MD 2.7 cmH2O higher in the experimental group, 95% CI -0.5 to 5.9); ability to contract the pelvic floor muscles (RR 2.18, 95% CI 0.49 to 9.65); or self-reported severity of urinary incontinence (MD 1 point greater reduction in the experimental group, 95% CI -3 to 1). Sexual function did not significantly differ between groups, but very few of the women engaged in sexual activity during the study period. The educational program did, however, significantly increase women's knowledge related to the location, functions and dysfunctions of the pelvic floor muscles, and treatment options. CONCLUSION: Education and teaching women to perform 'the Knack' had no significant effect on voluntary contraction of the pelvic floor muscles, urinary incontinence or sexual function, but it promoted women's knowledge about the pelvic floor. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials, RBR-95sxqv. [de Andrade RL, Bø K, Antonio FI, Driusso P, Mateus-Vasconcelos ECL, Ramos S, Julio MP, Ferreira CHJ (2018) An education program about pelvic floor muscles improved women's knowledge but not pelvic floor muscle function, urinary incontinence or sexual function: a randomised trial. Journal of Physiotherapy 64: 91-96].

Int Urogynecol J ; 2018 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29508046


INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The objective was to check the effects of two nonpharmacological treatments on the sleep quality of women with nocturia. METHODS: A randomized controlled clinical trial in which 40 women with nocturia were randomized into two groups; one was subjected to tibial nerve stimulation (GTNS) and the other received pelvic floor muscle training associated with behavioral therapy (GPFMT). Both groups were followed for 12 weeks, with one session/week; evaluated by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), King's Heath Questionnaire (KHQ), and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). The Wilcoxon test was used to compare intra-group data and the Mann-Whitney test for intergroup results. Effect size and confidence interval were calculated, and the level of significance was set at 5%. RESULTS: Both groups showed improvements in quality of sleep, observed by the PSQI total score (GTNS from 9 ± 0.88 to 7 ± 0.94, p = 0.002; GPFMT from 8 ± 0.80 to 5 ± 0.94, p < 0.001) and the sleep/energy domain of the KHQ (GTNS from 66.66 ± 9.03 to 16.66 ± 7.20, p = 0.002; GPFMT from 66.66 ± 9.30 to 0.00 ± 7.26, p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Both nonpharmacological treatments proposed (TNS or PFMT) were equally able to improve quality of sleep of women with nocturia.

Fisioter. Pesqui. (Online) ; 25(1): 9-19, jan.-mar. 2018. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-892160


RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo é descrever a distribuição de fisioterapeutas na atenção primária à saúde (APS) no Brasil, e analisar a relação do número de habitantes por fisioterapeuta na APS, de acordo com o Cadastro Nacional de Estabelecimentos de Saúde (CNES). Foi realizado um estudo transversal descritivo, a partir de dados do CNES e do Censo Demográfico de 2010. A partir disso, foram identificados 6.917 cadastros de fisioterapeutas na APS, com predomínio na região Sudeste (49%), a qual, em junto com a Sul, foram as regiões com melhores relações de habitantes por fisioterapeuta na APS (aproximadamente 23.000/1), enquanto na região Norte foram observados 32.000 habitantes por profissional. Dos municípios do Brasil, 47% possuem fisioterapeuta na APS, e a análise por porte populacional indicou maior percentual de fisioterapeutas na APS em municípios de pequeno porte (39%) e médio porte (34%). A melhor relação entre habitantes por fisioterapeuta ocorreu nos municípios de pequeno porte do Sudeste (6.948/1), e a pior em metrópoles do Centro-Oeste (371.672/1). Observou-se, ainda, que municípios de pequeno porte apresentam fisioterapeutas apenas na APS, ao passo que, por outro lado, a maioria dos municípios de demais portes possui fisioterapeutas em todos os níveis de atenção.

RESUMEN El objetivo de este estudio es describir la distribución de fisioterapeutas en la atención primaria de salud (APS) en Brasil y analizar la relación del número de habitantes por fisioterapeuta en la APS, según el Registro Nacional de Establecimientos de Salud (Renaes) - Cadastro Nacional de Establecimientos de Salud (CNES) en Brasil. Se realizó un estudio transversal descriptivo desde datos del Renaes y del Censo Demográfico de 2010. Desde eso, se identificaron 6.917 registros de fisioterapeutas en la APS, con predominio en la región Sudeste de Brasil (49%), que, junto con la Sur, fueron las regiones con las mejores relaciones de habitantes por fisioterapeuta en la APS (aproximadamente 23.000/1), mientras en la región Norte se observaron 32.000 habitantes por profesional. De los municipios de Brasil, el 47% presentan fisioterapeuta en la APS y el análisis por porte poblacional indicó mayor porcentaje de fisioterapeutas en la APS en municipios de pequeño porte (39%) y medio porte (34%). La mejor relación entre habitantes por fisioterapeuta ocurrió en municipios de pequeño porte de la región Sudeste (6.948/1), y la peor en metrópolis de la Centro-Oeste (371.672/1). Se observó, además, que municipios de pequeño porte presentan fisioterapeutas solo en la APS, mientras que, por otro lado, la mayoría de los municipios de otros portes presenta fisioterapeutas en todos los niveles de atención.

ABSTRACT This study aimed to describe the distribution of physical therapists in the Brazilian primary health care (PHC) and the ratio of inhabitants per physical therapist in PHC, according to the National Register of Health Service Providers (CNES - Cadastro Nacional de Estabelecimentos de Saúde). A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from CNES and Census/2010 data. In total, 6,917 physical therapists were registered in PHC, and most were located in the Southeast region (49%). Southeast and South were the regions with the best ratios of inhabitants per physical therapist in PHC (about 23,000/1). The North presented a ratio of 32,000 inhabitants/professional. 47% of the Brazilian cities have a physical therapist in PHC. Our analysis by population size indicated a higher percentage of physical therapists in PHC in small (39%) and midsize cities (34%). The best inhabitants/physical therapist ratio occurred in small cities of the Southeast (6,948/1) and the worst, in metropolises of the Midwest (371,672/1). Small cities have physical therapists only in PHC; on the other hand, most cities of larger sizes have physical therapists in all health care levels.

Braz J Phys Ther ; 22(5): 391-399, 2018 Sep - Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29429823


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of vaginal palpation, vaginal palpation associated with posterior pelvic tilt, and intravaginal electrical stimulation in facilitating voluntary contraction of the pelvic floor muscles in women. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial in which 132 women with pelvic floor muscles function graded at 0 or 1 using the Modified Oxford Scale were randomized into four groups: vaginal palpation (n=33); vaginal palpation with posterior pelvic tilt (n=33); intravaginal electrical stimulation (n=33) and a control group (n=33) that only received verbal instructions. The primary outcome was evaluated by the Modified Oxford Scale and the secondary using the ICIQ-UI-SF. The assessment was performed at baseline with follow-up assessment after eight weeks. RESULTS: A total of 69.7% of the women from posterior pelvic tilt; 63.6% from vaginal palpation; 33.3% from intravaginal electrical stimulation; and 18.2% from control group (p<0.001) were able to attain Modified Oxford Scale greater than or equal to 2 after eight weeks. In comparison with control group, the posterior pelvic tilt (OR=10.35; 95% CI=3.26-32.84) and vaginal palpation (OR=7.87; 95% CI=2.53-24.47) had the most significant improvement as opposed to intravaginal electrical stimulation (OR=2.25; 95% CI=0.72-7.06). There was significant improvement among all of the groups in UI. The largest changes respectively were noted in the vaginal palpation, posterior pelvic tilt, intravaginal electrical stimulation and control group. There were no reports of adverse effects. CONCLUSION: Vaginal palpation with posterior pelvic tilt and vaginal palpation were more effective interventions to facilitate pelvic floor muscles contraction when compared with intravaginal electrical stimulation and controls. Vaginal palpation was the most effective in improving urinary incontinence. Clinical Trials Identifier: NCT02062242.

Pain Manag ; 7(5): 359-366, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28936905


The aim of this study will be to analyze the effects of microwave diathermy (MWD) and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on primary dysmenorrhea. Eighty eight women, age range 18-44 years, with no previous pregnancy, no practice physical activities, a BMI of ≤29.9 kg/m2, a regular menstrual cycle and a diagnosis of primary dysmenorrhea, with menstrual pain ranging from mild to severe, will be selected. The participants will be randomized into four groups: MWD and TENS, MWD and placebo TENS, placebo MWD and TENS, and placebo MWD and placebo TENS. Pain will be measured using the visual numeric scale and the McGill Pain Questionnaire; the pressure pain threshold using a digital algometer and conditioned pain modulation using the cold pressor test. Brazilian Clinical Trials Registry (RBR-5QKCK4. Registered on 16 March 2016).

Dismenorreia/terapia , Micro-Ondas/uso terapêutico , Terapia por Ondas Curtas , Estimulação Elétrica Nervosa Transcutânea , Adolescente , Adulto , Dismenorreia/radioterapia , Feminino , Humanos , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Limiar da Dor , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
Fisioter. Pesqui. (Online) ; 24(2): 211-217, abr.-jun. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-892107


RESUMO Foi realizado um estudo transversal descritivo em que se avaliou o perfil dos docentes e o conteúdo ministrado em disciplinas de Fisioterapia em Saúde da Mulher em Instituições de Ensino Superior (IES) públicas do Brasil. Docentes da área de Fisioterapia em Saúde da Mulher ou áreas afins de instituições públicas brasileiras foram convidados a preencher um questionário estruturado, contendo questões sobre dados pessoais, formação acadêmica, atuação profissional e conteúdo programático da disciplina. Os dados foram analisados de forma descritiva no Programa SAS, sendo que participaram 51 docentes, de 44 cursos de Fisioterapia, dos quais a maioria é do sexo feminino, com média de idade de 39,6±7,4 anos. A maior parte dos docentes realizam atividades de pesquisa, ensino e extensão e possuem mestrado e doutorado, mas apenas 25,5% estão credenciados em programas de pós-graduação stricto sensu. Todos os cursos oferecem pelo menos uma disciplina obrigatória e em 54,6% dos cursos é oferecido estágio obrigatório na área de Fisioterapia em Saúde da Mulher. Os conteúdos ministrados e cenários de prática são diversificados, assim como o nome das disciplinas e estágios. Na maior parte dos cursos, os alunos aprendem a realizar a palpação vaginal no estágio e as habilidades práticas são treinadas de modo diversificado e em variados cenários de prática. O nome das disciplinas são variados, assim como a forma de treinamento das habilidades práticas ministradas.

RESUMEN Fue realizado un estudio transversal descritivo en que se evaluó el perfil de los docentes y el contenido impartido en asignaturas de Fisioterapia en Salud de la Mujer en Instituciones de Educación Superior (IES) públicas de Brasil. Docentes de la área de Fisioterapia en Salud de la Mujer o áreas asociadas de instituciones públicas brasileñas fueron invitados a llenar un cuestionario estructurado con cuestiones sobre datos personales, formación académica, actuación profesional y contenido programático de la asignatura. Los datos fueron analizados de forma descritiva en el Programa SAS, siendo que participaron 51 docentes, de 44 cursos de Fisioterapia, de los cuales la mayoría es del sexo femenino, con media de edad de 39,6±7,4 años. La mayor parte de los docentes realizan actividades de investigación, enseñanza y extensión y posseen maestría y doctorado, mas sólo 25,5% estan acreditados en programas de posgrado stricto sensu. Todos los cursos ofrecen por lo menos una asignatura obligatoria y en 54,6% de los cursos es ofrecida pasantía obligatoria en la área de Fisioterapia en Salud de la Mujer. Los contenidos impartidos y escenarios de práctica son diversificados, así como el nombre de las asignaturas y pasantías. En la mayor parte de los cursos, los alumnos aprenden a realizar la palpación vaginal en la pasantía y las habilidades prácticas son entrenadas de modo diversificado y en variados escenarios de práctica. El nombre de las asignaturas son variados, así como la forma de entrenamiento de las habilidades prácticas impartidas.

ABSTRACT It was assessed the profile of faculty members and contents of Physical Therapy in Women's Health taught in Public Institutions of Higher Education in Brazil. This is a cross-sectional and descriptive study. Professors of Physical Therapy in Women's Health or related areas of Brazilian Public Institutions were invited to fill a structured questionnaire containing questions about personal information, academic background, professional experience and syllabus of the subject. Data were descriptively analyzed in the SAS Program. Fifty-one professors of 44 Physical Therapy programs participated in the research. Most of the professors were women, with an average age of 39.6 ± 7.4 years. Most of them held research, teaching and extension activities and master's and doctoral degrees, but only 25.5% are registered in Graduate Programs in Specialized Fields (Master's or Doctorate). All programs offer at least one compulsory subject and in 54.6% of the programs a compulsory internship in Physical Therapy in Women's Health is offered. The contents taught and practice scenarios are diverse, as well as the name of the subjects and internships. In most programs, students learn how to perform vaginal palpation in the internship and practical skills are trained in a diversified way and in varied practical scenarios. The professors are young, female and conduct teaching, research and extension activities. All programs offer mandatory subjects in the area and most of them offer mandatory internship. The name of the subjects vary as well as the form of training of the practical skills taught.

Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) ; 44: 83-89, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28364674


BACKGROUND: There is a frequent complaint about balance problems among fibromyalgia syndrome patients; however, there are not enough studies that have shown static postural sway of women with fibromyalgia syndrome. This study aimed to compare static postural sway of women with and without fibromyalgia syndrome. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study in which twenty-nine women with fibromyalgia syndrome and 20 without took part. A posturography evaluation was performed in six different situations (bipedal, right tandem and left tandem, with eyes opened and closed), and questionnaires for clinical depression symptoms, clinical anxiety symptoms, sleep quality, and Visual Analogue Scales for Pain and Fatigue were applied. Mann-Whitney U test was used to check differences among groups; Wilcoxon matched-pair test was used to check differences intragroup; Cohen d coefficient was used to measure effect sizes and Pearson Correlation Coefficient was used for correlations among variables. Level of significance adopted was 5%. FINDINGS: Women with fibromyalgia syndrome have presented worse postural sway than women without fibromyalgia syndrome in all situations (P<0.05), and worse scores in all questionnaires (P<0.05). In the eyes closed situations, women with fibromyalgia syndrome presented worse postural sway than women without in the same conditions. INTERPRETATION: Women with fibromyalgia syndrome have worse performance in the static posture test, more prominent in reduced support bases with eyes closed. Pain, fatigue, depression and anxiety may have directly influenced postural sway in fibromyalgia syndrome patients.

Fibromialgia/fisiopatologia , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Fadiga/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor/fisiopatologia , Medição da Dor , Inquéritos e Questionários
Physiotherapy ; 103(4): 453-458, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27956033


OBJECTIVE: Verify the effectiveness of cryotherapy in relieving perineal pain in women after vaginal delivery with episiotomy. DESIGN: Randomized controlled clinical trial. SETTING: Reference Center of Women's Health of Ribeirão Preto (MATER), in the state of São Paulo. PARTICIPANTS: The study included 50 women who reported pain in the postpartum period following vaginal delivery with episiotomy. INTERVENTION: The women in the experimental group applied a bag of crushed ice to the perineal region for 20minutes. Both groups were assessed before, immediately after removal of the ice bag, and one hour after cryotherapy treatment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Complaint of pain was evaluated using a numerical pain assessment scale (0 to 10). Perineal temperature was also measured using an infrared thermometer, and the satisfaction of women undergoing the treatment was assessed using a questionnaire. RESULTS: Pain relief was verified for the experimental group compared to the control group in the second (immediately after use of cryotherapy) and third evaluations (one hour after cryotherapy). The temperature of the perineal region was found to be related to the intensity of pain, e.g. the lower the temperature provided by cryotherapy, the lower the woman's complaint of pain. 88% of women reported being satisfied with the treatment. CONCLUSION: After 20minutes of application, cryotherapy was effective in relieving perineal pain in women in the immediate postpartum period after vaginal birth with episiotomy. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12613000052730.

Crioterapia/métodos , Parto Obstétrico/efeitos adversos , Episiotomia/efeitos adversos , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Períneo , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Período Pós-Parto , Adulto Jovem
Int Urogynecol J ; 28(6): 931-936, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27924379


INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The prevalence of sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women is high. Theoretically pelvic floor muscle (PFM) strength could influence sexual function, but to date there is scant evidence on this topic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between PFM strength and sexual function in postmenopausal women. The relationship between reported urinary incontinence (UI) and sexual dysfunction was also investigated. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study including 113 postmenopausal women. PFM strength was evaluated using vaginal manometry. Sexual function was evaluated using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). A score of ≤26.5 was considered to indicate sexual dysfunction. Urinary incontinence reports were evaluated using the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Urinary Incontinence (ICIQ-UI) Short Form. Statistical analysis was performed using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (ρ), the Mann-Whitney test and 95 % confidence intervals. RESULTS: The median age of the women was 53 years (range 42 - 65 years) and their median body mass index was 27.9 kg/m2 (range 20 - 42 kg/m2). Women without sexual dysfunction showed significantly higher PFM strength (median 41.8, range 11.3 - 94.0 cmH2O) than women with sexual dysfunction (median 30.3, range 3 - 112 cmH2O; p = 0.02). A weak correlation was found between the total FSFI score and the total ICIQ-UI score (ρ = -0.21, p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Postmenopausal women with sexual dysfunction showed lower PFM strength than women without sexual dysfunction. There was a weak correlation between urinary incontinence severity and sexual function.

Força Muscular/fisiologia , Diafragma da Pelve/fisiopatologia , Pós-Menopausa/fisiologia , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Manometria/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Incontinência Urinária/fisiopatologia , Vagina/fisiopatologia
Rev. bras. ciênc. saúde ; 21(1): 35-42, 2017. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-883138


Objetivo: Avaliar a prevalência de doenças crônicas não transmissíveis (DCNT) entre usuários adultos e idosos de Unidades de Saúde da Família do município de São Carlos/SP e identificar o perfil demográfico, utilização de serviços de saúde e as necessidades clínicas destes usuários. Materiais e métodos: O estudo foi desenvolvido em 16 USF do município de São Carlos/SP, incluindo 2407 famílias e 8844 pessoas. Dados sobre a prevalência de DCNT foram analisados para a população adulta (maior de 18 anos; n=5690). Variáveis demográficas foram analisadas para os grupos com DCNT e controle. Os dados foram analisados descritivamente e por meio do teste Qui-quadrado no programa SPSS com nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: Os resultados mostraram que a prevalência de DCNT foi de aproximadamente 35% (IC95%=33,4-35,9%), sendo maior em idosos, mulheres, indivíduos com menor grau de escolaridade, viúvos, aposentados e afastados do trabalho. Não houve associação entre as DCNT e o tabagismo. O serviço de saúde mais utilizado foi a USF em ambos os grupos. Indivíduos com DCNT utilizaram com maior frequência a Unidade de Pronto Atendimento, Unidade Básica de Saúde e Centro de Especialidades Médicas. Conclusões: Os resultados demonstraram que a prevalência de DCNT é alta entre os adultos e idosos avaliados neste estudo, o Sistema Único de Saúde é a referência para tratamento/acompanhamento desses indivíduos. Ações de planejamento para prevenção e controle das DCNT podem ser delineadas no município a partir deste perfil. (AU)

Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCD) among adults and elderly users of the Family Health Units (FHU) in São Carlos/SP and identify the demographics, use of health services and clinical needs of these users. Material and Methods: The study was conducted in 16 FHU in São Carlos/SP, including 2,407 families and 8,844 individuals. The NCD prevalence data were analyzed for the adult population (above 18 years; n=5,690). Demographic variables were analyzed for the groups with NCD and control. The data were analyzed descriptively and by the Chi-square test of association in SPSS program, with a 5% significance level. Results: The results showed that the prevalence of NCD was approximately 35% (95% CI=33.4 to 35.9%), being higher in the elderly, women, individuals with lower education, widowed and retired/off work. There was no association between smoking and NCD. The most used health service was the FHU in both groups. Individuals with NCD used most frequently the Emergency Unit, Basic Health Unit and Center for Medical Specialties. Conclusions: The results showed that the prevalence of NCD is high among the adults and elderly evaluated in this study, and that the Brazilian Public Health System is the basis for treatment/ follow-up of these individuals. Based on our data, planning actions aimed at prevention and control of NCD can be performed in the context of Primary Health Care in this municipality. (AU)

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Sistema Único de Saúde , Epidemiologia , Saúde da Família , Hipertensão
Rev. dor ; 17(4): 274-278, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-845148


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There is still lack of evidence that supports Pilates training in women with fibromyalgia syndrome. Hence, the aim of the present study was to assess the effects of Pilates on pain, quality of life, depression and anxiety in women with fibromyalgia syndrome. METHODS: Twenty female volunteers diagnosed with fibromyalgia took part on this study. Thirteen women were assigned for the treatment group and seven, for the control group. All 20 patients were evaluated before and immediately after 8 weeks. Along with the anamnesis, volunteers were assessed for the 18 tender points described by the American College of Rheumatology, for number of painful regions, pain intensity with the visual analogue scale, quality of life with the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, for depression with the Beck Depression Inventory and for anxiety with the Beck Anxiety Inventory. The treated group underwent a 1-hour Pilates session twice a week for 8 weeks. The control group remained with prior treatment interventions and therapies unchanged. RESULTS: Statistically significant improvement was observed in pain intensity and number of painful regions (p<0.05) in the treated group, whereas no statistical differences were found in other variables (p>0.05) or for the control group (p>0.05). Strong correlations were found mostly between number of active tender points and Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (r>0.8, p<0.05). CONCLUSION: The results support Pilates as a safe physical therapy resource in improving pain for fibromyalgia patients.

RESUMO JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Ainda faltam evidências que apoiem o treino de Pilates em mulheres com fibromialgia. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos do Pilates na dor, qualidade de vida, depressão e ansiedade em mulheres com fibromialgia. MÉTODOS: Vinte mulheres com diagnóstico de fibromialgia foram voluntárias do estudo. Treze foram aleatoriamente alocadas para o grupo tratamento e sete para o grupo controle. Todas as 20 pacientes foram avaliadas antes e imediatamente após o tratamento de 8 semanas. Junto com a anamnese, avaliaram-se os 18 tender points descritos pelo American College of Rheumatology para classificação da fibromialgia. Além disso, avaliou-se o número de regiões dolorosas, a intensidade da dor com a escala analógica visual, a qualidade de vida pelo Questionário de Impacto da Fibromialgia, a depressão pelo Inventário de Depressão de Beck e a ansiedade pelo Inventário de Ansiedade de Beck. O grupo tratamento realizou sessões de 1h de Pilates duas vezes por semana por 8 semanas. O grupo controle continuou com seus tratamentos anteriores ao estudo sem modificações. RESULTADOS: Melhora estatisticamente significativa foi observada na intensidade da dor e no número de regiões dolorosas (p<0,05) no grupo tratado, ao passo que não há diferenças estatísticas para outras variáveis (p>0,05) ou para o grupo controle (p>0,05). Foram encontradas fortes correlações principalmente entre o número de tender points ativos e o Questionário de Impacto da Fibromialgia (r>0,8, p<0,05). CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados obtidos apoiam o Pilates como um recurso fisioterapêutico seguro para melhorar a dor em pacientes com fibromialgia.

J Photochem Photobiol B ; 164: 96-102, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27661759


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Over the last decade we have seen an increased interest in the use of Low-Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) in diseases that involve increased oxidative stress. It is well established that hyperglycemia in diabetes elicits a rise in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production but the effect of LLLT remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate whether LLLT was able to improve oxidative/nitrosative stress parameters in the wound healing process in diabetic mice. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty male mice were divided into four groups: non-irradiated control (NIC), irradiated control (IC), non-irradiated and diabetic (NID), irradiated and diabetic (ID). Diabetes was induced by administration of streptozotocin. Wounds were created 120days after the induction of diabetes in groups IC and ID and these groups were irradiated daily for 5days (superpulsed 904nm laser, average power 40mW, 60s). All animals were sacrificed 1day after the last irradiation and histology, collagen amount, catalase activity, nitrite and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were measured. RESULTS: Histology showed that collagen fibers were more organized in IC and ID when compared to NID group, and significant differences in collagen content were found in group ID versus NID. Catalase activity was higher in IC group compared to other groups (p<0.001). TBARS levels were higher in IC versus NIC, but were lower in ID versus NID (p<0.001). Nitrite was lower in both irradiated groups versus the respective non-irradiated groups (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Delayed wound healing in diabetes is still a challenge in clinical practice with high social costs. The increased production of collagen and decreased oxidative and nitrosative stress suggests that LLLT may be a viable therapeutic alternative in diabetic wound healing.

Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade , Nitrosação/efeitos da radiação , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos da radiação , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Animais , Camundongos , Pele/metabolismo
Fisioter. pesqui ; 23(2): 136-141, abr.-jun. 2016. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-795181


RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo é comparar a função dos músculos do assoalho pélvico no segundo e terceiro trimestre gestacional de primigestas. Foi desenvolvido em duas unidades de Saúde da Família do município de Aracaju (SE). As gestantes foram submetidas a três avaliações da função dos músculos do assoalho pélvico por meio da eletromiografia de superfície: até 16 semanas gestacionais, entre a 24ª-28ª e 34ª-36ª semanas gestacionais. Foram registrados valores de repouso, contrações voluntárias máximas e contrações sustentadas. Os dados foram tabulados no Microsoft Excel e analisados estatisticamente no programa Statistica. Adotou-se um nível de significância de 5% (p≤0,05). Participaram do estudo 19 primigestas, com média de idade de 21,74±3,65 anos. Houve aumento da massa corporal no 3º trimestre gestacional em relação ao período pré-gestacional e diminuição da média do sinal dos músculos do assoalho pélvico durante o repouso ao longo das três avaliações. A musculatura abdominal diminuiu a média do sinal no repouso e durante a contração sustentada nas avaliações 2 e 3 comparadas à avaliação 1. Pode-se concluir que outros fatores, além dos relacionados ao aumento da massa corporal materna, podem estar associados à sobrecarga nos MAP durante a gestação logo no primeiro trimestre. Essa sobrecarga pode fazer que as gestantes apresentem um tônus muscular próximo ao limite superior de referência, alterando o padrão de atividade eletromiográfica principalmente no repouso, a fim de manter a função de sustentação dos órgãos pélvicos e de continência.

RESUMEN Este estudio compara la función de los músculos del suelo pélvico en el segundo y tercer trimestre de embarazo en primíparas. Se ha llevado a cabo en dos unidades de salud de la familia en la municipalidad de Aracaju (SE, Brasil). Las embarazadas fueron sometidas a tres evaluaciones de la función del músculo del suelo pélvico, a través de la electromiografía de superficie: hasta 16 semanas de embarazo, entre la 24ª-28ª y la 34ª-36ª semana. Se observaron valores de reposo, contracciones voluntarias máximas y contracciones sostenidas. Se analizaron los datos estadísticamente en el programa Statistica de Excel, empleando un nivel de significancia de 5% (p≤0,05). Participaron 19 primíparas, con promedio de edad de 21,74±3,65 años. Los resultados mostraron un aumento de la masa corpórea en el tercer trimestre de embarazo comparado al período antes del embarazo, disminución de la media del signo de los músculos del suelo pélvico durante el reposo al largo de las tres evaluaciones, y en cuanto al músculo abdominal disminuyó la media del signo en reposo y durante la contracción sostenida en las evaluaciones 2 y 3 al compararla con la 1. Se concluye que otros factores, además de los relacionados con el aumento de la masa corpórea materna, pueden asociarse con la sobrecarga en los MAP durante el embarazo, tan pronto en el primer trimestre. Esta sobrecarga le implica a la embarazada un tono muscular cerca al límite de referencia, lo que le altera el estándar de actividad electromiográfica, en especial en el reposo, para mantener sostenible los órganos pélvicos y de continencia.

ABSTRACT The purpose was to compare the function of the pelvic floor muscles in the second and third trimester of pregnancy of primigravidae. The study was carried out in two Family Health Units of the municipality of Aracaju, state of Sergipe, Brazil. Pregnant women have undergone three evaluations of the function of the pelvic floor muscles, through surface electromyography: until 16 weeks of pregnancy, between the 24th-28th and 34th-36th week of pregnancy. We recorded resting values, maximum voluntary contractions and sustained contractions. Data was tabulated in Excel and analyzed statistically in the Statistica program. A 5% significance level (p ≤ 0.05) was adopted. Nineteen primigravidae participated in this study, with an average age of 21.74 ± 3.65 years. There was an increase in body mass in the third trimester of pregnancy compared with the pre-pregnancy period, decrease in the average of the pelvic floor muscle signal during rest, along the three assessments and, in relation to the abdominal muscles, there was a decrease in the average signal at rest and during the sustained contraction in assessments 2 and 3 when compared with assessment 1. We concluded that other factors, besides those related to increased maternal body mass, may be associated with overload on PFMs during pregnancy in the first trimester. This overload can cause pregnant women to have muscle tone near the upper reference limit, thus changing the pattern of electromyographic activity, especially at rest, to maintain its support function of the continence and pelvic organs.