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1.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(6): 2323-2327, 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765512

RESUMO

Organothiol monolayers on metal substrates (Au, Ag, Cu) and their use in a wide variety of applications have been extensively studied. Here, the growth of layers of organothiols directly onto muscovite mica is demonstrated using a simple procedure. Atomic force microscopy, surface X-ray diffraction, and vibrational sum-frequency generation IR spectroscopy studies revealed that organothiols with various functional endgroups could be self-assembled into (water) stable and adaptable ultra-flat organothiol monolayers over homogenous areas as large as 1 cm2 . The strength of the mica-organothiol interactions could be tuned by exchanging the potassium surface ions for copper ions. Several of these organothiol monolayers were subsequently used as a template for calcite growth.

2.
Nano Lett ; 19(6): 3634-3640, 2019 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095394

RESUMO

X-ray diffraction is measured on individual bilayer and multilayer graphene single-crystals and combined with electrochemically induced lithium intercalation. In-plane Bragg peaks are observed by grazing incidence diffraction. Focusing the incident beam down to an area of about 10 µm × 10 µm, individual flakes are probed by specular X-ray reflectivity. By deploying a recursive Parratt algorithm to model the experimental data, we gain access to characteristic crystallographic parameters of the samples. Notably, it is possible to directly extract the bi/multilayer graphene c-axis lattice parameter. The latter is found to increase upon lithiation, which we control using an on-chip peripheral electrochemical cell layout. These experiments demonstrate the feasibility of in situ X-ray diffraction on individual, micron-sized single crystallites of few- and bilayer two-dimensional materials.


Assuntos
Grafite/química , Lítio/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Algoritmos , Nanoestruturas/ultraestrutura , Difração de Raios X , Raios X
3.
Nat Mater ; 17(9): 827-833, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30013055

RESUMO

Tuning the surface structure at the atomic level is of primary importance to simultaneously meet the electrocatalytic performance and stability criteria required for the development of low-temperature proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). However, transposing the knowledge acquired on extended, model surfaces to practical nanomaterials remains highly challenging. Here, we propose 'surface distortion' as a novel structural descriptor, which is able to reconciliate and unify seemingly opposing notions and contradictory experimental observations in regards to the electrocatalytic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) reactivity. Beyond its unifying character, we show that surface distortion is pivotal to rationalize the electrocatalytic properties of state-of-the-art of PtNi/C nanocatalysts with distinct atomic composition, size, shape and degree of surface defectiveness under a simulated PEMFC cathode environment. Our study brings fundamental and practical insights into the role of surface defects in electrocatalysis and highlights strategies to design more durable ORR nanocatalysts.

4.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 2662, 2018 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29422517

RESUMO

Surface X-ray Diffraction was used to study the transformation of a carbon-supersaturated carbidic precursor toward a complete single layer of graphene in the temperature region below 703 K without carbon supply from the gas phase. The excess carbon beyond the 0.45 monolayers of C atoms within a single Ni2C layer is accompanied by sharpened reflections of the |4772| superstructure, along with ring-like diffraction features resulting from non-coincidence rotated Ni2C-type domains. A dynamic Ni2C reordering process, accompanied by slow carbon loss to subsurface regions, is proposed to increase the Ni2C 2D carbide long-range order via ripening toward coherent domains, and to increase the local supersaturation of near-surface dissolved carbon required for spontaneous graphene nucleation and growth. Upon transformation, the intensities of the surface carbide reflections and of specific powder-like diffraction rings vanish. The associated change of the specular X-ray reflectivity allows to quantify a single, fully surface-covering layer of graphene (2 ML C) without diffraction contributions of rotated domains. The simultaneous presence of top-fcc and bridge-top configurations of graphene explains the crystal truncation rod data of the graphene-covered surface. Structure determination of the |4772| precursor surface-carbide using density functional theory is in perfect agreement with the experimentally derived X-ray structure factors.

5.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(30): 25298-25307, 2017 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28649841

RESUMO

The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity of Pt-alloy electrocatalysts depends on (i) the strain/ligand effects induced by the non-noble metal (3d-transition metal or a rare-earth element) alloyed to Pt, (ii) the orientation of the catalytic surfaces, and (iii) the density of structural defects (SDs) (e.g., vacancies, voids, interconnections). These SDs influence the "generalized" coordination number of Pt atoms, the Pt-alloy lattice parameter, and thus the adsorption strength of the ORR intermediates (O*, OH*, OOH*). Here, we discuss a set of parameters derived from COads stripping measurements and the Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, aiming to show how the leaching of the non-noble metal and the density of SDs influence the ORR activity of porous hollow PtNi/C nanoparticles (PH-PtNi/C NPs). PH-PtNi/C NPs were aged at T = 353 K in an Ar-saturated 0.1 M HClO4 electrolyte during 20 000 potential cycles between E = 0.6 and 1.0 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode, with an intermediate characterization after 5000 cycles. The losses in the ORR specific activity were attributed to the dissolution of Ni atoms (modifying strain/ligand effects) and to the increase of the crystallite size (dXRD), resulting in a diminution of the density of grain boundaries. In agreement with the Gibbs-Thompson equation, the electrocatalysts that presented larger crystallites (dXRD > 3 nm) were far more stable than the ones with the smallest crystallites (dXRD < 2 nm). We also observed that performing intermediate characterizations (in an O2-saturated electrolyte) results in activity losses for the ORR.

6.
Nano Lett ; 17(4): 2447-2453, 2017 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28340297

RESUMO

Determining the formation and growth mechanism of bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) with atomic detail is fundamental to synthesize efficient "catalysts by design". However, an understanding of the elementary steps which take place during their synthesis remains elusive. Herein, we have exploited scanning transmission electron microscopy coupled to energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, operando wide angle and small-angle X-ray scattering, and electrochemistry to unveil the formation and growth mechanism of hollow PtNi/C NPs. Such NPs, composed of a PtNi shell surrounding a nanoscale void, catalyze efficiently and sustainably the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in an acidic electrolyte. Our step-by-step study reveals that (i) Ni-rich/C NPs form first, before being embedded in a NixByOz shell, (ii) the combined action of galvanic displacement and the nanoscale Kirkendall effect then results in the sequential formation of Ni-rich core@Pt-rich/C shell and ultimately hollow PtNi/C NPs. The electrocatalytic properties for the ORR and the stability of the different synthesis intermediates were tested and structure-activity-stability relationships established both in acidic and alkaline electrolytes. Beyond its interest for the ORR electrocatalysis, this study also presents a methodology that is capable to unravel the formation and growth mechanism of various nanomaterials including preferentially shaped metal NPs, core@shell NPs, onion-like NPs, Janus NPs, or a combination of several of these structures.

7.
J Am Chem Soc ; 139(12): 4532-4539, 2017 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28252295

RESUMO

The surface restructuring of Pt(111) electrodes upon electrochemical oxidation/reduction in 0.1 M HClO4 was studied by in situ grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering and complementary scanning tunneling microscopy measurements. These methods allow quantitative determination of the formation and structural evolution of nanoscale Pt islands during potential cycles into the oxidation region. A characteristic ripening behavior is observed, where these islands become more prominent and homogeneous in size with increasing number of cycles. Their characteristic lateral dimensions primarily depend on the upper potential limit of the cycle and only slightly increase with cycle number. The structural evolution of the Pt surface morphology strongly resembles that found in studies of Pt(111) homoepitaxial growth and ion erosion in ultrahigh vacuum. It can be fully explained by a microscopic model based on the known surface dynamic behavior under vacuum conditions, indicating that the same dynamics also describe the structural evolution of Pt in the electrochemical environment.

8.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 8(5): 1067-1071, 2017 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28201875

RESUMO

Processes at material interfaces to liquids or to high-pressure gases often involve structural changes that are heterogeneous on the micrometer scale. We present a novel in situ X-ray scattering technique that uses high-energy photons and a transmission geometry for atomic-scale studies under these conditions. Transmission surface diffraction gives access to a large fraction of reciprocal space in a single acquisition, allowing direct imaging of the in-plane atomic arrangement at the interface. Experiments with focused X-ray beams enable mapping of these structural properties with micrometer spatial resolution. The potential of this new technique is illustrated by in situ studies of electrochemical surface phase transitions and deposition processes.

9.
Langmuir ; 32(49): 12955-12965, 2016 12 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27951689

RESUMO

The solid-liquid interface formed by single terminated muscovite mica in contact with two different ionic solutions is analyzed using surface X-ray diffraction. Specular and nonspecular crystal truncation rods of freshly cleaved mica immersed in CsCl or RbBr aqueous solution were measured. The half monolayer of the surface potassium ions present after the cleavage is completely replaced by the positive ions (Cs+ or Rb+) from the solution. These ions are located in the ditrigonal surface cavities with small outward relaxations with respect to the bulk potassium position. We find evidence for the presence of a partly ordered hydration shell around the surface Cs+ or Rb+ ions and partly ordered negative ions in the solution. The lateral liquid ordering induced by the crystalline surface vanishes at distances larger than 5 Å from the surface.

10.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 87(11): 113705, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27910601

RESUMO

We have developed a new instrument combining a scanning probe microscope (SPM) and an X-ray scattering platform for ambient-pressure catalysis studies. The two instruments are integrated with a flow reactor and an ultra-high vacuum system that can be mounted easily on the diffractometer at a synchrotron end station. This makes it possible to perform SPM and X-ray scattering experiments in the same instrument under identical conditions that are relevant for catalysis.

11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 113(34): 9521-6, 2016 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27503887

RESUMO

In nature, biomolecules are often organized as functional thin layers in interfacial architectures, the most prominent examples being biological membranes. Biomolecular layers play also important roles in context with biotechnological surfaces, for instance, when they are the result of adsorption processes. For the understanding of many biological or biotechnologically relevant phenomena, detailed structural insight into the involved biomolecular layers is required. Here, we use standing-wave X-ray fluorescence (SWXF) to localize chemical elements in solid-supported lipid and protein layers with near-Ångstrom precision. The technique complements traditional specular reflectometry experiments that merely yield the layers' global density profiles. While earlier work mostly focused on relatively heavy elements, typically metal ions, we show that it is also possible to determine the position of the comparatively light elements S and P, which are found in the most abundant classes of biomolecules and are therefore particularly important. With that, we overcome the need of artificial heavy atom labels, the main obstacle to a broader application of high-resolution SWXF in the fields of biology and soft matter. This work may thus constitute the basis for the label-free, element-specific structural investigation of complex biomolecular layers and biological surfaces.


Assuntos
Bicamadas Lipídicas/química , Proteolipídeos/química , Espectrometria por Raios X/métodos , Antraquinonas/química , Glicosídeos/química , Humanos , Fosfatidilcolinas/química , Albumina Sérica Humana/química , Soluções , Espectrometria por Raios X/instrumentação
12.
J Appl Crystallogr ; 48(Pt 4): 1324-1329, 2015 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26306093

RESUMO

BINoculars is a tool for data reduction and analysis of large sets of surface diffraction data that have been acquired with a two-dimensional X-ray detector. The intensity of each pixel of a two-dimensional detector is projected onto a three-dimensional grid in reciprocal-lattice coordinates using a binning algorithm. This allows for fast acquisition and processing of high-resolution data sets and results in a significant reduction of the size of the data set. The subsequent analysis then proceeds in reciprocal space. It has evolved from the specific needs of the ID03 beamline at the ESRF, but it has a modular design and can be easily adjusted and extended to work with data from other beamlines or from other measurement techniques. This paper covers the design and the underlying methods employed in this software package and explains how BINoculars can be used to improve the workflow of surface X-ray diffraction measurements and analysis.

13.
Langmuir ; 30(42): 12570-7, 2014 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25263250

RESUMO

Stable layers of crown ethers were grown on muscovite mica using the potassium-crown ether interaction. The multilayers were grown from solution and from the vapor phase and were analyzed with atomic force microscopy (AFM), matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry, and surface X-ray diffraction (SXRD). The results show that the first molecular layer of the three investigated dibenzo crown ethers is more rigid than the second because of the strong interaction of the first molecular layer with the potassium ions on the surface of muscovite mica. SXRD measurements revealed that for all of the investigated dibenzo crown ethers the first molecule lies relatively flat whereas the second lies more upright. The SXRD measurements further revealed that the molecules of the first layer of dibenzo-15-crown-5 are on top of a potassium atom, showing that the binding mechanism of this layer is indeed of the coordination complex form. The AFM and SXRD data are in good agreement, and the combination of these techniques is therefore a powerful way to determine the molecular orientation at surfaces.

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