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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444117

RESUMO

Tobacco taxation and price policies are considered the most effective for lowering demand for tobacco products. While this statement is based on research from numerous countries, scant evidence exists on this topic for Israel. Accordingly, we assessed the association between cigarette prices and smoking prevalence and intensity from a national sample of adults in Israel (2002-2017). Data on smoking behavior were derived from the Israeli Knowledge Attitudes and Practices (KAP) survey, a repeated cross-sectional survey. Price information is from the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) since it was not collected in the KAP survey. We used the price of a pack of 20 cigarettes for Marlboro and the local brand. These two price variables were the primary independent variables, and we adjusted for inflation. The dependent variables were current smoking (yes/no) and smoking intensity, defined as the number of cigarettes smoked per week. Multivariable analysis was employed using a two-part model while adjusting for covariates. The first step of the model utilized logistic regression with current smoking as the dependent variable. The second step examining smoking intensity as the dependent variable, used OLS regression. Price elasticity was estimated as well. Analysis revealed that a one-unit increase (Israeli currency) in the price of local brand of cigarettes was related to 2.0% (OR = 0.98; 95%CI 0.98, 0.99) lower odds of being a current smoker, adjusting for covariates including household income. Moreover, a one unit increase in the price of the local brand of cigarettes was related to consuming 1.49 (95% CI -1.97, -1.00) fewer weekly cigarettes, controlling for household income and covariates. Similar results were found with the Marlboro cigarette prices. The total price elasticity of cigarette demand, given by the sum of price elasticities of smoking prevalence and intensity, showed that a 10.0% increase in the price is associated with a 4.6-9.2% lower cigarette consumption among Israeli adults. Thus, increasing cigarette prices will likely lead to a reduction in cigarette smoking thereby improving public health in Israel.


Assuntos
Comércio , Produtos do Tabaco , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Impostos
2.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e047743, 2021 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34261685

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the relationship between long-term weight loss (LTWL) success and lifestyle behaviours among US adults. DESIGN: Serial cross-sectional data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey cycles 2007-2014. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Population-based nationally representative sample. The analytic sample included 3040 adults aged 20-64 years who tried to lose weight in the past year. MEASURES: Participants were grouped into five LTWL categories (<5%, 5%-9.9%, 10%-14.9%, 15%-19.9% and ≥20%). Lifestyle-related behaviours included the following: alcohol intake, physical activity, smoking, fast-food consumption, dietary quality (Healthy Eating Index (HEI)) and caloric intake. Multivariable regression was employed adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, education, household income and size, current body mass index and self-reported health status. RESULTS: Individuals in the 15%-19.9% LTWL group differed significantly from the reference group (<5% LTWL) in their physical activity and dietary quality (HEI) but not caloric intake. Specifically, they had a higher HEI score (ß=3.19; 95% CI 0.39 to 5.99) and were more likely to meet physical activity guidelines (OR=1.99; 95% CI 1.11 to 3.55). In comparison, the ≥20% LTWL group was significantly more likely to smoke (OR=1.63; 95% CI 1.03 to 2.57) and to consume lower daily calories (ß=-202.91; 95% CI -345.57 to -60.25) than the reference group; however, dietary quality and physical activity did not significantly differ. CONCLUSION: Among a national sample of adults, a higher level of LTWL success does not necessarily equate to healthy weight loss behaviours. Future research should attempt to design interventions aimed at facilitating weight loss success while encouraging healthy lifestyle behaviours.


Assuntos
Dieta , Perda de Peso , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estados Unidos
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067414

RESUMO

Despite adults' desire to reduce body mass (weight) for numerous health benefits, few are able to successfully lose at least 5% of their starting weight. There is evidence on the independent associations of physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and sleep with weight loss; however, this study provided insight on the combined effects of these behaviors on long-term body weight loss success. Hence, the purpose of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the joint relations of sleep, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors with successful long-term weight loss. Data are from the 2005-2006 wave of the National Health and Examination Survey (NHANES). Physical activity and sedentary behavior were measured with an accelerometer, whereas sleep time was self-reported. Physical activity and sleep were dichotomized into meeting guidelines (active/not active, ideal sleep/short sleep), and sedentary time was categorized into prolonged sedentary time (4th quartile) compared to low sedentary time (1st-3rd quartiles). The dichotomized behaviors were combined to form 12 unique behavioral combinations. Two-step multivariable regression models were used to determine the associations between the behavioral combinations with (1) long-term weight loss success (≥5% body mass reduction for ≥12-months) and (2) the amount of body mass reduction among those who were successful. After adjustment for relevant factors, there were no significant associations between any of the independent body weight loss behaviors (physical activity, sedentary time, and sleep) and successful long-term weight loss. However, after combining the behaviors, those who were active (≥150 min MVPA weekly), regardless of their sedentary time, were significantly (p < 0.05) more likely to have long-term weight loss success compared to the inactive and sedentary referent group. These results should be confirmed in longitudinal analyses, including investigation of characteristics of waking (type, domain, and context) and sleep (quality metrics) behaviors for their association with long-term weight loss success.


Assuntos
Comportamento Sedentário , Perda de Peso , Acelerometria , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Sono
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emotional eating, the tendency to overeat in response to negative emotions, has been linked to weight gain. However, scant evidence exists examining the prevalence and correlates of emotional eating among large samples of adults in the United States (U.S.). Hence, we examine the relationship among individual and socioeconomic factors, health behaviors, and self-regulation with emotional eating patterns among U.S. adults. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of 5863 Family Health Habits Survey participants. Multivariable, ordered, logistic regression was employed to examine the relationship between the frequency of the desire to eat when emotionally upset (never, rarely, sometimes, often, and very often) and the independent variables. RESULTS: Analysis reveals that 20.5% of the sample tended to emotionally eat often or very often. Being female, non-Hispanic White, and of younger age were all related to a higher likelihood of emotional eating. Additionally, inability to delay gratification (impatience) was related to an 18% increased likelihood (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-1.33) for emotional eating. Finally, emotional eating was significantly related to more frequent fast-food consumption. CONCLUSIONS: Program planners might need to develop targeted interventions aimed at enhancing emotional regulation skills while addressing these less healthful behaviors (e.g., fast-food intake) with the goal of obesity and chronic disease prevention.


Assuntos
Estilo de Vida , Autocontrole , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Alimentos , Emoções , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
Tob Control ; 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite modest progress in reducing tobacco use, tobacco remains one of the major risk factors for non-communicable diseases in Bangladesh. METHODS: Using disease-specific, prevalence-based, cost-of-illness approach, this research estimated the economic costs of tobacco use and exposure to secondhand smoke based on data collected from a nationally representative survey of 10 119 households in 2018. RESULTS: The study estimated that 1.5 million adults were suffering from tobacco-attributable diseases and 61 000 children were suffering from diseases due to exposure to secondhand smoke in Bangladesh in 2018. Tobacco use caused 125 718 deaths in that year, accounting for 13.5% of all-cause deaths. The total economic cost was 305.6 billion Bangladeshi taka (BDT) (equivalent to 1.4% of gross domestic product or US$3.61 billion), including direct costs (private and public health expenditures) of BDT83.9 billion and indirect costs (productivity loss due to morbidity and premature mortality) of BDT221.7 billion. The total economic cost of tobacco more than doubled since 2004. CONCLUSION: Tobacco use imposes a significant and increasing disease and financial burden on society. The enormous tobacco-attributable healthcare costs and productivity loss underscore the need to strengthen the implementation of tobacco control policies to curb the epidemic.

8.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 71(Pt A): 101893, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477084

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption is an established risk factor for several cancer types, but there are no contemporary published estimates of the state-level burden of cancer attributed to alcoholic beverage consumption. Such estimates are needed to inform public policy and cancer control efforts. We estimated the proportion and number of incident cancer cases and cancer deaths attributable to alcohol consumption by sex in adults aged ≥30 years in all 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2013-2016. METHODS: Age-, sex-, and state-specific cancer incidence and mortality data (2013-2016) were obtained from the US Cancer Statistics database. State-level, self-reported age and sex stratified alcohol consumption prevalence was estimated using the 2003-2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys and adjusted with state sales data. RESULTS: The proportion of alcohol-attributable incident cancer cases ranged from 2.9 % (95 % confidence interval: 2.7 %-3.1 %) in Utah to 6.7 % (6.4 %-7.0 %) in Delaware among men and women combined, from 2.7 % (2.5 %-3.0 %) in Utah to 6.3 % (5.9 %-6.7 %) in Hawaii among men, and from 2.7 % (2.4 %-3.0 %) in Utah to 7.7 % (7.2 %-8.3 %) in Delaware among women. The proportion of alcohol-attributable cancer deaths also varied considerably across states: from 1.9 % to 4.5 % among men and women combined, from 2.1% to 5.0% among men, and from 1.4 % to 4.4 % among women. Nationally, alcohol consumption accounted for 75,199 cancer cases and 18,947 cancer deaths annually. CONCLUSION: Alcohol consumption accounts for a considerable proportion of cancer incidence and mortality in all states. Implementing state-level policies and cancer control efforts to reduce alcohol consumption could reduce this cancer burden.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Sistema de Vigilância de Fator de Risco Comportamental , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
Cancer Causes Control ; 32(3): 311-316, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33496899

RESUMO

PURPOSE: There are limited data on the burden of cancer attributable to cigarette smoking by metropolitan areas to inform local tobacco control policies in the USA. We estimated the proportion of cancer deaths attributable to cigarette smoking (or population attributable fraction [PAF]) in 152 U.S. metropolitan or micropolitan statistical areas (MMSAs). METHODS: Smoking-related PAFs for cancer mortality in ages ≥ 30 years in 2013-2017 were estimated using cross-sectional age-, sex-, and MMSA-specific cigarette smoking prevalence and cancer mortality data obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and the U.S. Cancer Statistics Database, respectively. RESULTS: Overall smoking-related PAFs of cancer ranged from 8.8% (95% CI, 6.3-11.9%) to 35.7% (33.3-37.9%); MMSAs with the highest PAFs were in the South region and Appalachia. PAFs also substantially varied across MMSAs within regions or states. In the Northeast, for example, the PAF ranged from 24.2% (23.7-24.7%) to 33.7% (31.3-36.2%). CONCLUSION: The proportion of cancer deaths attributable to cigarette smoking is considerable in each MMSA, with as many as 4 in 10 cancer deaths attributable to smoking in the South region and Appalachia. Broad and equitable implementation and enforcement of proven tobacco control interventions at all government levels could avert many cancer deaths across the USA.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/mortalidade , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Cidades/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/etiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33466388

RESUMO

Background: Tobacco growing has been considered a mainstay of Mozambique's economy, but there is a dearth of analysis of the tobacco policy landscape in the country. Methods: Review of government and non-government documents and academic papers addressing Mozambique's tobacco-growing history, the changes in the political economy of tobacco, and health policies addressing tobacco use and prevention of noncommunicable diseases. Results: Despite its tobacco growing and exporting history, the contribution of tobacco to the economy has been in steady decline in the past two decades, including in the areas dedicated to growing. At the same time there has been an increase in multinational control of the tobacco economy. In parallel, Mozambique's commitment to addressing the growing burden of noncommunicable disease and accession to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control indicate a potential for internal government tensions to balance immediate economic interests with long term health goals. Conclusions: With the decline in tobacco share of the overall economy, Mozambique may be well-positioned to explore alternative, sustainable livelihoods for farmers that grow tobacco, but it must overcome inter-sectoral barriers and advocate for a whole of government approach to address the health and economic impact of tobacco.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde , Indústria do Tabaco/economia , Produtos do Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Agricultura , Humanos , Moçambique , Tabaco/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia
11.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 23(1): 40-47, 2021 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697827

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tobacco product prices and consumers' income are the two major economic determinants of tobacco demand. The affordability of tobacco products is dependent on the price of tobacco products relative to consumer income. Increase in tobacco tax is expected to lead to higher price, lower affordability, and reduced consumption. Price elasticity and affordability elasticity are used in analyzing the effect of tobacco tax increases on tobacco consumption and public health. The availability of both parameters raises the question of which one to apply in policy discussions. AIMS AND METHODS: Using global data on cigarette consumption, price, income, and tobacco control measures for 169 countries over 2007-2016, this study estimated the price elasticity and affordability elasticity of cigarette consumption by country income classification using country-specific fixed effects model for panel data. RESULTS: The estimates show that the restriction of equal strength of the effects of price and income changes on tobacco consumption maintained in affordability elasticity estimation is valid for low- and middle-income countries, while it is rejected for high-income countries. CONCLUSIONS: Affordability elasticity may prove to be a useful parameter to explain and predict the sensitivity of consumers to tobacco tax and price policy changes under conditions of robust economic growth, which are more likely to be observed in countries with initial low- or middle-income setting. It can provide a reasonable benchmark for tobacco tax and price increase necessary to effectively reduce affordability and consumption of tobacco, which can form a basis for building systematic tax and price increases into the tobacco tax policy mechanism. IMPLICATIONS: Price elasticity measures the sensitivity of consumers to changes in real prices, holding real income constant. Affordability elasticity measures the sensitivity of consumers to price changes adjusted for inflation and income changes. Existing scientific literature on tobacco demand abounds in both price and affordability elasticity estimates, without providing a clear explanation of the theoretical and policy implications of using one parameter over the other. By estimating and comparing price and affordability elasticities for high-income and low-and-middle-income countries separately, this article offers a guide to the practitioners in tobacco taxation for evaluating the effectiveness of tax-induced price increases on tobacco consumption.


Assuntos
Comércio/economia , Custos e Análise de Custo , Renda , Impostos/economia , Produtos do Tabaco/economia , Uso de Tabaco/economia , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Pública , Uso de Tabaco/psicologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 23(5): 780-789, 2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960217

RESUMO

Regulatory authorities have devoted increasing attention and resources to a range of issues surrounding the regulation of novel nicotine and tobacco products. This review highlights the inherent complexity of evaluating prospective policies that pertain to products that heat solutions containing nicotine, but not tobacco leaf, sometimes referred to as electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is compelled to incorporate a set of public health criteria in their decision making, collectively referred to as the Population Health Standard. Adherence to this standard is necessary to estimate the impact of prospective ENDS policy decisions on net population harm associated with nontherapeutic nicotine products. For policies that are expected to decrease or increase ENDS use, application of the Population Health Standard requires a comprehensive assessment of the status quo impact of ENDS use on population health. Accordingly, this review first assesses the state of the evidence on the direct harms of ENDS and the indirect effects of ENDS use on smoking, particularly rates of initiation and cessation. After that, the example of flavor restrictions is used to demonstrate the further considerations that are involved in applying the Population Health Standard to a prospective ENDS policy. Implications: This narrative review aims to inform regulatory considerations about ENDS through the prism of the Population Health Standard. More specifically, this review (1) describes and explains the importance of this approach; (2) provides guidance on evaluating the state of the evidence linking ENDS to the net population harm associated with nontherapeutic nicotine products; and (3) illustrates how this framework can inform policymaking using the example of flavor restrictions.

13.
Tob Control ; 30(3): 320-327, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent research in several countries has demonstrated that small-holder tobacco farming is typically not a profitable enterprise. Many farming households report losing money in this economic endeavour, even without incorporating the value of their household labour. Losses are typically considerably worse when household labour is considered. We take advantage of panel data that include information about both current and former tobacco farming households' characteristics and economic decisions to be the first to rigorously estimate the effects of both tobacco and non-tobacco farming on income. METHODS: We designed and implemented a two-wave economic survey of current and former tobacco farming households in Indonesia's two largest tobacco-growing regions. We use regression analysis to estimate the effects of tobacco farming on household income per farming area in both survey waves. RESULTS: We find that former tobacco farming households are typically generating profits from their non-tobacco farming, while current tobacco farming households experience greater variability, including experiencing economic losses. Former tobacco farming households' income were comparable to current tobacco farming households' even in the period in which tobacco leaf production and prices of tobacco leaf were relatively high. We find a negative and significant effect of tobacco farming on household income. CONCLUSIONS: One of the main arguments from those opposing tobacco control policies-especially increasing cigarette excise taxes-is their alleged effect on tobacco farming households' livelihoods through a lower demand for tobacco leaves. Our finding that there is a negative effect of tobacco farming on household income shows that the narrative is grossly inaccurate. Shifting to non-tobacco farming would allow farming households to reallocate their resources to other more lucrative economic opportunities.

14.
Am J Prev Med ; 60(2): 151-158, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032869

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The trends in e-cigarette prevalence and population count of users according to cigarette smoking histories are unknown. These data are needed to inform public health actions against a rapidly changing U.S. e-cigarette market. METHODS: Data collected between 2014 and 2018 (analyzed in 2020) from cross-sectional, nationally representative National Health Interview Surveys were used to estimate current e-cigarette prevalence, adjusted prevalence differences (percentage points), and population counts of users. Analyses were stratified by age group (younger, 18-29 years, n=25,445; middle age, 30-49 years, n=47,745; older, ≥50 years, n=79,517) and cigarette smoking histories (current smokers, recent quitters [quit <1 year ago], near-term quitters [quit 1-8 years ago], long-term quitters [quit >8 years ago], never smokers). RESULTS: Among younger adults, e-cigarette use increased in all groups of smokers, with notable increases between 2014 and 2018 among never smokers (1.3%-3.3%, adjusted prevalence difference=2%, p<0.001) and near-term quitters (9.1%-19.2%, adjusted prevalence difference=8.8%, p=0.024). Conversely, the only substantial increase in e-cigarette use between 2014 and 2018 among middle-aged (5.8%-14.4%, adjusted prevalence difference=8.2%, p<0.001) and older (6.3%-9.5%, adjusted prevalence difference=3.3%, p=0.045) adults was among near-term quitters. The largest absolute population increase in e-cigarette users between 2014 and 2018 was among younger-adult never smokers (0.49-1.35 million), followed by near-term quitters among middle-aged (0.36-0.95 million), younger (0.23-0.57 million), and older (0.35-0.50 million) adults. CONCLUSIONS: The continuous increase among younger-adult never smokers suggests a rise in primary nicotine initiation with e-cigarettes. The concomitant increase among near-term quitters of all age groups suggests continuing e-cigarette use among smokers who may have switched from cigarettes previously.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Vaping , Adolescente , Adulto , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
15.
Tob Control ; 30(2): 125-131, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139405

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare two methods to estimate the magnitude of the illicit cigarette trade in Mexico and to contrast these results with tobacco industry figures. METHODS: We used two survey methods: a smoker survey and a discarded pack survey. Data were collected in eight major cities in Mexico between November and December 2017. A total of 2396 face-to-face interviews to adult smokers were conducted and 8204 discarded packs were collected. To determine whether cigarette packs were intended for the Mexican market, we analysed pack features required by Mexican regulations and self-reported brands of the last purchase. Standard statistical tests to compare proportions were employed. Correlates of illicit cigarette use were also analysed. RESULTS: The share of cigarettes not intended for the Mexican market was 8.8% based on the analysis of discarded packs and 7.6% based on the survey of smokers, that is, the difference was small and only borderline significant overall (p=0.055). Also, both results were lower than those presented by the tobacco industry (16.6%). However, differences across methods were statistically significant for various cities. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the optimal practice for the study of illicit trade is to cross validate estimates using both the smoker survey and the littered pack survey. If resources are limited, however, our findings indicate that either method could be used because both yield similar overall results, as longs as the potential biases are considered. Also, consistent with findings from other studies, our results suggest that the tobacco industry exaggerates the scope of illicit cigarette trade.

16.
Tob Control ; 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33273055

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Policies raising the minimum age of sale of tobacco products to 21 (T21) proliferated at state and local levels across the USA before a federal policy was adopted. Evidence of the effectiveness of these policies is building and lags implementation. This study exploits demographic patterns of cigarette brand purchasing to evaluate the effectiveness of T21. METHODS: To capture the effect of T21 implementation on cigarette sales, we used universal product code-level data from Nielsen Scantrack data covering January 2015 to October 2019. We used the 2015 to 2018 National Survey on Drug Use and Health to identify cigarette brands where smokers under 21 comprised a disproportionately high (young) and low (old) share of consumption. We fit fixed-effects linear regressions in Nielsen designated market areas to test if sales of young or old cigarette brands were changed by T21. Unadjusted models controlled for time and T21 implementation date. Adjusted models controlled for price, seasonality and unemployment. A permutation test of 5000 randomised placebo T21 policies were fit to determine how well the true date of implementation fit sales data stratified by brand group. RESULTS: Sales of disproportionately young brands declined after T21 implementation. T21 policy implementation dates fit disproportionately young brand sales trends better than 99% of adjusted randomised placebo models. T21 implementation fit disproportionately old brand sales trends better than just 1% of adjusted randomised placebo models. CONCLUSION: This study adds compelling empirical evidence that T21 decreased purchases of the cigarette brands consumed disproportionately by young people, the policy's target demographic.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348533

RESUMO

The extent of tobacco cultivation remains substantially high in Bangladesh, which is the 12th largest tobacco producer in the world. Using data from a household survey of current, former, and never tobacco farmers, based on a multi-stage stratified sampling design with a mix of purposive and random sampling of households, this study estimated the financial and economic profitability per acre of land used for tobacco cultivation. The environmental effects of tobacco cultivation on land and water resources were estimated using laboratory tests of sample water and soil collected from tobacco-cultivating and non-tobacco cultivating areas. The study finds that tobacco cultivation turns into a losing concern when the opportunity costs of unpaid family labour and other owned resources, and the health effects of tobacco cultivation are included. Tobacco cultivation poses a significantly high environmental cost that causes a net loss to society. Nevertheless, the availability of unpaid family labour and the options of advanced credit as well as a buy back guarantee from the tobacco companies attract farmers to engage in and continue tobacco cultivation. Therefore, supply side interventions to curb the tobacco epidemic in Bangladesh need to address major drivers of tobacco cultivation to correct the wrong incentives and motivate tobacco farmers to switch to alternative livelihood options.


Assuntos
Agricultura/economia , Tabaco , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Fazendeiros , Fazendas , Humanos
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33334032

RESUMO

Understanding the variables that affect farmers' decisions as to whether to grow tobacco and/or other crops provides important insights into their economic lives and can help to inform the development and implementation of policies that shape both tobacco production and tobacco control, such as increasing tobacco excise taxes. This study employs complementary quantitative and qualitative methodologies to identify variables that affect tobacco farmers' economic decision making in Indonesia, a major tobacco producer. The research focuses on the variables that affect tobacco farmers' decisions to continue tobacco farming or shift to non-tobacco farming. It finds that tobacco farmers' decision making is complex but also predictable. The results of the quantitative analysis suggest that farming profits and positive rainfall shocks are two of the key variables that affect the decision to cultivate tobacco. The qualitative results confirm these findings and further illuminate that access to credit, education (agricultural and otherwise) and information play substantial roles in farmers' economic decision making. Most of these variables are affected by the unequal relationship between the tobacco firms that buy tobacco and the farmers, wherein the farmers are consistently at a disadvantage in terms of negotiating key parameters such as prices and evaluation of leaf quality.


Assuntos
Fazendeiros , Tabaco , Agricultura , Fazendas , Humanos , Indonésia
19.
Tob Control ; 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33188148

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To cross-validate estimates of the size of the illicit cigarette trade based on the results of four different survey methods. METHODS: In 2018/2019, four non-industry-funded, large-scale studies were conducted in selected Brazilian cities: packs discarded in household garbage/PDG (1 city), packs littered in the streets/PLS (5 cities), a phone survey of tobacco users' purchase behaviors/VIGITEL (5 cities), and a face-to-face household survey of tobacco users' purchase behaviors/FTF-household (2 cities). The proportions of illicit cigarettes consumed were based on the price paid by smokers in their last purchase (VIGITEL or FTF-household) and/or direct observation of brand names and health warnings (PDG, PLS or FTF-household). RESULTS: Based on PLS, the share of packs that avoided taxation ranged from 30.4% (95% CI 25.6% to 35.7%) in Rio de Janeiro to 70.1% (95% CI 64.6% to 75.0%) in Campo Grande; and PDG conducted in Rio de Janeiro found an even lower proportion point estimate of illicit cigarette use (26.8%, 95% CI 25.1% to 28.6%). In FTF-household, the share of illicit cigarette consumption based on the self-reported price ranged from 29.1% (95% CI 22.4% to 35.7%) in Rio de Janeiro to 37.5% (95% CI 31.2% to 43.7%) in São Paulo, while estimates based on pack observation ranged from 29.9% (95% CI 23.3% to 36.5%) in Rio de Janeiro to 40.7% (95% CI 34.3% to 47.0%) in São Paulo. For all cities, VIGITEL presented the lowest levels of illicit consumption, and most illicit brands were produced in Paraguay. CONCLUSIONS: Small differences in the estimated levels of illicit trade across methods were found, except for the phone survey. The cross-validation of estimates from independent studies is important to help effectively implement tobacco excise tax policy in Brazil and other low-income and middle-income countries.

20.
Health Policy Plan ; 35(7): 810-818, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525201

RESUMO

Tobacco is the primary export commodity in Malawi and an important contributor to foreign earnings. The entrenchment of tobacco interests within government has partly explained why Malawi has lagged in its efforts to address the health consequences of tobacco and has been a vocal opponent of global tobacco control. Despite the extensive historical and entrenched relationship between the economy of Malawi and tobacco production, there have been important shifts at the highest policy levels towards the need to explore diversification in the agricultural sector. There is explicit recognition that alternatives to tobacco production must be pursued. This study provides an analysis of the policies and perspectives that characterize contemporary government approaches to tobacco and alternatives in Malawi by interviewing key government officials working on tobacco policy and reviewing recent policy documents. This research finds that there is openness and movement towards reducing tobacco growing in Malaw, including efforts to reduce tobacco dependency. Rather than a singular tobacco policy discourse in the country, there is a somewhat conflictual set of policies and perspectives on the future of tobacco in Malawi. Informing these policies and perspectives is the interplay between the economics of agricultural production (tobacco vs other crops), global markets (ranging from the ability to generate export earnings to the inability to compete with wealthier countries' non-tobacco crop subsidies) and the lack of developed supply and value chains other than those created by the transnational tobacco industry. The implications for government policy supporting a move away from tobacco dependence are not straightforward: there is a need to fill the supply chain gap for alternative crops, which requires not only strong intersectoral support within the country (and some challenge to the residual pro-tobacco narratives) but also international support.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Políticas , Indústria do Tabaco , Agricultura/economia , Agricultura/tendências , Humanos , Malaui , Tabaco , Indústria do Tabaco/tendências
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