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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245386, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278528

RESUMO

Abstract Herbivory is an interaction with great impact on plant communities since relationships between herbivores and plants are fundamental to the distribution and abundance of species over time and space. The aim of this study was to monitor the rate of leaf expansion in the tree fern Cyathea phalerata and evaluate the damage caused by herbivores to leaves of different ages and whether such damage is related to temperature and precipitation. The study was performed in a subtropical Atlantic Forest fragment located in the municipality of Caraá, in the northeast hillside of Rio Grande do Sul state, in southern Brazil. We monitored 24 mature individuals of C. phalerata with croziers in a population of approximately 50 plants. Leaf expansion rate, percentage of damaged leaves and leaf blade consumption rate by herbivory were calculated. Monthly means for temperature and accumulated rainfall were calculated from daily data. Croziers of C. phalerata were found to expand rapidly during the first and second months after emergence (3.98 cm day-1; 2.91 cm day-1, respectively). Damage caused by herbivory was observed in all of the monitored leaves, but none of the plants experienced complete defoliation. The highest percentage (57%) of damaged leaves was recorded at 60 days of monitoring, and also the highest monthly consumption rate of the blade (6.04%) occurred with young, newly-expanded leaves, while this rate remained between 1.50 and 2.21% for mature leaves. Rates of monthly leaf consumption and damaged leaves showed positive and strong relationship with each other and with temperature. The rapid leaf expansion observed for C. phalerata can be considered a phenological strategy to reduce damage to young leaves by shortening the developmental period and accelerating the increase of defenses in mature leaves.


Resumo A herbivoria é uma interação de grande impacto sobre as comunidades de plantas, uma vez que as relações entre herbívoros e plantas são fundamentais para a distribuição e abundância das espécies ao longo do tempo e do espaço. O objetivo deste estudo foi monitorar a taxa de expansão foliar da samambaia arborescente Cyathea phalerata e avaliar o dano causado por herbívoros a folhas de diferentes idades, assim como verificar se este dano está relacionado à temperatura e à precipitação. O estudo foi realizado em um fragmento de Floresta Atlântica subtropical localizado no município de Caraá, na encosta nordeste do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, no sul do Brasil. Nós monitoramos 24 indivíduos maduros de C. phalerata com báculos em uma população de aproximadamente 50 plantas. A taxa de expansão foliar, a porcentagem de folhas danificadas e a taxa de consumo da lâmina foliar por herbivoria foram calculados. Médias mensais de temperatura e precipitação acumulada foram calculadas a partir de dados diários. Báculos de C. phalerata expandiram rapidamente durante o primeiro e o segundo mês após emergência (3,98 cm dia-1; 2,91 cm dia-1, respectivamente). O dano causado por herbivoria foi observado em todas as folhas monitoradas, mas nenhuma das plantas sofreu desfolhação completa. A maior porcentagem (57%) de folhas danificadas foi registrada aos 60 dias de monitoramento, e também a maior taxa de consumo mensal (6,04%) ocorreu em folhas jovens, recém expandidas, enquanto esta taxa permaneceu entre 1,50 e 2,21% em folhas maduras. As taxas mensais de consumo da lâmina foliar e de folhas danificadas mostraram relação positiva e forte entre si e com a temperatura. A rápida expansão foliar observada em C. phalerata pode ser considerada uma estratégia fenológica para reduzir o dano a folhas jovens, abreviando o período de desenvolvimento e acelerando o aumento das defesas em folhas maduras.

2.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e245386, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161461

RESUMO

Herbivory is an interaction with great impact on plant communities since relationships between herbivores and plants are fundamental to the distribution and abundance of species over time and space. The aim of this study was to monitor the rate of leaf expansion in the tree fern Cyathea phalerata and evaluate the damage caused by herbivores to leaves of different ages and whether such damage is related to temperature and precipitation. The study was performed in a subtropical Atlantic Forest fragment located in the municipality of Caraá, in the northeast hillside of Rio Grande do Sul state, in southern Brazil. We monitored 24 mature individuals of C. phalerata with croziers in a population of approximately 50 plants. Leaf expansion rate, percentage of damaged leaves and leaf blade consumption rate by herbivory were calculated. Monthly means for temperature and accumulated rainfall were calculated from daily data. Croziers of C. phalerata were found to expand rapidly during the first and second months after emergence (3.98 cm day-1; 2.91 cm day-1, respectively). Damage caused by herbivory was observed in all of the monitored leaves, but none of the plants experienced complete defoliation. The highest percentage (57%) of damaged leaves was recorded at 60 days of monitoring, and also the highest monthly consumption rate of the blade (6.04%) occurred with young, newly-expanded leaves, while this rate remained between 1.50 and 2.21% for mature leaves. Rates of monthly leaf consumption and damaged leaves showed positive and strong relationship with each other and with temperature. The rapid leaf expansion observed for C. phalerata can be considered a phenological strategy to reduce damage to young leaves by shortening the developmental period and accelerating the increase of defenses in mature leaves.


Assuntos
Gleiquênias , Herbivoria , Brasil , Florestas , Humanos , Folhas de Planta
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(2): 437-448, Apr.-June 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132382

RESUMO

Abstract Bromeliaceae is restricted to the Neotropical region and has a high degree of endemism, which contributes to increased biodiversity because of the diverse morphological characteristics of individuals. In order to develop an in vitro conservation technology to obtain plants for reintroduction, seeds of Vriesea flammea L.B.Sm. were collected, sterilized and germinated in culture medium. The plants obtained were cultured for 180 days in MS medium with different concentrations of mineral nutrients (25 and 50% of nitrogenous salts and macronutrients), and different concentrations of sucrose (20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 g L-1), and then acclimatized for 150 days on commercial substrate. When seeds were sterilized directly, only 4% of them were contaminated, whereas sterilization of capsules resulted in 43.6% contaminated seeds. Germination rates above 80% were recorded. Low concentrations of nitrogenous salts and macronutrients produced greater than 76% survival and promoted greater in vitro plant development than the complete MS medium. The development of the aerial system, root system, fresh mass and photosynthetic pigments were positively related to sucrose concentration in vitro. The highest sucrose concentration also indirectly promoted greater development of the aerial system and fresh mass of acclimatized plants. We established conditions for in vitro cultivation and acclimatization for efficient propagation of V. flammea with a view towards conservation of the species or reestablishment of natural populations.


Resumo Bromeliaceae é restrita à região neotropical, com alto grau de endemismo, que contribui para o aumento da biodiversidade, devido às características morfológicas dos indivíduos. Objetivando desenvolver uma tecnologia in vitro de conservação para obtenção de plantas com vistas à reintrodução, sementes de Vriesea flammea L.B.Sm. foram coletadas, esterilizadas, germinadas em meio de cultura e as plantas obtidas foram cultivadas por 180 dias em meio MS com diferentes concentrações de nutrientes minerais (25 e 50% dos sais nitrogenados e dos macronutrientes), bem como em diferentes concentrações de sacarose (20, 30, 40, 50 e 60 g L-1). Após, as plantas foram aclimatizadas por 150 dias em substrato comercial. Quando da esterilização das sementes, apenas 4% destas contaminaram. Por sua vez, a esterilização de cápsulas resultou em 43,6% de sementes contaminadas. Taxas de germinação superiores a 80% foram registradas. Baixas concentrações dos sais nitrogenados e de macronutrientes proporcionaram sobrevivência superior a 76% e promoveram maior desenvolvimento das plantas in vitro do que o meio MS completo. O desenvolvimento do sistema aéreo, radicular, a massa fresca e pigmentos fotossintéticos apresentaram relação positiva com a concentração de sacarose in vitro. A maior concentração de sacarose também propiciou indiretamente maior desenvolvimento do sistema aéreo e massa fresca das plantas aclimatizadas. Estabelecemos as condições de cultivo in vitro e aclimatização para a eficiente propagação de V. flammea com vistas à conservação da espécie ou reestabelecimento das populações naturais.

4.
Braz J Biol ; 80(2): 437-448, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291407

RESUMO

Bromeliaceae is restricted to the Neotropical region and has a high degree of endemism, which contributes to increased biodiversity because of the diverse morphological characteristics of individuals. In order to develop an in vitro conservation technology to obtain plants for reintroduction, seeds of Vriesea flammea L.B.Sm. were collected, sterilized and germinated in culture medium. The plants obtained were cultured for 180 days in MS medium with different concentrations of mineral nutrients (25 and 50% of nitrogenous salts and macronutrients), and different concentrations of sucrose (20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 g L-1), and then acclimatized for 150 days on commercial substrate. When seeds were sterilized directly, only 4% of them were contaminated, whereas sterilization of capsules resulted in 43.6% contaminated seeds. Germination rates above 80% were recorded. Low concentrations of nitrogenous salts and macronutrients produced greater than 76% survival and promoted greater in vitro plant development than the complete MS medium. The development of the aerial system, root system, fresh mass and photosynthetic pigments were positively related to sucrose concentration in vitro. The highest sucrose concentration also indirectly promoted greater development of the aerial system and fresh mass of acclimatized plants. We established conditions for in vitro cultivation and acclimatization for efficient propagation of V. flammea with a view towards conservation of the species or reestablishment of natural populations.


Assuntos
Bromeliaceae , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Brasil , Carbono , Nutrientes
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 77(1): 118-126, Jan-Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-839150

RESUMO

Abstract This study assessed the genotoxicity and chemical quality of the Rio dos Sinos, southern Brazil. During two years, bimonthly, cuttings of Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea with flower buds were exposed to river water samples from Caraá, Santo Antônio da Patrulha, Taquara and Campo Bom, which are municipalities located in the upper, middle and lower stretches of the Rio dos Sinos basin. Simultaneously, chemical parameters were analyzed, rainfall data were surveyed and negative (distilled water) and positive (0.1% formaldehyde) controls were made. Micronuclei (MCN) frequencies were determined in tetrads of pollen grain mother cells. From the upper stretch toward the lower, there was an increase in the frequency of MCN and in concentrations of chemical parameters. Cadmium, lead, copper, total chromium and zinc were present at the four sites and a concentration gradient was not demonstrated along the river. The multivariate analysis revealed that two principal components exist, which accounted for 62.3% of the observed variances. Although genotoxicity was observed in Santo Antônio da Patrulha, the water presented higher mean values for most of the assessed parameters, in the lower stretch, where urbanization and industrialization are greater. The spatial and temporal pattern of water quality observed reinforces the importance of considering the environmental factors and their effects on organisms in an integrated way in watercourse monitoring programs.


Resumo Este estudo avaliou a genotoxicidade e a qualidade química do Rio dos Sinos, Sul do Brasil. Durante dois anos, com periodicidade bimensal, ramos de Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea com botões florais foram expostos a amostras de água do rio de Caraá, Santo Antônio da Patrulha, Taquara e Campo Bom, municípios localizados nos trechos superior, médio e inferior da Bacia do Rio dos Sinos. Simultaneamente, foram analisados parâmetros químicos, levantados dados de precipitação e realizados controles negativos (água destilada) e positivos (0,1% formaldeído). Frequências de micronúcleos (MCN) foram determinadas em tétrades de células-mãe de grão de pólen. Do trecho superior em direção ao inferior, foi observado aumento da frequência de MCN e na concentração de parâmetros químicos. Cádmio, chumbo, cobre, cromo total e zinco estiveram presentes nos quatro pontos amostrais, sem apresentar um gradiente de concentração ao longo do rio. A análise multivariada demonstrou a existência de dois componentes principais que explicaram 62,3% das variâncias observadas. Embora em Santo Antônio da Patrulha tenha sido observada genotoxicidade, a água do Rio dos Sinos apresentou valores médios superiores para a maioria dos parâmetros avaliados no trecho inferior, onde a urbanização e a industrialização são maiores. O padrão espacial e temporal de qualidade da água observado reforça a importância de considerar os fatores ambientais e seus efeitos nos organismos de forma integrada em programas de monitoramento de cursos hídricos.


Assuntos
Qualidade da Água/normas , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Dano ao DNA , Brasil , Monitoramento Ambiental , Análise Multivariada , Cidades , Tradescantia/genética , Água Doce/química
6.
Braz J Biol ; 77(1): 118-126, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27383001

RESUMO

This study assessed the genotoxicity and chemical quality of the Rio dos Sinos, southern Brazil. During two years, bimonthly, cuttings of Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea with flower buds were exposed to river water samples from Caraá, Santo Antônio da Patrulha, Taquara and Campo Bom, which are municipalities located in the upper, middle and lower stretches of the Rio dos Sinos basin. Simultaneously, chemical parameters were analyzed, rainfall data were surveyed and negative (distilled water) and positive (0.1% formaldehyde) controls were made. Micronuclei (MCN) frequencies were determined in tetrads of pollen grain mother cells. From the upper stretch toward the lower, there was an increase in the frequency of MCN and in concentrations of chemical parameters. Cadmium, lead, copper, total chromium and zinc were present at the four sites and a concentration gradient was not demonstrated along the river. The multivariate analysis revealed that two principal components exist, which accounted for 62.3% of the observed variances. Although genotoxicity was observed in Santo Antônio da Patrulha, the water presented higher mean values for most of the assessed parameters, in the lower stretch, where urbanization and industrialization are greater. The spatial and temporal pattern of water quality observed reinforces the importance of considering the environmental factors and their effects on organisms in an integrated way in watercourse monitoring programs.


Assuntos
Rios/química , Qualidade da Água/normas , Brasil , Cidades , Dano ao DNA , Monitoramento Ambiental , Água Doce/química , Análise Multivariada , Tradescantia/genética , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
7.
Braz J Biol ; 75(4 Suppl 1): S79-87, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26628231

RESUMO

The present study evaluated the genotoxic effects of the atmospheric air on Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea in urban areas with different intensities of vehicular traffic and in riparian forest fragments in the Sinos River Basin (Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil), considering the influence of climatic conditions prevailing in these environments. Bimonthly, from May 2012 to March 2013, cuttings with flower buds were exposed for 8 h in urban and riparian forest environments in the municipalities of Caraá, Taquara and Campo Bom in the upper, middle and lower sections, respectively, of the Sinos River Basin. Simultaneously, negative controls were made and climatic data were recorded. Micronuclei (MCN) frequencies were determined in young tetrads of pollen mother cells and expressed as MCN/100 tetrads. Significantly higher MCN frequencies were observed in buds exposed in urban and riparian forest environments in Taquara (up to 7.23 and 4.80, respectively) and Campo Bom (up to 4.90 and 4.23, respectively) than in buds exposed in Caraá (up to 2.90 and 2.50, respectively), in the majority of samplings, and in relation to the negative control (up to 1.93) in all months. Over the course of the period monitored, there were significant variations in MCN frequencies at all sampling points, with the exception of the urban environment in Caraá. For the urban environments, relation between the MCN frequency, vehicular traffic and mean temperature was observed. For the riparian forest fragments, there was no association between MCN frequency and climatic factors. Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea can be considered a useful tool to point out areas with increased atmospheric pollution, since the exposure of plants under severe climatic conditions is avoided to minimize their negative influence on the formation of micronuclei.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Dano ao DNA , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Tradescantia/efeitos dos fármacos , Emissões de Veículos/toxicidade , Brasil , Cidades , Clima , Monitoramento Ambiental , Florestas
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 75(4,supl.1): 79-87, Nov. 2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-768241

RESUMO

Abstract The present study evaluated the genotoxic effects of the atmospheric air on Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea in urban areas with different intensities of vehicular traffic and in riparian forest fragments in the Sinos River Basin (Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil), considering the influence of climatic conditions prevailing in these environments. Bimonthly, from May 2012 to March 2013, cuttings with flower buds were exposed for 8 h in urban and riparian forest environments in the municipalities of Caraá, Taquara and Campo Bom in the upper, middle and lower sections, respectively, of the Sinos River Basin. Simultaneously, negative controls were made and climatic data were recorded. Micronuclei (MCN) frequencies were determined in young tetrads of pollen mother cells and expressed as MCN/100 tetrads. Significantly higher MCN frequencies were observed in buds exposed in urban and riparian forest environments in Taquara (up to 7.23 and 4.80, respectively) and Campo Bom (up to 4.90 and 4.23, respectively) than in buds exposed in Caraá (up to 2.90 and 2.50, respectively), in the majority of samplings, and in relation to the negative control (up to 1.93) in all months. Over the course of the period monitored, there were significant variations in MCN frequencies at all sampling points, with the exception of the urban environment in Caraá. For the urban environments, relation between the MCN frequency, vehicular traffic and mean temperature was observed. For the riparian forest fragments, there was no association between MCN frequency and climatic factors. Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea can be considered a useful tool to point out areas with increased atmospheric pollution, since the exposure of plants under severe climatic conditions is avoided to minimize their negative influence on the formation of micronuclei.


Resumo O presente estudo avaliou os efeitos genotóxicos do ar atmosférico sobre Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea em áreas urbanas com diferentes intensidades de tráfego veicular e em fragmentos de mata ciliar na Bacia do Rio dos Sinos (Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil), considerando a influência de condições climáticas prevalecentes nesses ambientes. Bimensalmente, de maio de 2012 a março de 2013, ramos com botões florais foram expostos por 8 h em ambientes urbanos e de mata ciliar nos municípios de Caraá, Taquara e Campo Bom nos trechos superior, médio e inferior, respectivamente, da Bacia do Rio dos Sinos. Simultaneamente, foram realizados controles negativos e levantados dados climáticos. Frequências de micronúcleos (MCN) foram determinadas em tétrades jovens de células-mãe de grãos de pólen e expressas como MCN/100 tétrades. Frequências de MCN significativamente superiores foram observadas em botões expostos nos ambientes urbanos e de matas ciliares em Taquara (até 7,23 e 4,80, respectivamente) e Campo Bom (até 4,90 e 4,23, respectivamente) do que em botões expostos em Caraá (até 2,90 e 2,50, respectivamente), na maioria das amostragens, e em relação ao controle negativo (até 1,93) em todos os meses. Ao longo do período monitorado, ocorreram variações significativas nas frequências de MCN em todos os pontos amostrais, com exceção do ambiente urbano de Caraá. Para os ambientes urbanos, foi observada relação entre a frequência de MCN, tráfego veicular e temperatura média. Para os fragmentos de mata ciliar, não houve associação entre a frequência de MCN e fatores climáticos. Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea pode ser considerada uma ferramenta útil para apontar áreas com poluição atmosférica aumentada, desde que, sob condições climáticas severas, a exposição das plantas seja evitada, para minimizar o efeito destas sobre a formação de micronúcleos.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Dano ao DNA , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Tradescantia/efeitos dos fármacos , Emissões de Veículos/toxicidade , Brasil , Cidades , Clima , Monitoramento Ambiental , Florestas
9.
Braz J Biol ; 75(2 Suppl): 25-35, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26270210

RESUMO

The Atlantic Forest, which has a vast epiphytic richness, is a priority area for preservation, listed as one of the five most important world hotspots. Vascular epiphyte richness, composition and community structure were studied in two fragments, one of the ombrophilous (29º43'42"S and 50º22'00"W) and the other of the seasonal (29º40'54"S and 51º06'56"W) forest, both belonging to the Atlantic Forest biome in the Sinos River basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. In each fragment, 40 trees, divided into four ecological zones, were analyzed. In each zone, the occurrence of the species was recorded, and the importance value of each species was calculated according to the frequency of phorophytes and intervals, and cover scores. The Shannon index was calculated for the two communities. In the fragment of the ombrophilous forest (F1), 30 epiphytic species were recorded, and in the seasonal forest (F2), 25. The highest importance value was found for Microgramma squamulosa (Kaulf.) de la Sota in both fragments. The diversity indexes for F1 (H'=2.72) and F2 (H'=2.55) were similar and reflected the subtropical location of the areas. The decrease in mean richness in both fragments in zone 3 (internal crown) to zone 4 (external crown) may be associated with time and space availability for epiphyte occupation and microclimate variations. Exclusive species were found in the areas, which suggest that a greater number of preserved fragments may result in a greater number of preserved epiphytic species in the Sinos River basin.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Embriófitas/fisiologia , Florestas , Brasil
10.
Braz J Biol ; 75(2 Suppl): 91-7, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26270220

RESUMO

The Tradescantia micronucleus (Trad-MCN) bioassay was used to investigate genotoxicity of water bodies in the Parque Municipal Henrique Luís Roessler (PMHLR), a conservation unit in the city of Novo Hamburgo, Southern Brazil, from November 2010 to October 2011. Every month, cuttings with young inflorescences of Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea were exposed for 24 hours to water collected at three sites in the park: (S1) head of the main stream; (S2) head of a secondary stream; (S3) a point past the junction of the two water bodies in which S1 and S2 were located. As a negative control, cuttings were exposed to distilled water for 24 h every quarter. Micronuclei (MCN) frequency was determined in young tetrads of pollen mother cells and described as MCN/100 tetrads. Rainfall data were also recorded. In nine months at S1 and S2, and in eleven months at S3, micronuclei frequencies were significantly higher than in quarterly controls, in which frequencies varied from 1.19 to 1.62. During sampling, no significant differences were found in MCN frequencies at S1, which ranged from 2.2 to 3.6. At the other sampling sites, there were significant differences between the months evaluated, and MCN frequencies ranged from 1.3 to 6.5 at S2 and from 2.3 to 5.2 at S3. There were no associations between rainfall and MCN frequencies at the three sampling sites. Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea confirmed genotoxicity in the water bodies of the PMHLR, even at the head of the streams, which suggests that actions should be promoted to control anthropogenic effects in the streams of this conservation unit.


Assuntos
Rios/química , Tradescantia/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Qualidade da Água , Brasil , Dano ao DNA , Monitoramento Ambiental , Testes para Micronúcleos , Tradescantia/genética , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
11.
Braz J Biol ; 75(2 Suppl): 105-13, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26270222

RESUMO

The deterioration of environmental quality in the Sinos River basin is directly associated with the impacts of intense industrialization and urbanization. An integrated environmental assessment (IEA) was conducted in July and September of 2012, in areas along the sources of the EstânciaVelha/Portão, Pampa and Schmidt streams using physical, chemical and biological methods. The water in the three sampling sites was not proper for human consumption, presented a low toxic contamination index (TCI) and mesotrophic characteristics. One site was included in Class 4, and two, in Class 3, according to current legislation. The rapid assessment protocol (RAP) indicated a natural environmental condition for habitat diversity and environmental impact in the three sites. The Tradescantia pallida (Rose) D.R. Hunt var. purpurea Boom biomarker showed water genotoxicity in two of the sites. The integrated diagnosis of water quality in these streams is fundamentally important to ensure the sustainable management of water resources and their multiple uses, as well to estimate their contribution to pollution in this river basin.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água , Brasil , Humanos , Testes para Micronúcleos , Tradescantia/efeitos dos fármacos , Tradescantia/genética
12.
Braz J Biol ; 75(2): 477-83, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26132035

RESUMO

Regnellidium diphyllum Lindm. is a heterosporous fern which grows in shallow waters and wetlands, and water pollution contributes to its vulnerability. Environmental lead contamination is mostly caused by industrial and agricultural residues as well as domestic sewage. Given its persistence in the environment, lead can cause important toxicity in living organisms. Megaspore germination and the initial growth of R. diphyllum sporophytes were assessed in Meyer's solution with lead nitrate (Pb(NO3)2) concentrations of 0 (control), 1, 5, 10 and 50 mg L(-1). The study was conducted in a growth chamber at 25 ± 1°C and a 12 hour photoperiod with a nominal irradiance of 100 µmol m(-2) s(-1), for 28 days. Lead concentration in sporophytes was assessed using atomic absorption spectrometry. In the absence of lead, 74% of spores germinated, while significantly lower germination percentages were observed in Pb(NO3)2 concentrations of 1, 10 and 50 mg L(-1). The presence of lead did not significantly influence root growth. At 28 days, primary leaf development was significantly lower in Pb(NO3)2 concentrations of 5 mg L(-1) and higher in relation to the control. The length of secondary leaves did not significantly differ between sporophytes exposed to different concentrations of lead and those of the control at 28 days. Sporophytes exposed to 10 and 50 mg L(-1) Pb(NO3)2 accumulated 1129 mg kg(-1) and 5145 mg kg(-1) of Pb, respectively. The presence of high levels of lead in R. diphyllum sporophytes did not prevent initial development. Future studies should investigate the ability of the species to accumulate and tolerate high levels of lead in advanced stages of its development and in environmental conditions.


Assuntos
Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Chumbo/toxicidade , Marsileaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Esporos/efeitos dos fármacos , Marsileaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Espectrofotometria Atômica , Esporos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
13.
Braz. j. biol ; 75(2,supl): 25-35, May 2015. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-755015

RESUMO

The Atlantic Forest, which has a vast epiphytic richness, is a priority area for preservation, listed as one of the five most important world hotspots. Vascular epiphyte richness, composition and community structure were studied in two fragments, one of the ombrophilous (29º43'42"S and 50º22'00"W) and the other of the seasonal (29º40'54"S and 51º06'56"W) forest, both belonging to the Atlantic Forest biome in the Sinos River basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. In each fragment, 40 trees, divided into four ecological zones, were analyzed. In each zone, the occurrence of the species was recorded, and the importance value of each species was calculated according to the frequency of phorophytes and intervals, and cover scores. The Shannon index was calculated for the two communities. In the fragment of the ombrophilous forest (F1), 30 epiphytic species were recorded, and in the seasonal forest (F2), 25. The highest importance value was found for Microgramma squamulosa (Kaulf.) de la Sota in both fragments. The diversity indexes for F1 (H'=2.72) and F2 (H'=2.55) were similar and reflected the subtropical location of the areas. The decrease in mean richness in both fragments in zone 3 (internal crown) to zone 4 (external crown) may be associated with time and space availability for epiphyte occupation and microclimate variations. Exclusive species were found in the areas, which suggest that a greater number of preserved fragments may result in a greater number of preserved epiphytic species in the Sinos River basin.

.

A Floresta Atlântica apresenta uma grande riqueza de epífitos e é considerada uma área prioritária para preservação listada entre os cinco mais importantes hotspots mundiais. A riqueza, a composição e a estrutura comunitária de epífitos vasculares foram estudadas em um fragmento de floresta ombrófila (29º43'42"S e 50º22'00"O) e outro de floresta estacional (29º40'54"S e 51º06'56"O), ambos pertencentes ao Bioma Floresta Atlântica, na bacia do Rio dos Sinos, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Em cada fragmento foram analisadas 40 árvores divididas em quatro zonas ecológicas. Em cada zona, foi registrada a ocorrência das espécies e o valor de importância de cada uma delas foi calculado a partir da frequência nos forófitos e nos intervalos e das notas de cobertura. O índice de Shannon foi aplicado para as duas comunidades. No fragmento de floresta ombrófila (F1) foram registradas 30 e no de floresta estacional (F2) 25 espécies epifíticas. O maior valor de importância foi observado para Microgramma squamulosa (Kaulf.) de la Sota, em ambos os fragmentos. Os índices de diversidade para o F1 (H'=2,72) e o F2 (H'=2,55) foram próximos e refletem a posição geográfica mais subtropical das áreas. A diminuição na riqueza média em ambos os fragmentos da zona 3 (copa interna) para a zona 4 (copa externa) pode estar relacionada com a disponibilidade de tempo e de espaço para a ocupação de epífitos e com variações microclimáticas. Considerando que as áreas apresentaram espécies exclusivas, ficou evidenciado que um maior número de fragmentos conservados conduzirá à manutenção de um maior número de espécies epifíticas na bacia do Rio dos Sinos.

.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Embriófitas/fisiologia , Florestas , Brasil
14.
Braz. j. biol ; 75(2,supl): 105-113, May 2015. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-755022

RESUMO

The deterioration of environmental quality in the Sinos River basin is directly associated with the impacts of intense industrialization and urbanization. An integrated environmental assessment (IEA) was conducted in July and September of 2012, in areas along the sources of the EstânciaVelha/Portão, Pampa and Schmidt streams using physical, chemical and biological methods. The water in the three sampling sites was not proper for human consumption, presented a low toxic contamination index (TCI) and mesotrophic characteristics. One site was included in Class 4, and two, in Class 3, according to current legislation. The rapid assessment protocol (RAP) indicated a natural environmental condition for habitat diversity and environmental impact in the three sites. The Tradescantia pallida (Rose) D.R. Hunt var. purpurea Boom biomarker showed water genotoxicity in two of the sites. The integrated diagnosis of water quality in these streams is fundamentally important to ensure the sustainable management of water resources and their multiple uses, as well to estimate their contribution to pollution in this river basin.

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A deterioração da qualidade ambiental da bacia do Rio dos Sinos está diretamente associada a impactos oriundos da intensa industrialização e urbanização. A avaliação ambiental integrada (AAI) foi realizada nos meses de julho e setembro de 2012, em áreas junto às nascentes dos arroios Estância Velha/Portão, Pampa e Schmidt por meio de metodologias que utilizam parâmetros físicos, químicos e biológicos. Os três sítios amostrais apresentaram águas impróprias para o consumo humano, baixo índice de contaminação por tóxicos (ICT) e características mesotróficas. Um sítio foi enquadrado na Classe 4 e dois na Classe 3, segundo a legislação vigente. Os resultados da aplicação do protocolo de avaliação rápida (PAR) indicaram uma situação ambiental natural, quanto à diversidade de habitats e aos impactos ambientais, nos três sítios amostrados. O biondicador Tradescantia pallida (Rose) D.R. Hunt var. purpurea Boom evidenciou genotoxicidade da água em dois sítios amostrados. O diagnóstico integrado da qualidade das águas destes arroios é de fundamental importância para assegurar o gerenciamento sustentado dos recursos hídricos e seus múltiplos usos, além de estimar sua contribuição à poluição desta bacia hidrográfica.

.


Assuntos
Humanos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Rios/química , Qualidade da Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Brasil , Testes para Micronúcleos , Tradescantia/efeitos dos fármacos , Tradescantia/genética
15.
Braz. j. biol ; 75(2,supl): 91-97, May 2015. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-755030

RESUMO

The Tradescantia micronucleus (Trad-MCN) bioassay was used to investigate genotoxicity of water bodies in the Parque Municipal Henrique Luís Roessler (PMHLR), a conservation unit in the city of Novo Hamburgo, Southern Brazil, from November 2010 to October 2011. Every month, cuttings with young inflorescences of Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea were exposed for 24 hours to water collected at three sites in the park: (S1) head of the main stream; (S2) head of a secondary stream; (S3) a point past the junction of the two water bodies in which S1 and S2 were located. As a negative control, cuttings were exposed to distilled water for 24 h every quarter. Micronuclei (MCN) frequency was determined in young tetrads of pollen mother cells and described as MCN/100 tetrads. Rainfall data were also recorded. In nine months at S1 and S2, and in eleven months at S3, micronuclei frequencies were significantly higher than in quarterly controls, in which frequencies varied from 1.19 to 1.62.

During sampling, no significant differences were found in MCN frequencies at S1, which ranged from 2.2 to 3.6. At the other sampling sites, there were significant differences between the months evaluated, and MCN frequencies ranged from 1.3 to 6.5 at S2 and from 2.3 to 5.2 at S3. There were no associations between rainfall and MCN frequencies at the three sampling sites. Tradescantia pallida var. purpureaconfirmed genotoxicity in the water bodies of the PMHLR, even at the head of the streams, which suggests that actions should be promoted to control anthropogenic effects in the streams of this conservation unit.

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O bioensaio de micronúcleo em Tradescantia (Trad-MCN) foi utilizado para investigar a genotoxicidade de corpos d'água no Parque Municipal Henrique Luís Roessler (PMHLR), uma Unidade de Conservação no município de Novo Hamburgo, Sul do Brasil, de novembro de 2010 a outubro de 2011. Mensalmente, ramos com inflorescências jovens de Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea foram expostos por 24 horas a amostras de água coletadas em três pontos de cursos d’água no interior do parque: (S1) nascente do principal curso d’água; (S2) nascente de um curso d’agua secundário; (S3) ponto situado após a junção dos corpos d’água em que S1 e S2 estavam localizados. Como controle negativo, ramos foram expostos à água destilada por 24 h, com periodicidade trimestral. Frequências de micronúcleos (MCN) foram determinadas em tétrades jovens de células-mãe de grãos de pólen e expressas como MCN/100 tétrades. Dados de precipitação também foram registrados durante o experimento. Foram observadas frequências de MCN significativamente superiores em nove meses em S1 e S2 e em onze meses em S3 quando comparadas às frequências nos controles trimestrais, que variaram de 1,19 a 1,62. Durante o período de amostragem, não foram encontradas diferenças significativas nas frequências de MCN em S1, que variaram de 2,2 a 3,6. Nos demais pontos amostrais, houve diferenças significativas entre os meses avaliados para as frequências de MCN, que variaram de 1,3 a 6,5, em S2, e de 2,3 a 5,2, em S3. Não foi verificada relação entre a pluviosidade e as frequências de MCN observadas nos três pontos amostrais. Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea indicou haver genotoxicidade nos corpos hídricos do PMHLR, inclusive junto às nascentes, indicando a necessidade de ações que visem ao controle do efeito antropogênico sobre a água nesta unidade de conservação.

.


Assuntos
Rios/química , Tradescantia/efeitos dos fármacos , Qualidade da Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Brasil , Dano ao DNA , Monitoramento Ambiental , Testes para Micronúcleos , Tradescantia/genética , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
16.
Braz. j. biol ; 75(2): 477-483, 05/2015. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-749690

RESUMO

Regnellidium diphyllum Lindm. is a heterosporous fern which grows in shallow waters and wetlands, and water pollution contributes to its vulnerability. Environmental lead contamination is mostly caused by industrial and agricultural residues as well as domestic sewage. Given its persistence in the environment, lead can cause important toxicity in living organisms. Megaspore germination and the initial growth of R. diphyllum sporophytes were assessed in Meyer's solution with lead nitrate (Pb(NO3)2) concentrations of 0 (control), 1, 5, 10 and 50 mg L–1. The study was conducted in a growth chamber at 25±1°C and a 12 hour photoperiod with a nominal irradiance of 100 μmol m–2 s–1, for 28 days. Lead concentration in sporophytes was assessed using atomic absorption spectrometry. In the absence of lead, 74% of spores germinated, while significantly lower germination percentages were observed in Pb(NO3)2 concentrations of 1, 10 and 50 mg L–1. The presence of lead did not significantly influence root growth. At 28 days, primary leaf development was significantly lower in Pb(NO3)2 concentrations of 5 mg L–1 and higher in relation to the control. The length of secondary leaves did not significantly differ between sporophytes exposed to different concentrations of lead and those of the control at 28 days. Sporophytes exposed to 10 and 50 mg L–1 Pb(NO3)2 accumulated 1129 mg kg–1 and 5145 mg kg–1 of Pb, respectively. The presence of high levels of lead in R. diphyllum sporophytes did not prevent initial development. Future studies should investigate the ability of the species to accumulate and tolerate high levels of lead in advanced stages of its development and in environmental conditions.


Regnellidium diphyllum Lindm. é uma samambaia heterosporada que se desenvolve em águas rasas ou em solos úmidos, sendo que a poluição da água contribui para sua vulnerabilidade. A contaminação ambiental por chumbo ocorre principalmente por resíduos industriais e agrícolas, bem como por efluentes domésticos. Devido à sua persistência no ambiente, esse metal pode apresentar importante toxicidade aos organismos vivos. A germinação de megásporos e o desenvolvimento inicial de esporófitos de R. diphyllum foram avaliados em solução de Meyer com concentrações de 0 (controle), 1, 5, 10 e 50 mg L–1 de nitrato de chumbo (Pb(NO3)2). O estudo foi conduzido em câmara de germinação a 25±1 °C e fotoperíodo de 12 horas sob irradiância nominal de 100 μmol m–2 s–1, por 28 dias. A concentração de chumbo em esporófitos foi analisada por espectrometria de absorção atômica. Na ausência de chumbo, 74% dos esporos germinaram, enquanto que porcentagens de germinação significantemente menores foram observadas nas concentrações de 1, 10 e 50 mg L–1 de Pb(NO3)2. A presença de chumbo não influenciou significativamente o crescimento das raízes. O desenvolvimento das folhas primárias foi significativamente menor em relação ao controle a partir de 5 mg L–1 de Pb(NO3)2 aos 28 dias. O comprimento das folhas secundárias não diferiu significativamente entre esporófitos expostos às diferentes concentrações de chumbo e aqueles do controle, aos 28 dias. Esporófitos expostos a 10 e 50 mg L–1 de Pb(NO3)2 acumularam 1129 mg kg–1 e 5145 mg kg–1 de Pb, respectivamente. A presença de altas concentrações de chumbo nos esporófitos de R. diphyllum não impediu seu desenvolvimento inicial. Estudos futuros deverão investigar a capacidade de a espécie acumular e tolerar altas concentrações de chumbo em estádios avançados de desenvolvimento e também em condições ambientais.


Assuntos
Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Chumbo/toxicidade , Marsileaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Esporos/efeitos dos fármacos , Marsileaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Espectrofotometria Atômica , Esporos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
17.
Braz. j. biol ; 72(4): 801-806, Nov. 2012. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-660374

RESUMO

The Trad-MCN bioassay was used to investigate the genotoxicity on Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea plants exposed to variations in the environmental conditions in urban and rural sites in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil, over a one-year period. In spring 2009 and in summer, autumn and winter 2010, potted plants of T. pallida var. purpurea were exposed at two sites with different characteristics: the urban area of the municipality of Estância Velha, with leather and footwear industrial activity, and a Site of Special Environmental Interest in the rural area of the municipality of Novo Hamburgo. Other plants comprised the control group and were kept indoors. Frequencies of micronuclei (MCN) were determined in early tetrads of pollen mother cells and expressed as MCN/100 tetrads. Climate data were also registered during the experiment. MCN frequencies in the urban area were significantly higher (up to 8.13) than those found in the rural area (up to 1.26) and in the control group (up to 1.10), which did not differ statistically from each other over the year. The higher MCN frequencies observed in the urban site can be attributed to air pollution, but also may have been influenced by microclimatic and daily thermal variation differences between sites. Higher temperatures recorded in spring and summer may have influenced MCN frequencies observed in the urban site. No clear relation was observed between rainfall and MCN frequencies. Similar and high relative humidity percentages were registered over the period of the study. Considering that the bioindicator plant presents an integrated response to abiotic factors such as pollutants and weather conditions, it can be used as an additional tool that can point to synergistic effects of environmental variables on organisms.


O bioensaio Trad-MCN foi utilizado para investigar a genotoxicidade em plantas de Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea expostas a variações nas condições ambientais, em uma área urbana e uma área rural, na região metropolitana de Porto Alegre, Região Sul do Brasil, durante o período de um ano. Na primavera de 2009 e no verão, no outono e no inverno de 2010, plantas de T. pallida var. purpurea em vasos foram expostas em dois pontos amostrais, com diferentes características: a área urbana do município de Estância Velha, com atividade industrial do setor coureiro calçadista, e uma Área de Especial Interesse Ambiental (AEIA), na zona rural do município de Novo Hamburgo. Outras plantas compuseram o grupo controle e foram mantidas em ambiente interno. Frequências de micronúcleos (MCN) foram determinadas em tétrades jovens de células-mãe de grãos de pólen e expressas como MCN/100 tétrades. Dados climáticos também foram registrados durante o experimento. As frequências de MCN na área urbana foram significantemente superiores (até 8,13) àquelas encontradas na área rural (até 1,26) e no grupo controle (até 1,10), as quais não diferiram estatisticamente entre si ao longo do ano. As maiores frequências de MCN observadas na área urbana podem ser atribuídas à poluição atmosférica, mas também podem ter sido influenciadas por diferenças microclimáticas e de variação térmica diária entre áreas. Temperaturas mais altas registradas na primavera e no verão podem ter influenciado as frequências de MCN observadas na área urbana. Não foi observada uma clara relação entre a pluviosidade e as frequências de MCN. Similares e altas porcentagens de umidade relativa foram registradas ao longo do período de estudo. Considerando‑se que a planta bioindicadora apresenta uma resposta integrada a fatores abióticos, tais como poluentes e condições climáticas, esta pode vir a ser utilizada como uma ferramenta adicional, que pode apontar para efeitos sinérgicos de variáveis ambientais sobre os organismos.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Tradescantia/efeitos dos fármacos , Bioensaio , Monitoramento Ambiental , Testes para Micronúcleos/métodos , População Rural , Estações do Ano , Tradescantia/genética , População Urbana
18.
Braz. j. biol ; 72(4): 807-811, Nov. 2012. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-660375

RESUMO

The heterosporous fern Regnellidium diphyllum occurs in southern Brazil and some adjoining localities in Uruguay and Argentina. Currently it is on the list of threatened species in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Anthropic alterations such as the conversion of wetlands into agricultural areas or water and soil contamination by pollutants may compromise the establishment and survival of this species. Nickel (Ni) is an essential nutrient for plants but increasing levels of this metal due to pollution can cause deleterious effects especially in aquatic macrophytes. Megaspore germination tests were performed using Meyer's solution, at concentrations of 0 (control), 0.05, 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 20, 30, 50 and 100 mg L-1 of Ni. The initial development of apomictic sporophytes was studied using solutions containing 0 (control) to 4.8 mg L-1 of Ni. A significant negative relation was observed between the different Ni concentrations and the megaspore germination/sporophyte formation rates. Primary roots, primary leaves and secondary leaves were significantly shorter at 3.2 and 4.8 mg L-1 of Ni, when compared with the treatment without this metal. At 4.8 mg L-1, leaves also presented chlorosis and necrosis. The introduction of pollutants with Ni in the natural habitat of Regnellidium diphyllum may inhibit the establishment of plants in the initial stage of development, a problem to be considered in relation to the conservation of this species.


A samambaia heterosporada Regnellidium diphyllum Lindm. ocorre no Sul do Brasil e em algumas localidades vizinhas no Uruguai e na Argentina. Atualmente, consta da lista de espécies ameaçadas do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Alterações antrópicas - tais como a conversão de áreas úmidas em áreas de agricultura ou a contaminação de água e solo por poluentes - podem comprometer o estabelecimento e a sobrevivência da espécie. Níquel (Ni) é um nutriente essencial às plantas, mas níveis aumentados desse metal, em razão da poluição, podem causar efeitos deletérios, especialmente em macrófitas aquáticas. Testes de germinação de megásporos foram realizados usando-se solução de Meyer, em concentrações de 0 (controle); 0,05; 0,5; 1; 5; 10; 20; 30; 50; 100 mg L-1 de Ni. O desenvolvimento inicial de esporófitos apomíticos foi estudado usando-se soluções contendo 0 (controle) a 4,8 mg L-1 de Ni. Relação negativa significante foi observada entre diferentes concentrações de Ni e as taxas de germinação de megásporos/formação de esporófitos. Raízes primárias e folhas primárias e secundárias foram significantemente mais curtas a 3,2 e 4,8 mg L-1 de Ni, quando comparadas ao tratamento sem esse metal. Em 4,8 mg L-1, folhas também apresentaram clorose e necrose. A introdução de poluentes com Ni no habitat natural de Regnellidium diphyllum pode inibir o estabelecimento de plantas em estádio inicial de desenvolvimento, um problemaa a ser considerado em relação à conservação dessa espécie.


Assuntos
Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Marsileaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Níquel/toxicidade , Brasil , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Marsileaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento
19.
Braz J Biol ; 72(4): 801-6, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23295507

RESUMO

The Trad-MCN bioassay was used to investigate the genotoxicity on Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea plants exposed to variations in the environmental conditions in urban and rural sites in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil, over a one-year period. In spring 2009 and in summer, autumn and winter 2010, potted plants of T. pallida var. purpurea were exposed at two sites with different characteristics: the urban area of the municipality of Estância Velha, with leather and footwear industrial activity, and a Site of Special Environmental Interest in the rural area of the municipality of Novo Hamburgo. Other plants comprised the control group and were kept indoors. Frequencies of micronuclei (MCN) were determined in early tetrads of pollen mother cells and expressed as MCN/100 tetrads. Climate data were also registered during the experiment. MCN frequencies in the urban area were significantly higher (up to 8.13) than those found in the rural area (up to 1.26) and in the control group (up to 1.10), which did not differ statistically from each other over the year. The higher MCN frequencies observed in the urban site can be attributed to air pollution, but also may have been influenced by microclimatic and daily thermal variation differences between sites. Higher temperatures recorded in spring and summer may have influenced MCN frequencies observed in the urban site. No clear relation was observed between rainfall and MCN frequencies. Similar and high relative humidity percentages were registered over the period of the study. Considering that the bioindicator plant presents an integrated response to abiotic factors such as pollutants and weather conditions, it can be used as an additional tool that can point to synergistic effects of environmental variables on organisms.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Tradescantia/efeitos dos fármacos , Bioensaio , Monitoramento Ambiental , Testes para Micronúcleos/métodos , População Rural , Estações do Ano , Tradescantia/genética , População Urbana
20.
Braz J Biol ; 72(4): 807-11, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23295508

RESUMO

The heterosporous fern Regnellidium diphyllum occurs in southern Brazil and some adjoining localities in Uruguay and Argentina. Currently it is on the list of threatened species in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Anthropic alterations such as the conversion of wetlands into agricultural areas or water and soil contamination by pollutants may compromise the establishment and survival of this species. Nickel (Ni) is an essential nutrient for plants but increasing levels of this metal due to pollution can cause deleterious effects especially in aquatic macrophytes. Megaspore germination tests were performed using Meyer's solution, at concentrations of 0 (control), 0.05, 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 20, 30, 50 and 100 mg L(-1) of Ni. The initial development of apomictic sporophytes was studied using solutions containing 0 (control) to 4.8 mg L(-1) of Ni. A significant negative relation was observed between the different Ni concentrations and the megaspore germination/sporophyte formation rates. Primary roots, primary leaves and secondary leaves were significantly shorter at 3.2 and 4.8 mg L(-1) of Ni, when compared with the treatment without this metal. At 4.8 mg L(-1), leaves also presented chlorosis and necrosis. The introduction of pollutants with Ni in the natural habitat of Regnellidium diphyllum may inhibit the establishment of plants in the initial stage of development, a problem to be considered in relation to the conservation of this species.


Assuntos
Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Marsileaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Níquel/toxicidade , Brasil , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Marsileaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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