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1.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e052598, 2021 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452970

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether a home-based rehabilitation programme for people assessed as being at risk of a poor outcome after knee arthroplasty offers superior outcomes to traditional outpatient physiotherapy. DESIGN: A prospective, single-blind, two-arm randomised controlled superiority trial. SETTING: 14 National Health Service physiotherapy departments in the UK. PARTICIPANTS: 621 participants identified at high risk of a poor outcome after knee arthroplasty using a bespoke screening tool. INTERVENTIONS: A multicomponent home-based rehabilitation programme delivered by rehabilitation assistants with supervision from qualified therapists versus usual care outpatient physiotherapy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was the Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument (LLFDI) at 12 months. Secondary outcomes were the Oxford Knee Score (a disease-specific measure of function), Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score Quality of Life subscale, Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly, 5 dimension, 5 level version of Euroqol (EQ-5D-5L) and physical function assessed using the Figure of 8 Walk test, 30 s Chair Stand Test and Single Leg Stance. RESULTS: 621 participants were randomised between March 2015 and January 2018. 309 were assigned to CORKA (Community Rehabilitation after Knee Arthroplasty) home-based rehabilitation, receiving a median five treatment sessions (IQR 4-7). 312 were assigned to usual care, receiving a median 4 sessions (IQR 2-6). The primary outcome, LLFDI function total score at 12 months, was collected for 279 participants (89%) in the home-based CORKA group and 287 participants (92%) in the usual care group. No clinically or statistically significant difference was found between the groups (intention-to-treat adjusted difference=0.49 points; 95% CI -0.89 to 1.88; p=0.48). There were no statistically significant differences between the groups on any of the patient-reported or physical secondary outcome measures at 6 or 12 months.There were 18 participants in the intervention group reporting a serious adverse event (5.8%), only one directly related to the intervention, all other adverse events recorded throughout the trial related to underlying chronic medical conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The CORKA intervention was not superior to usual care. The trial detected no significant differences, clinical or statistical, between the two groups on either primary or secondary outcomes. CORKA offers an evaluation of an intervention utilising a different service delivery model for this patient group. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN13517704.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho , Idoso , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Método Simples-Cego , Medicina Estatal
2.
Health Technol Assess ; 25(46): 1-118, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34254934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Falls and fall-related fractures are highly prevalent among older people and are a major contributor to morbidity and costs to individuals and society. Only one small pilot trial has evaluated the effectiveness of a home hazard assessment and environmental modification in the UK. This trial reported a reduction in falls as a secondary outcome, and no economic evaluation was undertaken. Therefore, the results need to be confirmed and a cost-effectiveness analysis needs to be undertaken. OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a home hazard assessment and environmental modification delivered by occupational therapists for preventing falls among community-dwelling people aged ≥ 65 years who are at risk of falling, relative to usual care. DESIGN: This was a pragmatic, multicentre, modified cohort randomised controlled trial with an economic evaluation and a qualitative study. SETTING: Eight NHS trusts in primary and secondary care in England. PARTICIPANTS: In total, 1331 participants were randomised (intervention group, n = 430; usual-care group, n = 901) via a secure, remote service. Blinding was not possible. INTERVENTIONS: All participants received a falls prevention leaflet and routine care from their general practitioner. The intervention group were additionally offered one home environmental assessment and modifications recommended or provided to identify and manage personal fall-related hazards, delivered by an occupational therapist. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was the number of falls per participant during the 12 months from randomisation. The secondary outcomes were the proportion of fallers and multiple fallers, time to fall, fear of falling, fracture rate, health-related quality of life and cost-effectiveness. RESULTS: The primary analysis included all 1331 randomised participants and indicated weak evidence of a difference in fall rate between the two groups, with an increase in the intervention group relative to usual care (adjusted incidence rate ratio 1.17, 95% confidence interval 0.99 to 1.38; p = 0.07). A similar proportion of participants in the intervention group (57.0%) and the usual-care group (56.2%) reported at least one fall over 12 months. There were no differences in any of the secondary outcomes. The base-case cost-effectiveness analysis from an NHS and Personal Social Services perspective found that, on average per participant, the intervention was associated with additional costs (£18.78, 95% confidence interval £16.33 to £21.24), but was less effective (mean quality-adjusted life-year loss -0.0042, 95% confidence interval -0.0041 to -0.0043). Sensitivity analyses demonstrated uncertainty in these findings. No serious, related adverse events were reported. The intervention was largely delivered as intended, but recommendations were followed to a varying degree. LIMITATIONS: Outcome data were self-reported by participants, which may have led to inaccuracies in the reported falls data. CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that an occupational therapist-delivered home assessment and modification reduced falls in this population of community-dwelling participants aged ≥ 65 years deemed at risk of falling. The intervention was more expensive and less effective than usual care, and therefore it does not provide a cost-effective alternative to usual care. FUTURE WORK: An evaluation of falls prevention advice in a higher-risk population, perhaps those previously hospitalised for a fall, or given by other professional staff could be justified. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN22202133. FUNDING: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 25, No. 46. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.

3.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e044573, 2021 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226214

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: After first stroke, the transition from rehabilitation to home can be confronting and fraught with challenges. Although stroke clinical practice guidelines recommend predischarge occupational therapy home visits to ensure safe discharge and provision of appropriate equipment, there is currently limited evidence to support this recommendation. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The HOME Rehab trial is a national, multicentre, phase III randomised controlled trial with concealed allocation, blinded assessment and intention-to-treat analysis being conducted in Australia. The trial aim is to determine the effect and potential cost-effectiveness of an enhanced occupational therapy discharge planning intervention that involves pre and postdischarge home visits, goal setting and occupational therapy in the home (the HOME programme) in comparison to an in-hospital predischarge planning intervention. Stroke survivors aged ≥45 years, admitted to a rehabilitation ward, expected to return to a community (private) dwelling after discharge, with no significant prestroke disability will be randomly allocated 1:1 to receive a standardised discharge planning intervention and the HOME programme or the standardised discharge planning intervention alone. The primary outcome is participation measured using the Nottingham Extended Activities of Daily Living. Secondary outcome areas include hospital readmission, disability, performance of instrumental activities of daily living, health-related quality of life, quality of care transition and carer burden. Resources used/costs will be collected for the cost-effectiveness analysis and hospital readmission. Recruitment commenced in 2019. Allowing for potential attrition, 360 participants will be recruited to detect a clinically important treatment difference with 80% power at a two-tailed significance level of 0.05. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study is approved by the Alfred Health Human Research Ethics Committee and site-specific ethics approval has been obtained at all participating sites. Results of the main trial and the secondary endpoint of cost-effectiveness will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journalsTrial registration numberACTRN12618001360202.


Assuntos
Terapia Ocupacional , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Atividades Cotidianas , Assistência ao Convalescente , Austrália , Visita Domiciliar , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Alta do Paciente , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia
4.
Neuropsychol Rehabil ; : 1-18, 2021 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34121613

RESUMO

Cognitive problems are common in people with Multiple Sclerosis (MS), and researchers and clinicians have used a vast array of measures to assess cognition. Our aim was to systematically identify cognitive measures routinely used in MS research, and outline their different uses. Previous recommendations of cognitive measures to use in MS have relied on expert consensus approaches. We believe this systematic review is a starting point for an evidence-based approach to recommend cognitive tests for use with people with MS. We systematically searched electronic databases using relevant search terms for studies that assessed cognitive functioning in MS (last search in February 2020). From 11,854 abstracts retrieved, based on title and abstract review, 2563 remained. Data were extracted from 1526 studies. Studies used 5665 measures of cognition, with 316,053 people with MS. Substitutional style tests, serial addition tests, and word list learning tests were the most commonly used individual tests, and the Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Tests was the most commonly used battery. Some of the most frequently used measures were potentially inappropriate due to measuring irrelevant domains of cognition, and issues with sensitivity. Further research is needed to ascertain the psychometric properties, and acceptability of measures for people with MS.

5.
Neuropsychol Rehabil ; : 1-19, 2021 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33941045

RESUMO

There is a growing consensus that cognitive assessments should form part of routine clinical care in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). However, what remains unclear is which assessments are preferred by "stakeholders" (including people with MS, family members, charity volunteers, clinicians, and healthcare commissioners), in which contexts, and in which formats. Therefore, the aim of this study was to collect and synthesize stakeholders' perceptions of the assessments that are acceptable and feasible for routine administration in the UK healthcare system.We interviewed 44 stakeholders and held one focus group (n = 5). We asked stakeholders about their experience with cognitive impairment and assessment and their views on how cognitive assessment could be implemented within routine clinical care.Using framework analysis, we summarized three themes: the current cognitive screening situation; the suitability of commonly used assessments; and feasibility aspects, including modality and location of testing. All participants acknowledged that cognitive impairment could have a significant impact on the quality of life, but that assessment and monitoring are not routinely performed in clinics. Barriers and enablers were described, and most participants reported that brief, routine screening with tests such as symbol substitution was acceptable. Electronic, self-administration of cognitive screening would be beneficial in minimizing clinic attendance and staff time.

6.
Int J Stroke ; : 17474930211022678, 2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34037468

RESUMO

RATIONALE: To address unmet needs, electronic messages to support person-centered goal attainment and secondary prevention may avoid hospital presentations/readmissions after stroke, but evidence is limited. HYPOTHESIS: Compared to control participants, there will be a 10% lower proportion of intervention participants who represent to hospital (emergency/admission) within 90 days of randomization. METHODS AND DESIGN: Multicenter, double-blind, randomized controlled trial with intention-to-treat analysis. The intervention group receives 12 weeks of personalized, goal-centered, and administrative electronic messages, while the control group only receive administrative messages. The trial includes a process evaluation, assessment of treatment fidelity, and an economic evaluation. Participants: Confirmed stroke (modified Rankin Score: 0-4), aged ≥18 years with internet/mobile phone access, discharged directly home from hospital. Randomization: 1:1 computer-generated, stratified by age and baseline disability. Outcomes assessments: Collected at 90 days and 12 months following randomization. OUTCOMES: Primary outcomes include hospital emergency presentations/admissions within 90 days of randomization. Secondary outcomes include goal attainment, self-efficacy, mood, unmet needs, disability, quality-of-life, recurrent stroke/cardiovascular events/deaths at 90 days and 12 months, and death and cost-effectiveness at 12 months. Sample size: To test our primary hypothesis, we estimated a sample size of 890 participants (445 per group) with 80% power and two-tailed significance threshold of α = 0.05. Given uncertainty for the effect size of this novel intervention, the sample size will be adaptively re-estimated when outcomes for n = 668 are obtained, with maximum sample capped at 1100. DISCUSSION: We will provide new evidence on the potential effectiveness, implementation, and cost-effectiveness of a tailored eHealth intervention for survivors of stroke.

7.
Disabil Rehabil ; : 1-6, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33587864

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Hip precautions are routinely provided in the UK, despite evidence suggesting that they are no longer needed. A change in practice was introduced into an orthopaedic service whereby the provision of routine hip precautions was discontinued for selected individuals receiving a primary total hip replacement. The change involved implementing a new regime of "no precautions" which was facilitated using a number of key strategies. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of clinicians associated with the change in practice. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with clinicians who had experience of delivering both hip precautions and no hip precaution regimes. Data were analysed thematically. RESULTS: Ten orthopaedic staff (two senior occupational therapists, one occupational therapy support worker, three senior physiotherapists, two surgeons, and two senior nurses) were interviewed. Three main themes were identified: changes experienced, perceptions of the new regime, and challenges experienced. CONCLUSION: Several barriers and facilitators to the successful changeover were identified. Successful strategies in changing practice included assigning "Hip Champions", staff education and targeted training. It is proposed that holding multidisciplinary education and training would be the ideal model.Implications for rehabilitationKey strategies for changing practice were educating staff and providing targeted training.Multidisciplinary training might prevent discrepancies in the advice given to patients.Appointing "Hip Champions" provided clear role models and enabled new clinical behaviours to be enforced.

8.
Physiotherapy ; 111: 4-22, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33637294

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To establish the evidence for rehabilitation interventions tested in populations of patients admitted to ICU and critical care with severe respiratory illness, and consider whether the evidence is generalizable to patients with COVID-19. METHODS: The authors undertook a rapid systematic review. Medline (via OvidSP), CINAHL Complete (via EBSCOhost), Cochrane Library, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and CENTRAL (via Wiley), Epistemonikos (via Epistemonikos.org), PEDro (via pedro.org.au) and OTseeker (via otseeker.com) searched to 7 May 2020. The authors included systematic reviews, RCTs and qualitative studies involving adults with respiratory illness requiring intensive care who received rehabilitation to enhance or restore resulting physical impairments or function. Data were extracted by one author and checked by a second. TIDier was used to guide intervention descriptions. Study quality was assessed using Critical Skills Appraisal Programme (CASP) tools. RESULTS: Six thousand nine hundred and three titles and abstracts were screened; 24 systematic reviews, 11 RCTs and eight qualitative studies were included. Progressive exercise programmes, early mobilisation and multicomponent interventions delivered in ICU can improve functional independence. Nutritional supplementation in addition to rehabilitation in post-ICU hospital settings may improve performance of activities of daily living. The evidence for rehabilitation after discharge from hospital following an ICU admission is inconclusive. Those receiving rehabilitation valued it, engendering hope and confidence. CONCLUSIONS: Exercise, early mobilisation and multicomponent programmes may improve recovery following ICU admission for severe respiratory illness that could be generalizable to those with COVID-19. Rehabilitation interventions can bring hope and confidence to individuals but there is a need for an individualised approach and the use of behaviour change strategies. Further research is needed in post-ICU settings and with those who have COVID-19. Registration: Open Science Framework https://osf.io/prc2y.


Assuntos
COVID-19/reabilitação , Atividades Cotidianas , COVID-19/dietoterapia , Deambulação Precoce , Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Limitação da Mobilidade , Alta do Paciente , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Disabil Rehabil ; 43(9): 1247-1254, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442079

RESUMO

PURPOSE: An ageing workforce means that our understanding of return to work following total hip and knee replacement is of increasing importance. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the views and experiences of clinicians in treating working patients undergoing total hip or knee replacement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted semi-structured interviews in primary and secondary National Health Service care using framework methodology. A total of 40 interviews were conducted. Participants included 12 hospital-based Allied Health Professionals and nurses, 12 orthopedic surgeons, and 16 General Practitioners. Data were analyzed thematically. RESULTS: A key theme concerned participants' perceptions and experiences around the process and practice of listing working patients for total hip or knee replacement. Four sub-themes were identified; the perceived likelihood of listing employed patients for surgery, expectations and outcomes of surgery, the impact of work issues, and referral procedures and waiting lists. CONCLUSIONS: Decisions around listing working patients for total hip and knee replacement are complex and difficult. Clinicians need to consistently consider patients' work issues, and to be supported in this by appropriate commissioning and service delivery decisions. Further research is indicated to better understand the work-related expectations and anticipated outcomes of both patients and clinicians, and the optimum timing of surgery to maintain and improve patients' work performance.Implications for rehabilitationClinicians need to consistently consider patients' work issues, and current evidence, in their consultations and decisions regarding total hip and knee replacement.Clinical practice should reflect the growing proportion of working patients undergoing total hip and knee replacement, and routinely measure work outcomes.Changes are required at commissioning and service levels to support clinicians in changing their practice with this patient population.

10.
BMC Fam Pract ; 21(1): 268, 2020 12 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308145

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: GPs are under considerable pressure providing routine care. However, they may not be the most appropriate professionals to manage getting patients back to work, and keeping them there. OBJECTIVE: To test the feasibility of delivering occupational therapy-led vocational clinics (OTVoc) to provide return to work advice and support for people with musculoskeletal conditions and mental health problems, in primary care. METHODS: Prospective mixed methods study in two primary care centres (eight GP surgeries). We collected anonymised service level data on all patients receiving OTVoc. Next, patient participants who met inclusion criteria and consented, undertook baseline and 3-month follow-up assessments. Interviews were also conducted to explore stakeholders' views- GPs, Nurse Practitioners, Front Desk Staff, Occupational Therapists, patients and their employers about OTVoc- and included study eligibility, referral, experiences and attitudes to return to work. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. RESULTS: The majority of standardized measures showed some improvement over the study period: the sickness absence rate dropped from 71 to 15% and use of GP 'fit' notes reduced from 76 to 6%. Interview data indicated positive attitudes to OTVoc, the use of the fit note and the Allied Health Professions Health and Work Reports (AHP H&WRs). GPs felt that OTVoc reduced their workload. CONCLUSION: Further research is feasible and warranted. OTVoc was positively received and stakeholders believed it was effective in getting patients back to work or preparing for their return. There was enthusiasm for extending service eligibility criteria, suggesting potential for further development and evaluation.


Assuntos
Terapeutas Ocupacionais , Licença Médica , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
Health Technol Assess ; 24(65): 1-116, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33250068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over 100,000 primary knee arthroplasty operations are undertaken annually in the UK. Around 15-30% of patients do not report a good outcome. Better rehabilitation strategies may improve patient-reported outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To compare the outcomes from a traditional outpatient physiotherapy model with those from a home-based rehabilitation programme for people assessed as being at risk of a poor outcome after knee arthroplasty. DESIGN: An individually randomised, two-arm controlled trial with a blinded outcome assessment, a parallel health economic evaluation and a nested qualitative study. SETTING: The trial took place in 14 NHS physiotherapy departments. PARTICIPANTS: People identified as being at high risk of a poor outcome after knee arthroplasty. INTERVENTIONS: A multicomponent home-based rehabilitation package delivered by rehabilitation assistants with supervision from qualified therapists compared with usual-care outpatient physiotherapy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was the Late Life Function and Disability Instrument at 12 months. Secondary outcomes were the Oxford Knee Score (a disease-specific measure of function); Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score; Quality of Life subscale; Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly; EuroQol-5 Dimensions, five-level version; and physical function assessed using the Figure-of-8 Walk Test, 30-Second Chair Stand Test and Single Leg Stance. Data on the use of health-care services, time off work and informal care were collected using participant diaries. RESULTS: In total, 621 participants were randomised. A total of 309 participants were assigned to the COmmunity based Rehabilitation after Knee Arthroplasty (CORKA) home-based rehabilitation programme, receiving a median of five treatment sessions (interquartile range 4-7 sessions). A total of 312 participants were assigned to usual care, receiving a median of four sessions (interquartile range 2-6 sessions). The primary outcome, Late Life Function and Disability Instrument function total score at 12 months, was collected for 279 participants (89%) in the home-based CORKA group and 287 participants (92%) in the usual-care group. No clinically or statistically significant difference was found between the groups (intention-to-treat adjusted difference 0.49 points, 95% confidence interval -0.89 to 1.88 points; p = 0.48). There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in any of the patient-reported or physical secondary outcome measures at 6 or 12 months post randomisation. The health economic analysis found that the CORKA intervention was cheaper to provide than usual care (£66 less per participant). Total societal costs (combining health-care costs and other costs) were lower for the CORKA intervention than usual care (£316 less per participant). Adopting a societal perspective, CORKA had a 75% probability of being cost-effective at a threshold of £30,000 per quality-adjusted life-year. Adopting the narrower health and social care perspective, CORKA had a 43% probability of being cost-effective at the same threshold. LIMITATIONS: The interventions were of short duration and were set within current commissioning guidance for UK physiotherapy. Participants and treating therapists could not be blinded. CONCLUSIONS: This randomised controlled trial found no important differences in outcomes when post-arthroplasty rehabilitation was delivered using a home-based, rehabilitation assistant-delivered rehabilitation package or a traditional outpatient model. However, the health economic evaluation found that when adopting a societal perspective, the CORKA home-based intervention was cost-saving and more effective than, and thus dominant over, usual care, owing to reduced time away from paid employment for this group. Further research could look at identifying the risk of poor outcome and further evaluation of a cost-effective treatment, including the workforce model to deliver it. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN13517704. FUNDING: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 24, No. 65. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.

12.
F1000Res ; 9: 242, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32934800

RESUMO

Background: Post-stroke fatigue (PSF) is one of the most common and frustrating outcomes of stroke. It has a high prevalence and it can persist for many years after stroke. PSF itself contributes to a wider range of undesirable outcomes that affect all aspects of daily life. The aim of this review was to identify and summarise the most recent research on PSF, in order to update the evidence base. Methods: We updated an existing review (Hinkle et al. 2017) systematically searching CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and PubMed to cover new research studies between 1 st March 2016 and the search date (19 th January 2020). We included interventional and observational research, and clinical practice guidelines that were not covered in the original review. After duplicate removal in EndNote, two reviewers screened the search results in Rayyan, and data from eligible full texts were extracted onto an Excel spreadsheet. Finally, we used RobotReviewer and a human reviewer to assess the risk of bias of randomised trials for this scoping review. Results: We identified 45 records for 30 studies (14 observational, 10 interventional studies, and 6 guidelines). Apart from one, the interventional studies were single-centred, had high risk of bias and small sample size (median 50). They investigated exercise, pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, education, and light therapy. Observational studies mainly reported the factors related to PSF including co-morbidities, depression and anxiety, quality of life, activities of daily living, stroke severity, medication use and polypharmacy, polymorphism, pain, apathy, limb heaviness, neuroticism, mobility, and thyroid-stimulating hormone. Guidelines either did not report on PSF or, when reported, their recommendations were supported by little or low level of evidence. Conclusion: Although we identified a number of recent studies which have added to our current knowledge on PSF, none are robust enough to change current clinical practice.


Assuntos
Fadiga/etiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Atividades Cotidianas , Fadiga/terapia , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto
13.
Health Technol Assess ; 24(45): 1-408, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hip and knee replacements are regularly carried out for patients who work. There is little evidence about these patients' needs and the factors influencing their return to work. There is a paucity of guidance to help patients return to work after surgery and a need for structured occupational advice to enable them to return to work safely and effectively. OBJECTIVES: To develop an occupational advice intervention to support early recovery to usual activities including work that is tailored to the requirements of patients undergoing hip or knee replacements. To test the acceptability, practicality and feasibility of this intervention within current care frameworks. DESIGN: An intervention mapping approach was used to develop the intervention. The research methods employed were rapid evidence synthesis, qualitative interviews with patients and stakeholders, a prospective cohort study, a survey of clinical practice and a modified Delphi consensus process. The developed intervention was implemented and assessed during the final feasibility stage of the intervention mapping process. SETTING: Orthopaedic departments in NHS secondary care. PARTICIPANTS: Patients who were in work and intending to return to work following primary elective hip or knee replacement surgery, health-care professionals and employers. INTERVENTIONS: Occupational advice intervention. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Development of an occupational advice intervention, fidelity of the developed intervention when delivered in a clinical setting, patient and clinician perspectives of the intervention and preliminary assessments of intervention effectiveness and cost. RESULTS: A cohort study (154 patients), 110 stakeholder interviews, a survey of practice (152 respondents) and evidence synthesis provided the necessary information to develop the intervention. The intervention included information resources, a personalised return-to-work plan and co-ordination from the health-care team to support the delivery of 13 patient and 20 staff performance objectives. To support delivery, a range of tools (e.g. occupational checklists, patient workbooks and employer information), roles (e.g. return-to-work co-ordinator) and training resources were created. Feasibility was assessed for 21 of the 26 patients recruited from three NHS trusts. Adherence to the defined performance objectives was 75% for patient performance objectives and 74% for staff performance objectives. The intervention was generally well received, although the short time frame available for implementation and concurrent research evaluation led to some confusion among patients and those delivering the intervention regarding its purpose and the roles and responsibilities of key staff. LIMITATIONS: Implementation and uptake of the intervention was not standardised and was limited by the study time frame. Evaluation of the intervention involved a small number of patients, which limited the ability to assess it. CONCLUSIONS: The developed occupational advice intervention supports best practice. Evaluation demonstrated good rates of adherence against defined performance objectives. However, a number of operational and implementation issues require further attention. FUTURE WORK: The intervention warrants a randomised controlled trial to assess its clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness to improve rates and timing of sustained return to work after surgery. This research should include the development of a robust implementation strategy to ensure that adoption is sustained. STUDY REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN27426982 and PROSPERO CRD42016045235. FUNDING: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 24, No. 45. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.

14.
Clin Psychol Rev ; 82: 101923, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32992071

RESUMO

This meta-review aimed to synthesise evidence on psychosocial adjustment to multiple sclerosis, to identify available treatment models and services for recently diagnosed individuals, and to explore their effectiveness. MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and grey literature were searched to include systematic reviews on psychosocial adjustment in multiple sclerosis. Two reviewers independently screened and assessed the quality of the selected reviews. Data were synthesised using narrative approach. Overall, thirty systematic reviews were included (with ~131,813 people with multiple sclerosis). A variety of psychosocial factors were identified in relation to adjustment to multiple sclerosis. Seven theoretical models that underpinned the available services and ten different intervention categories (e.g. cognitive behavioural approaches, mindfulness) for adjustment to multiple sclerosis were identified. There was some evidence that these interventions improved quality of life and coping, however, the difference they could make to people's adjustment was inconclusive. It was also difficult to conclude whether these interventions were particularly effective with the newly diagnosed. There is some support for the effectiveness of adjustment interventions. However, there is a need to design and rigorously evaluate support programmes for newly diagnosed people with multiple sclerosis, specifically focusing on information and adjustment support.

15.
Ear Hear ; 42(1): 1-11, 2020 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639255

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To conduct a systematic review to address two research questions: (Q1) Does hearing loss have an effect on fatigue? (Q2) Does hearing device fitting have an effect on fatigue? It was hypothesized that hearing loss would increase fatigue (H1), and hearing device fitting would reduce fatigue (H2). DESIGN: Systematic searches were undertaken of five bibliographic databases: Embase, MedLine, Web of Science, Psychinfo, and the Cochrane Library. English language peer-reviewed research articles were included from inception until present. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were formulated using the Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcomes and Study design strategy. RESULTS: Initial searches for both research questions produced 1,227 unique articles, after removal of duplicates. After screening, the full text of 61 studies was checked, resulting in 12 articles with content relevant to the research questions. The reference lists of these studies were examined, and a final updated search was conducted on October 16, 2019. This resulted in a final total of 20 studies being selected for the review. For each study, the information relating to the Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcomes and Study design criteria and the statistical outcomes relating to both questions (Q1 and Q2) were extracted. Evidence relating to Q1 was provided by 15 studies, reporting 24 findings. Evidence relating to Q2 was provided by six studies, reporting eight findings. One study provided evidence for both. Using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation guidelines, the quality of evidence on both research questions was deemed to be "very low." It was impossible to perform a meta-analysis of the results due to a lack of homogeneity. CONCLUSIONS: As the studies were too heterogeneous to support a meta-analysis, it was not possible to provide statistically significant evidence to support the hypotheses that hearing loss results in increased fatigue (H1) or that hearing device fitting results in decreased fatigue (H2). Despite this, the comparative volume of positive results and the lack of any negative findings are promising for future research (particularly in respect of Q1). There was a very small number of studies deemed eligible for the review, and there was large variability between studies in terms of population, and quantification of hearing loss and fatigue. The review highlights the need for consistency when measuring fatigue, particularly when using self-report questionnaires, where the majority of the current evidence was generated.

16.
BMJ Open ; 10(7): e036191, 2020 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32636283

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To obtain consensus on the content and delivery of an occupational advice intervention for patients undergoing primary hip and knee replacement surgery. The primary targets for the intervention were (1) patients, carers and employers through the provision of individualised support and information about returning to work and (2) hospital orthopaedic teams through the development of a framework and materials to enable this support and information to be delivered. DESIGN: Modified Delphi study as part of a wider intervention development study (The Occupational advice for Patients undergoing Arthroplasty of the Lower limb (OPAL) study: Health Technology Assessment Reference 15/28/02) (ISRCTN27426982). SETTING: Five stakeholder groups (patients, employers, orthopaedic surgeons, general practitioners, allied health professionals and nurses) recruited from across the UK. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-six participants. METHODS: Statements for the Delphi process were developed relating to the content, format, delivery, timing and measurement of an occupational advice intervention. The statements were based on evidence gathered through the OPAL study that was processed using an intervention mapping framework. Intervention content was examined in round 1 and intervention format, delivery, timing and measurement were examined in round 2. In round 3, the developed intervention was presented to the stakeholder groups for comment. CONSENSUS: For rounds 1 and 2, consensus was defined as 70% agreement or disagreement on a 4-point scale. Statements reaching consensus were ranked according to the distribution of responses to create a hierarchy of agreement. Round 3 comments were used to revise the final version of the developed occupational advice intervention. RESULTS: Consensus was reached for 36 of 64 round 1 content statements (all agreement). In round 2, 13 questions were carried forward and an additional 81 statements were presented. Of these, 49 reached consensus (44 agreement/5 disagreement). Eleven respondents provided an appraisal of the intervention in round 3. CONCLUSIONS: The Delphi process informed the development of an occupational advice intervention as part of a wider intervention development study. Stakeholder agreement was achieved for a large number of intervention elements encompassing the content, format, delivery and timing of the intervention. The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the developed intervention will require evaluation in a randomised controlled trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: International Standard Randomised Controlled Trials Number Trial ID: ISRCTN27426982.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho , Consenso , Técnica Delfos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Hospitais , Humanos
17.
Pilot Feasibility Stud ; 6: 103, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32695435

RESUMO

Background: Urinary incontinence (UI) affects up to 40% of adult women within the UK, and pelvic floor muscle training can be effective as a treatment. The prevalence of UI is higher in athletic women than in their sedentary counterparts, but there is little research into reasons for this or into treatment within this population.The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of conducting a future randomised controlled trial of physiotherapeutic management of UI in athletic women. Methods: This is a mixed methods study with three distinct but related phases.Phase 1: Semi-structured interviews with health care professionals in the community will explore current management practices of UI in women and particularly in female athletes in order to inform the control arm of a future study. It will also establish community health care professionals' understanding of pelvic health physiotherapy.Phase 2: Athletic and regularly exercising women recruited directly from gyms and sports clubs will undergo a course of physiotherapy to manage UI. This will establish study recruitment, eligibility, consent, attendance, attrition, and data completion rates. It will provide information regarding appropriate clinical venues and outcome measures to use for this patient group.Phase 3: Semi-structured interviews with purposefully selected participants from phase 2 will investigate participant satisfaction with recruitment procedures, the intervention, outcome measures and the venues. Further, we will collect data regarding the use of a smartphone 'app' for adherence and monitoring of home exercises and participants' beliefs around randomisation in a future study. We will explore the impact of UI on life and sport in more detail. Discussion: This study will establish the ease and acceptability of recruiting athletic women directly from gyms and sports clubs and identify attrition rates. It will also explore the acceptability of the intervention, clinical venues and outcome measures. Data collected will be used to inform a future randomised controlled trial. Trial registration: NCT03986411 (clinicaltrials.gov). Registered on 14 June 2019.

18.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 523, 2020 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517684

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are increasing numbers of total hip replacements (THR) and total knee replacements (TKR) being performed in patients of working age. Providing patients undergoing TKR and THR with return to work advice might facilitate return to work. The aim of this paper is to report on the process used to systematically develop an occupational advice intervention to be delivered in hospital for those undergoing arthroplasty. METHODS: The six-step Intervention Mapping (IM) approach to development, implementation and evaluation of a theory and evidence-based interventions was followed. This paper reports on the development of the intervention covered by steps 1 to 4 of the IM process. Steps 1-3 gathered data on current practice and barriers to change using a mixed methods approach (cohort study of patients undergoing THR or TKR, stakeholder interviews, survey of practice, evidence synthesis) and provided a theoretical framework for intervention development. Step 4 used information from steps 1-3 in combination with a Delphi consensus process to develop the intervention and the associated tools and materials to facilitate its delivery. RESULTS: The final intervention identified included a number of core principles including: early patient identification; delivery of key information to patients and their employers; assessment and support by a member of the orthopaedic team; procedures for escalation based on patient need; mechanisms to support communication; and training and support for the clinical teams delivering care. A total of 13 patient and 20 staff performance objectives as delivery requirements, were supported by a range of tools, roles and training resources. The intervention addressed outcomes based at the individual and interpersonal levels of the ecological model. CONCLUSIONS: Following the IM approach resulted in a structured and justified occupational intervention for delivery in secondary care for patients undergoing total hip and knee replacement. The feasibility of the intervention will subsequently be tested alongside further investigation to establish its effectiveness and cost-effectiveness.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril/reabilitação , Artroplastia do Joelho/reabilitação , Aconselhamento/organização & administração , Retorno ao Trabalho , Estudos de Coortes , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Hospitais , Humanos , Reino Unido
19.
Health Technol Assess ; 24(24): 1-202, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence about the effectiveness of rehabilitation in meeting the longer-term needs of stroke patients and their carers. OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an extended stroke rehabilitation service (EXTRAS). DESIGN: A pragmatic, observer-blind, parallel-group, multicentre randomised controlled trial with embedded health economic and process evaluations. Participants were randomised (1 : 1) to receive EXTRAS or usual care. SETTING: Nineteen NHS study centres. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with a new stroke who received early supported discharge and their informal carers. INTERVENTIONS: Five EXTRAS reviews provided by an early supported discharge team member between 1 and 18 months post early supported discharge, usually over the telephone. Reviewers assessed rehabilitation needs, with goal-setting and action-planning. Control treatment was usual care post early supported discharge. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was performance in extended activities of daily living (Nottingham Extended Activities of Daily Living Scale) at 24 months post randomisation. Secondary outcomes at 12 and 24 months included patient mood (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), health status (Oxford Handicap Scale), experience of services and adverse events. For carers, secondary outcomes included carers' strain (Caregiver Strain Index) and experience of services. Cost-effectiveness was estimated using resource utilisation costs (adaptation of the Client Service Receipt Inventory) and quality-adjusted life-years. RESULTS: A total of 573 patients (EXTRAS, n = 285; usual care, n = 288) with 194 carers (EXTRAS, n = 103; usual care, n = 91) were randomised. Mean 24-month Nottingham Extended Activities of Daily Living Scale scores were 40.0 (standard deviation 18.1) for EXTRAS (n = 219) and 37.2 (standard deviation 18.5) for usual care (n = 231), giving an adjusted mean difference of 1.8 (95% confidence interval -0.7 to 4.2). The mean intervention group Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale scores were not significantly different at 12 and 24 months. The intervention did not improve patient health status or carer strain. EXTRAS patients and carers reported greater satisfaction with some aspects of care. The mean cost of resource utilisation was lower in the intervention group: -£311 (95% confidence interval -£3292 to £2787), with a 68% chance of EXTRAS being cost-saving. EXTRAS was associated with 0.07 (95% confidence interval 0.01 to 0.12) additional quality-adjusted life-years. At current conventional thresholds of willingness to pay for a quality-adjusted life-year, there is a 90% chance that EXTRAS is cost-effective. CONCLUSIONS: EXTRAS did not improve stroke survivors' performance in extended activities of daily living but did improve their overall satisfaction with services. Given the impact on costs and quality-adjusted life-years, there is a high chance that EXTRAS could be considered cost-effective. FUTURE WORK: Further research is required to identify whether or not community-based interventions can improve performance of extended activities of daily living, and to understand the improvements in health-related quality of life and costs seen by provision of intermittent longer-term specialist review. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN45203373. FUNDING: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 24, No. 24. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.

20.
Disabil Rehabil ; : 1-7, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045541

RESUMO

Background: Hip precautions are routinely provided to reduce the risk of dislocation following total hip replacement despite evidence suggesting they provide no additional benefit and may, actually, impede recovery. Our aim was to report the views of patients who had been recruited into a trial comparing outcomes in participants who were prescribed hip precautions with those who were not.Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted. Topics explored included experiences and opinions of the service (either hip precautions or no hip precautions), information offered, and equipment provided. Thematic analysis was used to identify and report themes.Results: Six themes were identified: perceived justification, and advantages and disadvantages for the postoperative recovery regime prescribed, perceived risk, and fear of dislocation, adherence to the postoperative regime prescribed, and experiences of adaptive equipment.Conclusions: Participants who received hip precautions had mixed views about their use: some felt they were restrictive whilst others believed they provided reassurance. Participants who did not receive hip precautions were less anxious about dislocating their hip but were unsure how to progress their rehabilitation. The discontinuation of precautions may decrease patients' fears about dislocation but more guidance from rehabilitation staff about how to move safely during recovery is required.Implications for rehabilitationHip precautions may unnecessarily exacerbate patients' anxieties and fear about dislocation following total hip replacement.Hip precautions impact on patients' recovery both physically and psychologically.Patients should be advised about moving and returning to activities following total hip replacement, whether they receive hip precautions or not.

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