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1.
Nanoscale ; 2020 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32633742

RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) multiferroics exhibit cross-control capacity between magnetic and electric responses in a reduced spatial domain, making them well suited for next-generation nanoscale devices; however, progress has been slow in developing materials with required characteristic properties. Here we identify by first-principles calculations robust 2D multiferroic behaviors in decorated Fe2O3 monolayers, showcasing Li@Fe2O3 as a prototypical case, where ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism stem from the same origin, namely Fe d-orbital splitting induced by the Jahn-Teller distortion and associated crystal field changes. These findings establish strong material phenomena and elucidate the underlying physics mechanism in a family of truly 2D multiferroics that are highly promising for advanced device applications.

2.
Adv Mater ; : e2003493, 2020 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32596981

RESUMO

Manipulating the surface structure of electrocatalysts at the atomic level is of primary importance to simultaneously achieve the activity and stability dual-criteria in oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) for proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Here, a durable acidic ORR electrocatalyst with the "defective-armored" structure of Pt shell and Pt-Ni core nanoparticle decorated on graphene (Pt-Ni@PtD /G) using a facile and controllable galvanic replacement reaction to generate gradient distribution of Pt-Ni composition from surface to interior, followed by a partial dealloying approach, leaching the minor nickel atoms on the surface to generate defective Pt skeleton shell, is reported. The Pt-Ni@PtD /G catalyst shows impressive performance for ORR in acidic (0.1 m HClO4 ) electrolyte, with a high mass activity of threefold higher than that of Pt/C catalyst owing to the tuned electronic structure of locally concave Pt surface sites through synergetic contributions of Pt-Ni core and defective Pt shell. More importantly, the electrochemically active surface areas still retain 96% after 20 000 potential cycles, attributing to the Pt atomic shell acting as the protective "armor" to prevent interior Ni atoms from further dissolution during the long-term operation.

3.
Adv Mater ; : e2001385, 2020 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32406092

RESUMO

Despite a suitable bandgap of bismuth vanadate (BiVO4 ) for visible light absorption, most of the photogenerated holes in BiVO4 photoanodes are vanished before reaching the surfaces for oxygen evolution reaction due to the poor charge separation efficiency in the bulk. Herein, a new sulfur oxidation strategy is developed to prepare planar BiVO4 photoanodes with in situ formed oxygen vacancies, which increases the majority charge carrier density and photovoltage, leading to a record charge separation efficiency of 98.2% among the reported BiVO4 photoanodes. Upon loading NiFeOx as an oxygen evolution cocatalyst, a stable photocurrent density of 5.54 mA cm-2 is achieved at 1.23 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE) under AM 1.5 G illumination. Remarkably, a dual-photoanode configuration further enhances the photocurrent density up to 6.24 mA cm-2 , achieving an excellent applied bias photon-to-current efficiency of 2.76%. This work demonstrates a simple thermal treatment approach to generate oxygen vacancies for the design of efficient planar photoanodes for solar hydrogen production.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32301608

RESUMO

Heteroatom-doping engineering has been verified as an effective strategy to tailor the electronic and chemical properties of materials. The high amount doping of nonmetal atoms to achieve desired performance, however, is always a grand challenge. Herein, a new strategy to achieve ultrahigh-level doping of phosphorus in a 3D graphene skeleton is proposed by sacrificing heterostructured two-dimensional black phosphorus on graphene. Via this approach, the phosphorus-loading in graphene hydrogel reached a record of 4.84 at. %, together with the formation of tunable pores of size 1.7-17.5 nm in graphene. During reaction kinetic analysis, the highly phosphorus-doped 3D graphene hydrogel anode exhibited more favorable capacitive-controlled ion storage behaviors, leading to a specific capacity as high as 1000 mA h g-1 after 1700 cycles, which is superior to the pristine graphene hydrogel electrode. This simple but effective phosphorization offers an effective doping strategy for producing ultrahigh-level phosphorous doping but avoids the usual use of toxic phosphorous precursors. Furthermore, the modulation on the activation process over cycling investigated in this work gives us a new insight into designing stable anodes for carbonaceous electrode materials.

5.
Nanoscale ; 2020 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222745

RESUMO

The successful synthesis of two-dimensional (2D) boron sheets typically relies on the utilization of a silver surface, which acts as a gated substrate compensating for the electron-deficiency of boron. However, how the structures of one-dimensional (1D) boron are affected by the gating effect remains unclear. By means of an unbiased global minimum structure search and density functional theory (DFT) computations, we discovered the coexistence of 2D boron sheets and 1D ribbons triggered by electrostatic gating. Specifically, at a low excess charge density level (<0.1 e per atom), 2D boron sheets dominate the low energy configurations. As the charge density increases (>0.3 e per atom), more 1D boron ribbons emerge, while the number of 2D layers is reduced. Additionally, a number of low-lying 1D boron ribbons were discovered, among which a flat borophene-like ribbon (FBR) was predicted to be stable and possess high mechanical strength. Moreover, the electride Ca2N was identified as an ideal substrate for the fabrication of the FBR because of its ability to supply a strong electrostatic field. This work bridges the gap between 2D and 1D boron structures, reveals the polymorphism of 1D boron ribbons under the electrostatic gating effect, and in general provides broad implications for future synthesis and applications of low-dimensional boron materials.

6.
Nanoscale ; 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32133471

RESUMO

Electrocatalytic reduction is considered to be a promising way for the green and sustainable conversion of CO2 into fuels and chemicals. Transition metals, copper particularly, are the most popular catalysts for this process and a wide range of reduced carbon compounds can be obtained. In previous studies, the binding energies of *CO and *OH were adopted as descriptors to screen out the best catalyst. However, this approach is not effective for those catalysts that have a weak interaction with CO molecules. Herein, we present a theoretical work by using the d-band centre as a descriptor to predict the best catalyst for CO2 reduction to CH4 based on newly synthesized metal organic frameworks, namely porous M3 (HITP)2 (HITP, 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexaiminotriphenylene) two-dimensional metal organic frameworks (MN4-MOFs). The limiting potentials of MN4-MOFs (M = Ti to Cu) for CO2 reduction, determined by the formation energy of *OCHOH and *OCH2OH species, are closely correlated with the d-band centre from the TiN4-MOF to CuN4-MOF. Among the eight catalysts examined, the FeN4-MOF turns out to be the most active one for the selective conversion of CO2 to CH4 with an ultralow limiting potential of only -0.41 V, which is comparable or even lower than that of other reported CO2 reduction catalysts.

7.
Adv Mater ; : e2000966, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134518

RESUMO

Controllably constructing nitrogen-modified divacancies (ND) in carbon substrates to immobilize atomic Fe species and unveiling the advantageous configuration is still challenging, but indispensable for attaining optimal Fe-N-C catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Herein, a fundamental investigation of unfolding intrinsically superior edge-ND trapped atomic Fe motifs (e-ND-Fe) relative to an intact center model (c-ND-Fe) in ORR electrocatalysis is reported. Density functional theory calculations reveal that local electronic redistribution and bandgap shrinkage for e-ND-Fe endow it with a lower free-energy barrier toward direct four-electron ORR. Inspired by this, a series of atomic Fe catalysts with adjustable ND-Fe coordination are synthesized, which verify that ORR performance highly depends on the concentration of e-ND-Fe species. Remarkably, the best e-ND-Fe catalyst delivers a favorable kinetic current density and halfwave potential that can be comparable to benchmark Pt-C under acidic conditions. This work will guide to develop highly active atomic metal catalysts through rational defect engineering.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32067299

RESUMO

Atomic co-catalysts offer high potential to improve the photocatalytic performance, of which the preparation with earth-abundant elements is challenging. Here, a new molten salt method (MSM) is designed to prepare atomic Ni co-catalyst on widely studied TiO2 nanoparticles. The liquid environment and space confinement effect of the molten salt leads to atomic dispersion of Ni ions on TiO2 , while the strong polarizing force provided by the molten salt promotes formation of strong Ni-O bonds. Interestingly, Ni atoms are found to facilitate the formation of oxygen vacancies (OV) on TiO2 during the MSM process, which benefits the charge transfer and hydrogen evolution reaction. The synergy of atomic Ni co-catalyst and OV results in 4-time increase in H2 evolution rate compared to that of the Ni co-catalyst on TiO2 prepared by an impregnation method. This work provides a new strategy of controlling atomic co-catalyst together with defects for efficient photocatalytic water splitting.

9.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(5): 6651-6661, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918551

RESUMO

Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have achieved unprecedented progress in terms of enhancement of power conversion efficiency (PCE). Nevertheless, device stability is still an obstacle to the commercialization of this emerging photovoltaic technology. Though strategies such as compositional management and ligand engineering have been reported to tackle this critical issue, these methods often have drawbacks such as compromised device performance. Herein, we propose an approach combining material dimensionality control and interfacial passivation by a post-device treatment via triethylenetetramine (TETA) vapor to enhance both efficiency and stability of Cs0.05FA0.79MA0.16PbI2.5Br0.5-based PSCs. Results of X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy show the formation of low-dimensional perovskites at the interface between the perovskite film and the hole transporting layer after the TETA vapor treatment. Measurements of the energy level alignment and electrochemical properties by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and impedance spectra confirm the reduced density of trap states and improved interfacial charge transport. Consequently, TETA-based treatment significantly enhances both efficiency (from 17.07 to 18.03%) and stability (PCE retention from 73.4 to 88.9%) of the PSCs under >65% relative humidity for 1000 h compared to the controlled device without TETA treatment. Furthermore, the TETA vapor also shows an advantageous effect of dramatically improving the performance of PSC devices, which initially had poor performance (from 6.8 to 10.5%) through surface defect passivation.

10.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(9): 3638-3644, 2020 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31840345

RESUMO

Potassium-ion batteries are promising for low-cost and large-scale energy storage applications, but the major obstacle to their application is the lack of safe and effective electrolytes. A phosphate-based fire retardant such as triethyl phosphate is now shown to work as a single solvent with potassium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide at 0.9 m, in contrast to previous Li and Na systems where phosphates cannot work at low concentrations. This electrolyte is optimized at 2 m, where it exhibits the advantages of low cost, low viscosity, and high conductivity, as well as the formation of a uniform and robust salt-derived solid-electrolyte interphase layer, leading to non-dendritic K-metal plating/stripping with Coulombic efficiency of 99.6 % and a highly reversible graphite anode.

11.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(33): 29753-29764, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31135124

RESUMO

Device instability has become an obstacle for the industrial application of organic-inorganic metal halide perovskite solar cells that has already demonstrated over 23% laboratory power conversion efficiency (PCE). It has been discovered that the sliding of A-site cations in the perovskite compound through and out of the three-dimensional [PbI6]4- crystal frame is one of the main reasons that are responsible for decomposition of the perovskite compound. Herein, we report an effective method to enhance the stability of the FA0.79MA0.16Cs0.05PbI2.5Br0.5 perovskite film through the incorporation of n-propylammonium iodide (PAI). Both density functional theory calculation and the X-ray diffraction patterns have confirmed the formation of two-dimensional (PA)2PbI4 with the Ruddlesden-Popper perovskite as a result of the reaction between PAI and PbI2 in the perovskite film. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals less -COOH (carboxyl) groups on the surface of the perovskite film containing (PA)2PbI4, which indicates the suppressed penetration of oxygen and moisture into the perovskite material. This is further confirmed by the surface water wettability test of the (PA)2PbI4 film that exhibits excellent hydrophobic property with over 110° contact angle. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrates the introduction of PAI additives that resulted in the upshift of the conduction band minimum of the perovskite by 160 meV, leading to a more favorable energy alignment with an adjacent electron transporting material. As a consequence, enhanced 17.23% PCE with suppressed hysteresis was obtained with the 5% PAI additive (molar ratio) in perovskite solar cells that retained nearly 50% of the initial efficiency after 2000 h in air without encapsulation under 45% average relative humidity.

12.
Nanoscale ; 11(19): 9705-9715, 2019 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066435

RESUMO

The galvanic replacement reaction is a verstile method for the fabrication of bimetallic nanomaterials which is usually limited to solid precursors. Here we report on the galvanic replacement of liquid metal galinstan with Pt which predominantly results in the formation of a Pt5Ga1 material. During the galvanic replacement process an interesting phenomenon was observed whereby a plume of nanomaterial is ejected upwards from the centre of the liquid metal droplet into solution which is due to surface tension gradients on the liquid metal surface that induces surface convection. It was also found that hydrogen gas was liberated during the process facilitated by the formation of the Pt rich nanomaterial which is a highly effective catalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). The material was characterised by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and dynamic light scattering measurements. It was found that Pt5Ga1 was highly effective for the electrochemical oxidation of methanol and ethanol and outperformed a commercial Pt/C catalyst. Density functional theory calculations confirmed that the increased activity is due to the anti poisoning properties of the surface towards CO upon the incorporation of Ga atoms into a Pt catalyst. The use of liquid metals and galvanic replacement offers a simple approach to fabricating Ga based alloy nanomaterials that may have use in many other types of applications.

13.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 10(10): 2567-2573, 2019 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046284

RESUMO

Three-dimensional diborides MB2, featured in stacking the M layer above the middle of the honeycomb boron layer, have been extensively studied. However, little information on the two-dimensional counterparts of MB2 is available. Here, by means of evolutionary algorithm and first-principles calculations, we extensively studied the monolayer MB2 crystal with M elements ranging from group IIA to IVA covering 34 candidates. Our computations screened out eight stable monolayers MB2 (M = Be, Mg, Fe, Ti, Hf, V, Nb, Ta), and they exhibit Dirac-like band structures. Dramatically, among them, groups IVB-VB transition-metal diboride MB2 (M = Ti, Hf, V, Nb, Ta) are predicted to be a new class of auxetic materials. They harbor in-plane negative Poisson's ratio (NPR) arising mainly from the orbital hybridization between M d and Boron p orbitals, which is distinct from previously reported auxetic materials. The unusual NPR and the Dirac transport channel of these materials are applicable to nanoelectronics and nanomechanics.

14.
ChemSusChem ; 12(16): 3753-3760, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31102343

RESUMO

The development of new battery technology that utilizes abundant electrode materials that are environmentally benign is an important area of research. To alleviate the reliance on Li-ion batteries new energy storage mechanisms are urgently needed. To address these issues, MnO2 nanowires were investigated as a possible electrode material for use in rechargeable Al ion batteries that can operate in aqueous conditions. The use of this type of material and an aqueous electrolyte ensures safe operation as well as easy recycling of spent batteries. A potassium-rich cryptomelane structure was presented, and a new mechanism of electrochemical energy storage was elucidated based on the intercalation and deintercalation of small-radius Al3+ ions interchanging with larger K+ ions in the cryptomelane MnO2 nanowires, which was supported by DFT calculations. This first-time use of a cryptomelane MnO2 cathode for an aqueous Al ion system yielded a discharge capacity of 109 mAh g-1 , which indicates the potential commercial viability of rechargeable aqueous Al-ion batteries.

15.
Nanoscale ; 11(16): 7734-7743, 2019 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30949654

RESUMO

Hydrogenation of carbon dioxide (CO2) is among the most promising approaches for reclaiming the major greenhouse gases to produce fuels and chemicals. Developing catalysts composed of natural abundant, economical and eco-friendly elements is critical for the industrialization of this technology. Silicon satisfies all these requirements but lacks activity. Using first-principles calculations, we show for the first time that the two-dimensional phase of silicon, i.e., mono- and few-layer silicene supported by a Ag(111) substrate, exhibits superior catalytic activity for CO2 hydrogenation, with selectivity being intrinsically controlled by the number of layers. The supported silicene monolayer as a catalyst leads to the formation of carbon monoxide, formic acid and formaldehyde, while the formation of methanol and methane is favored on bilayer silicene on the Ag substrate. The key parameters governing activity and selectivity are the densities and energy levels of surface dangling bond states, which in turn are mediated by the substrate coupling and covalent interaction between silicene layers. These theoretical results elucidate the fundamental principles for tailoring the catalytic properties of non-metal materials by controlling the number of layers and manipulating the surface states and will advance the development of silicon-based catalysts for renewable energy technologies.

16.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(19): 17410-17415, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31021081

RESUMO

Supported single-atom catalysts (SACs) have attracted enormous attention because of their high selectivity, activity, and efficiency, compared to conventional nanoparticles and metal bulk catalysts. However, all of these unique merits rely on the stability of the SAC, as reported by many investigators. To avoid aggregation of single-metal atoms and maintain the high performance of the SAC, various substrates have been tried to support them, particularly on graphene nanosheets. A spontaneous interface phenomenon between graphene and the Co (and Ni) substrate discovered in this work is that the holes in the graphene layer can stimulate metal atoms to pop up from a metal substrate and fill the double vacancy in graphene (DV-G) and stabilize on the graphene surface. The unique structure of the lifted metal atom is expected to be useful for the bifunctional SAC for electrocatalytic oxygen evolution reactions (OERs) and oxygen reduction reactions (ORRs). Our first-principles calculations indicate that the DV-G on the Co(0001) surface can serve as an excellent bifunctional OER/ORR catalyst in alkaline media with extremely low overpotentials of 0.39 V for OER and only 0.36 V for ORR processes, which are even lower than those for previously reported bifunctional catalysts. We believe that the catalytic activity stems from the interface coupling effect between the DV-G and metal substrate, as well as the charge redistribution in the graphitic sheet.

17.
Beilstein J Nanotechnol ; 10: 540-548, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30873326

RESUMO

The design of new, efficient catalysts for the conversion of CO2 to useful fuels under mild conditions is urgent in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and alleviate the energy crisis. In this work, a series of transition metals (TMs), including Sc to Zn, Mo, Ru, Rh, Pd and Ag, supported on a boron nitride (BN) monolayer with boron vacancies, were investigated as electrocatalysts for the CO2 reduction reaction (CRR) using comprehensive density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The results demonstrate that a single-Mo-atom-doped boron nitride (Mo-doped BN) monolayer possesses excellent performance for converting CO2 to CH4 with a relatively low limiting potential of -0.45 V, which is lower than most catalysts for the selective production of CH4 as found in both theoretical and experimental studies. In addition, the formation of OCHO on the Mo-doped BN monolayer in the early hydrogenation steps is found to be spontaneous, which is distinct from the conventional catalysts. Mo, as a non-noble element, presents excellent catalytic performance with coordination to the BN monolayer, and is thus a promising transition metal for catalyzing CRR. This work not only provides insight into the mechanism of CRR on the single-atom catalyst (Mo-doped BN monolayer) at the atomic level, but also offers guidance in the search for appropriate earth-abundant TMs as electrochemical catalysts for the efficient conversion of CO2 to useful fuels under ambient conditions.

18.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 598, 2019 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30723204

RESUMO

Epitaxial growth of atomically thin two-dimensional crystals such as transition metal dichalcogenides remains challenging, especially for producing large-size transition metal dichalcogenides bilayer crystals featuring high density of states, carrier mobility and stability at room temperature. Here we achieve in epitaxial growth of the second monolayer from the first monolayer by reverse-flow chemical vapor epitaxy and produce high-quality, large-size transition metal dichalcogenides bilayer crystals with high yield, control, and reliability. Customized temperature profiles and reverse gas flow help activate the first layer without introducing new nucleation centers leading to near-defect-free epitaxial growth of the second layer from the existing nucleation centers. A series of bilayer crystals including MoS2 and WS2, ternary Mo1-xWxS2 and quaternary Mo1-xWxS2(1-y)Se2y are synthesized with variable structural configurations and tunable electronic and optical properties. The robust, potentially universal approach for the synthesis of large-size transition metal dichalcogenides bilayer single crystals is highly-promising for fundamental studies and technological applications.

19.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(3): 1546-1551, 2019 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30617364

RESUMO

Electrochemical reduction of dinitrogen molecules (N2) to value-added ammonia by using renewable electricity under mild conditions is regarded as a sustainable and promising strategy for N2 fixation. However, the lack of efficient, robust and inexpensive electrocatalysts for such electrochemical reduction has prevented its wide application. Herein, we report a novel single-atom catalyst, i.e., a single tungsten (W) atom anchored on N-doped graphyne (W@N-doped graphyne) as a highly efficient and low-cost electrocatalyst for the N2 reduction reaction. The inert N[triple bond, length as m-dash]N triple bond can be sufficiently activated when an N2 molecule is adsorbed on the W atom. A single atom of W coordinated with one N atom (doping into an sp-hybridized carbon atom) exhibits the highest catalytic performance with ultra-low onset potential of 0.29 V for N2 reduction reactions. The 'distal mechanism' is identified as the most favourable catalytic pathway. Moreover, the improved electrical conductivity of W@N-doped graphyne compared to that of pristine graphyne can ensure better electron transfer efficiency during the reduction processes. Our study provides a novel electrocatalyst with excellent catalytic performance for electrochemical reduction of N2 to NH3 under ambient conditions.

20.
Nano Lett ; 19(2): 1366-1370, 2019 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30648394

RESUMO

Inspired by recent experiments on the successful fabrication of monolayer Janus transition-metal dichalcogenides [ Lu , A.-Y. ; Nat. Nanotechnol. 2017 , 12 , ( 8 ), 744 and ferromagnetic VSe2 [ Bonilla , M. ; Nat. Nanotechnol. 2018 , 13 , ( 4 ), 289 ], we predict a highly stable room-temperature ferromagnetic Janus monolayer (VSSe) by density functional theory methods and further confirmed the stability by a global minimum search with the particle-swarm optimization method. The VSSe monolayer exhibits a large valley polarization due to the broken space- and time-reversal symmetry. Moreover, its low symmetry C3 v point group results in giant in-plane piezoelectric polarization. Most interestingly, a strain-driven 90° lattice rotation is found in the magnetic VSSe monolayer with an extremely high reversal strain (73%), indicating an intrinsic ferroelasticity. The combination of piezoelectricity and valley polarization make magnetic 2D Janus VSSe a tantalizing material for potential applications in nanoelectronics, optoelectronics, and valleytronics.

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