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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 722: 137917, 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199392

RESUMO

The recent acute evolution of cropland structure in Cold China could lead to rapid rice paddy expansion, potentially altering land-surface thermal processes and influencing climate. To address the issue, this study investigated the changes in cropland type, land-surface temperature (LST) and heat fluxes in the agricultural region of Cold China during 2000-2015 based on time-series of land-use data and MODIS LST product, using the split-window algorithms (SWA) model and the pixel component arranging and component algorithm (PCACA). The investigation revealed large-scale land transformation from rain-fed farmland to paddy field in Cold China during 2000-2015. Compared to the rain-fed farmland, lower LST was observed in paddy field throughout crop growing seasons, with the highest LST threshold found in June (7.17 ± 1.05 °C) and the lowest value found in August (1.04 ± 0.35 °C). The cooling effect of paddy-field ranged from 0.59 ± 0.06 °C, 0.77 ± 0.07 °C, and 1.08 ± 0.08 °C for the low-, medium-, and high-density paddies, respectively. Compared to other months, stronger cooling effect was found in May and June. Further analysis showed the conversion of a rain-fed farmland to paddy field reduced the sensible heat flux and soil heat flux by 52.94 W/m2 and 15.26 W/m2, respectively, while increased the latent heat flux and net radiation by 115.66 W/m2 and 47.34 W/m2, respectively. The findings from this study indicated the changes in cropland structure and management regime (e.g., irrigation) could profoundly modify land-surface thermal processes and local/regional climate, interfering the signals from global warming. Therefore, instrumental climate data that collected from areas experienced large-scale conversion between rain-fed and paddy farmland should be carefully screened and corrected to prevent land-use induced biases.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 711: 135183, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000350

RESUMO

China is the largest rice producer and consumer in the world. Accurate estimations of paddy rice planting area and rice grain production is important for feeding the increasing population in China. However, Southern China had substantial losses in paddy rice area over the last three decades in those regions where paddy rice has traditionally been produced. Several studies have shown increased paddy rice area in Northeast China. Here we document the annual dynamics of paddy rice area, gross primary production (GPP), and grain production in Northeast China (Heilongjiang, Jilin and Liaoning provinces) during 2000-2017 using agricultural statistical data, satellite images, and model simulations. Annual maps derived from satellite images show that paddy rice area in Northeast China has increased by 3.68 million ha from 2000 to 2017, which is more than the total combined paddy rice area of North Korea, South Korea, and Japan. Approximately 82% of paddy rice pixels had an increase in annual GPP during 2000-2017. The expansion of paddy rice area slowed down substantially since 2015. Annual GPP from those paddy rice fields cultivated continuously over the 18 years were moderately higher than that from other paddy rice fields, which suggested that improved management practices could increase grain production in the region. There was a strong linear relationship between annual GPP and annual rice grain production in Northeast China by province and year, which illustrates the potential of using satellite-based data-driven model to track and assess grain production of paddy rice in the region. Northeast China is clearly an emerging rice production base and plays an increasing role in crop production and food security in China. However, many challenges for the further expansion and sustainable cultivation of paddy rice in Northeast China remain.


Assuntos
Oryza , Agricultura , China , Grão Comestível , Japão , República da Coreia
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 659: 314-325, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30599350

RESUMO

Drastic rice paddy expansion and rapid upland crop loss have occurred over high latitudes in China, which would affect national food security. Different agro-ecosystems (i.e., state farms guided by the central government for agriculture and private farms guided by individual farmers for agriculture) could lead to different agricultural land use patterns; but this topic has not been investigated, which has limited our understanding of the dynamics of cropping patterns (i.e., rice paddies and upland crops) under different agro-ecosystems and their effect on total grain production. Thus, this study examined these issues over high latitudes in China. The results showed that: the developed methodology for determining cropping patterns presented high accuracy (over 90%). Based on the cropping pattern data, first, a satellite evidence of substantial increase in rice paddies with the loss of upland crops was found, and the large-scale conversion from upland crops to rice paddies has become the principal land use changes during the period of 2000-2015. Second, the new phenomenon was observed with rice paddies in state farms expanding at faster rates (at proportions of 12.98%-70.11%) than those in private farms (4.86%-30.48%). Third, the conversion of upland crops into rice paddies contributed 10.69% of the net increase in grain, which played a significant role in ensuring food security. The study provided new evidence of different changes in cropping patterns under different agro-ecosystems, thereby affecting rice cropping pattern and total grain production. This information is important for understanding and guiding the response to food sustainability and environmental issues.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/métodos , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Abastecimento de Alimentos , China
4.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 26(1): 207-14, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25985672

RESUMO

On the background of global climate change, agriculture in North China has been experiencing substantial modifications to adapt to the ongoing regional warming. One of the most significant land use change is the conversation from upland cropland to paddy cropland, which is characterized by the dramatic changes of agricultural landscape pattern. In this study, we generated land use maps in Fujin City in 2000 and 2013 by using Landsat TM imagery, and analyzed the landscape pattern changes (cropland composite, special distribution, and patch characteristics, etc.) of croplands by using landscape indices and empirical approach. The results indicated a rapid cropland increase from 512400 hm2(reclamation ratio 60.4%) in 2000 to 699300 hm2(reclamation 82.4%) in 2013, especially, the paddy cropland proportion in the total cropland increased from 6.7% to more than half (54.1%) , that is, the agricultural land use mode had changed from the initial stage of paddy agriculture to the intermediate stage. The reclamation area and common agricultural area showed different paddy agriculture development characteristics: in 2000, the paddy field ratios in the common agricultural area and reclamation area were similar (5.5% and 8.3% respectively); however, in 2013, the paddy field ratio in the common agricultural area (33.6%) was significantly lower than that in reclamation area (83.4%). In 2000, the total number of cropland patches was 2311 in the study, including 1010 patches from the common agricultural area and 1301 patches from the reclamation area. The coefficient of variation (CV) , and shape index (SI) of cropland patches in upland cropland were always higher than in paddy cropland. Upland cropland had larger mean patch size with the plaque area index above 60% and higher connectivity. The patch density of upland cropland was lower than that of paddy cropland. In the conversions to the intermediate and later stages of paddy agriculture, the patch number of cropland increased rapidly with different rates in upland and paddy croplands. The CV of paddy cropland patches increased while fluctuated in upland cropland. The SI of paddy cropland increased first and then decreased, while that of upland cropland decreased continuously. The mean patch sizes of paddy and upland croplands increased and decreased respectively. The patch density increased in upland cropland while decreased in paddy cropland. The connectivity of upland cropland decreased while that of paddy cropland increased. The staggered degree of both cropland types was enhanced from 2000 to 2013. In general, the paddy agriculture was becoming the dominated agricultural land use mode in the study area while the convesions had different rates in two administrative regions (reclamation and common agricultural areas).


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Oryza , China , Mudança Climática
5.
Environ Res ; 139: 3-10, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25769509

RESUMO

In the past decades, China has observed rapid urbanization, the nation's urban population reached 50% in 2000, and is still in steady increase. Rapid urbanization in China has an adverse impact on urban hydrological processes, particularly in increasing the urban flood risks and causing serious urban flooding losses. Urban flooding also increases health risks such as causing epidemic disease break out, polluting drinking water and damaging the living environment. In the highly urbanized area, non-engineering measurement is the main way for managing urban flood risk, such as flood risk warning. There is no mature method and pilot study for urban flood risk warning, the purpose of this study is to propose the urban flood risk warning method for the rapidly urbanized Chinese cities. This paper first presented an urban flood forecasting model, which produces urban flood inundation index for urban flood risk warning. The model has 5 modules. The drainage system and grid dividing module divides the whole city terrain into drainage systems according to its first-order river system, and delineates the drainage system into grids based on the spatial structure with irregular gridding technique; the precipitation assimilation module assimilates precipitation for every grids which is used as the model input, which could either be the radar based precipitation estimation or interpolated one from rain gauges; runoff production module classifies the surface into pervious and impervious surface, and employs different methods to calculate the runoff respectively; surface runoff routing module routes the surface runoff and determines the inundation index. The routing on surface grid is calculated according to the two dimensional shallow water unsteady flow algorithm, the routing on land channel and special channel is calculated according to the one dimensional unsteady flow algorithm. This paper then proposed the urban flood risk warning method that is called DPSIR model based multiple index fuzzy evaluation warning method, and referred to as DMFEW method. DMFEW first selects 5 evaluation indexes based on the DPSIR model for flood risk warning evaluation, including driving force index, pressure index, state index, impact index and response index. Based on the values of all evaluation indexes, one evaluation index for the whole system evaluation result is determined by using the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method. The flood risk level is divided into 4 levels, having Level 1 the most serious. Every evaluation index is also categorized as 4 levels, and a linear fuzzy subjection function is proposed to do the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation. Dongguan City is used as the study case to validate the proposed method. The urban flood forecasting model is set up with the topographic data, the city map, the underground pipelines and land cover types, and two flood events are simulated with observed precipitation, one is interpolated from the rain gauges data, and another is estimated by digital weather radar. The simulated results are compared with the investigated water depth, and the results show the model has very good performances. The results are further used for the flood risk warning simulation, and are very reasonable.


Assuntos
Desastres , Inundações , Modelos Teóricos , Chuva , Urbanização/tendências , China , Defesa Civil , Desastres/estatística & dados numéricos , Inundações/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco , Engenharia Sanitária
6.
ISPRS J Photogramm Remote Sens ; 105: 220-233, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27695195

RESUMO

Accurate and timely rice paddy field maps with a fine spatial resolution would greatly improve our understanding of the effects of paddy rice agriculture on greenhouse gases emissions, food and water security, and human health. Rice paddy field maps were developed using optical images with high temporal resolution and coarse spatial resolution (e.g., Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)) or low temporal resolution and high spatial resolution (e.g., Landsat TM/ETM+). In the past, the accuracy and efficiency for rice paddy field mapping at fine spatial resolutions were limited by the poor data availability and image-based algorithms. In this paper, time series MODIS and Landsat ETM+/OLI images, and the pixel- and phenology-based algorithm are used to map paddy rice planting area. The unique physical features of rice paddy fields during the flooding/open-canopy period are captured with the dynamics of vegetation indices, which are then used to identify rice paddy fields. The algorithm is tested in the Sanjiang Plain (path/row 114/27) in China in 2013. The overall accuracy of the resulted map of paddy rice planting area generated by both Landsat ETM+ and OLI is 97.3%, when evaluated with areas of interest (AOIs) derived from geo-referenced field photos. The paddy rice planting area map also agrees reasonably well with the official statistics at the level of state farms (R2 = 0.94). These results demonstrate that the combination of fine spatial resolution images and the phenology-based algorithm can provide a simple, robust, and automated approach to map the distribution of paddy rice agriculture in a year.

7.
Nat Genet ; 45(12): 1499-503, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24162738

RESUMO

Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a challenging global health problem. To identify genetic loci involved in chronic HBV infection, we designed a three-phase genome-wide association study in Han Chinese populations. The discovery phase included 951 HBV carriers (cases) and 937 individuals who had naturally cleared HBV infection (controls) and was followed by independent replications with a total of 2,248 cases and 3,051 controls and additional replications with 1,982 HBV carriers and 2,622 controls from the general population. We identified two new loci associated with chronic HBV infection: rs3130542 at 6p21.33 (near HLA-C, odds ratio (OR) = 1.33, P = 9.49 × 10(-14)) and rs4821116 at 22q11.21 (in UBE2L3, OR = 0.82, P = 1.71 × 10(-12)). Additionally, we replicated the previously identified associations of HLA-DP and HLA-DQ variants at 6p21.32 with chronic HBV infection. These findings highlight the importance of HLA-C and UBE2L3 in the clearance of HBV infection in addition to HLA-DP and HLA-DQ.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Antígenos HLA-C/genética , Hepatite B Crônica/genética , Enzimas de Conjugação de Ubiquitina/genética , Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cromossomos Humanos Par 6/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Antígenos HLA-DP/genética , Antígenos HLA-DQ/genética , Hepatite B Crônica/epidemiologia , Hepatite B Crônica/etnologia , Hepatite B Crônica/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
8.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 20(8): 2019-24, 2009 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19947227

RESUMO

Integrated weighted clustering method was applied to plan the monitoring points for agricultural products security. Definite amounts of key monitoring sampling points were mined out from enormous monitoring objects to make the fewer monitoring sampling points cover the product categories, yields, and regions as more as possible. Among the 10172 agricultural products security enterprises all over the China, 2.46% of them were selected. The tested categories, yields, and regions of agricultural safety products covered 32.71%, 44.29%, and 75% of the total, and their coverage increased by 2.80%, 10.85%, 5.56%, respectively, compared with that by using conventional monitoring and management methods, which suggested that it could be more effective to apply integrated weighted clustering method in setting the monitoring points for agricultural products security.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Gestão da Segurança/organização & administração , China , Análise por Conglomerados
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